26 CFR § 1.956-1 - Shareholder's pro rata share of the average of the amounts of United States property held by a controlled foreign corporation.

§ 1.956-1 Shareholder's pro rata share of the average of the amounts of United States property held by a controlled foreign corporation.

(a)In general. Subject to the provisions of section 951(a) and the regulations thereunder, a United States shareholder of a controlled foreign corporation is required to include in gross income the amount determined under section 956 with respect to the shareholder for the taxable year but only to the extent not excluded from gross income under section 959(a)(2) and the regulations thereunder.

(b)Amount of United States property held indirectly by a controlled foreign corporation -

(1)General rule. For purposes of section 956, United States property held indirectly by a controlled foreign corporation includes -

(i)United States property held on behalf of the controlled foreign corporation by a trustee or a nominee;

(ii)United States property acquired by any other foreign corporation that is controlled by the controlled foreign corporation if a principal purpose of creating, organizing, or funding by any means (including through capital contributions or debt) the other foreign corporation is to avoid the application of section 956 with respect to the controlled foreign corporation; and

(iii)Property acquired by a partnership that is controlled by the controlled foreign corporation if the property would be United States property if held directly by the controlled foreign corporation, and a principal purpose of creating, organizing, or funding by any means (including through capital contributions or debt) the partnership is to avoid the application of section 956 with respect to the controlled foreign corporation.

(2)Control. For purposes of paragraphs (b)(1)(ii) and (iii) of this section, a controlled foreign corporation controls a foreign corporation or partnership if the controlled foreign corporation and the other foreign corporation or partnership are related within the meaning of section 267(b) or section 707(b). For this purpose, in determining whether two corporations are members of the same controlled group under section 267(b)(3), a person is considered to own stock owned directly by such person, stock owned for the purposes of section 1563(e)(1), and stock owned with the application of section 267(c).

(3)Coordination rule.Paragraph (b)(1)(iii) of this section applies only to the extent that the amount of United States property that is treated under that paragraph as held indirectly by a controlled foreign corporation through the partnership exceeds the sum of -

(i) The amount of United States property described in paragraph (b)(1)(iii) of this section that is treated as held by the controlled foreign corporation as a result of the application of § 1.956-4(b) with respect to the partnership; and

(ii) The amount of United States property that is treated as held by the controlled foreign corporation as a result of the application of § 1.956-4(c) with respect to any portion of an obligation attributable to the funding described in paragraph (b)(1)(iii) of this section of the partnership by the controlled foreign corporation.

(4)Examples. The following examples illustrate the rules of this paragraph (b). In each example, P is a domestic corporation that wholly owns two controlled foreign corporations, FS1 and FS2.

Example 1.
(i)Facts. FS1 sells inventory to FS2 in exchange for trade receivables due in 60 days. Avoiding the application of section 956 with respect to FS1 was not a principal purpose of establishing the trade receivables. FS2 has no earnings and profits, and FS1 has substantial accumulated earnings and profits. FS2 makes a loan to P equal to the amount it owes FS1 under the trade receivables. FS2 pays the trade receivables according to their terms.

(ii)Result. FS1 will not be considered to indirectly hold United States property under this paragraph (b) because the funding of FS2 through the sale of inventory in exchange for the establishment of trade receivables was not undertaken with a principal purpose of avoiding the application of section 956 with respect to FS1.

Example 2.
(i)Facts. The facts are the same as in Example 1 of this paragraph (b)(4), except that, with a principal purpose of avoiding the application of section 956 with respect to FS1, FS1 and FS2 agree to defer FS2's payment obligation, and FS2 does not timely pay the receivables.

(ii)Result. FS1 is considered to hold indirectly United States property under this paragraph (b) and § 1.956-2(a) because there was a funding of FS2, a principal purpose of which was to avoid the application of section 956 with respect to FS1.

Example 3.
(i)Facts. FS1 has $100x of post-1986 undistributed earnings and profits and $100x post-1986 foreign income taxes, but does not have any cash. FS2 has earnings and profits of at least $100x, no post-1986 foreign income taxes, and substantial cash. Neither FS1 nor FS2 has earnings and profits described in section 959(c)(1) or section 959(c)(2). FS2 loans $100x to FS1. FS1 then loans $100x to P. An income inclusion by P of $100x under sections 951(a)(1)(B) and 956 with respect to FS1 would result in foreign income taxes deemed paid by P under section 960. A principal purpose of funding FS1 through the loan from FS2 is to avoid the application of section 956 with respect to FS2.

(ii)Result. Under paragraph (b)(1)(ii) of this section, FS2 is considered to indirectly hold the $100x obligation of P that is held by FS1. As a result, P has an income inclusion of $100x under sections 951(a)(1)(B) and 956 with respect to FS2, and the foreign income taxes deemed paid by P under section 960 is $0. P does not have an income inclusion under sections 951(a)(1)(B) and 956 with respect to FS1 related to the $100x loan from FS1 to P.

Example 4.
(i)Facts. FS1 deposits $100x with BK, an unrelated foreign financial institution. FS2 subsequently borrows $100x from BK. BK would not have loaned the $100x to FS2 on the same terms absent FS1's deposit. FS2 loans the $100x borrowed from BK to P. FS2 has no earnings and profits, and FS1 has substantial accumulated earnings and profits. A principal purpose for the transactions is to avoid the application of section 956 with respect to FS1.

(ii)Result. FS1 is considered to hold indirectly United States property under this paragraph (b) and § 1.956-2(a) because FS1's deposit with BK, which facilitates BK's loan to FS2, is considered a funding by FS1 of FS2, a principal purpose of which was to avoid the application of section 956 with respect to FS1.

Example 5.
(i)Facts. FS1 sells inventory to FS2 in exchange for $100x. The sale occurred in the ordinary course of FS1's trade or business and FS2's trade or business, and the terms of the sale are consistent with terms that would be observed among parties dealing at arm's length. FS1 makes a $100x loan to P. FS2 has no earnings and profits, and FS1 has substantial accumulated earnings and profits.

(ii)Result. FS2 will not be considered to indirectly hold United States property under this paragraph (b) because a sale in the ordinary course of business for cash on terms that are consistent with those that would be observed among parties dealing at arm's length does not constitute a funding.

Example 6.
(i)Facts. In Year 1, FS2 loans $100x to FS1 to finance FS1's trade or business. The terms of the loan are consistent with those that would be observed among parties dealing at arm's length. In Year 2, FS1 repays the loan in accordance with the terms of the loan. Immediately after the repayment by FS1, FS2 loans $100x to P. FS2 has no earnings and profits, and FS1 has substantial accumulated earnings and profits.

(ii)Result. FS1 will not be considered to indirectly hold United States property under this paragraph (b) because a repayment of a loan that has terms that are consistent with those that would be observed among parties dealing at arm's length and that is repaid consistent with those terms does not constitute a funding.

Example 7.
(i)Facts. FS1 has substantial earnings and profits. P and FS1 are the only partners in FPRS, a foreign partnership. FS1 contributes $600x cash to FPRS in exchange for a 60% interest in the partnership, and P contributes real estate located outside the United States ($400x value) to FPRS in exchange for a 40% interest in the partnership. There are no special allocations in the FPRS partnership agreement. FPRS lends $100x to P. Under § 1.956-4(b) and § 1.956-2(a), FS1 is treated as holding United States property of $60x (60% x $100x) as a result of the FPRS loan to P. A principal purpose of creating, organizing, or funding FPRS is to avoid the application of section 956 with respect to FS1.

(ii)Result. Before taking into accountparagraph (b)(3) of this section, because FS1 controls FPRS and a principal purpose of creating, organizing, or funding FPRS was to avoid the application of section 956 with respect to FS1, FS1 is considered under paragraph (b)(1)(iii) of this section to indirectly hold the $100x obligation of P that would be United States property if held directly by FS1. However, under paragraph (b)(3) of this section, FS1 is treated as holding United States property under paragraph (b)(1)(iii) only to the extent the amount held indirectly under paragraph (b)(1)(iii) of this section exceeds the sum of the amount of the United States property that FS1 is treated as holding as a result of the application of § 1.956-4(b) with respect to FPRS. The amount of United States property that FS1 is treated as indirectly holding under paragraph (b)(1)(iii) of this section and § 1.956-2(a) ($100x) exceeds the amount determined under § 1.956-4(b) ($60x) by $40x. Thus, FS1 is considered to hold United States property within the meaning of section 956(c) in the amount of $100x ($60x under § 1.956-4(b) and $40x under paragraphs (b)(1)(iii) and (b)(3) of this section).

Example 8.
(i)Facts. FS1 and FS2 have substantial earnings and profits. P and FS1 are the only partners in FPRS, a foreign partnership. There are no special allocations in the FPRS partnership agreement. P's liquidation value percentage with respect to FPRS is 40%, and FS1's liquidation value percentage with respect to FPRS is 60%. FS2 lends $100x to FPRS, and FPRS lends $100x to P. Under § 1.956-4(c) and § 1.956-2(a), FS2 is treated as holding United States property of $40x (40% x $100x) as a result of its loan to FPRS. A principal purpose of funding FPRS is to avoid the application of section 956 with respect to FS2.

(ii)Result. Before taking into accountparagraph (b)(3) of this section, because FS2 controls FPRS and a principal purpose of funding FPRS was to avoid the application of section 956 with respect to FS2, FS2 is considered under paragraph (b)(1)(iii) of this section to indirectly hold the $100x obligation of P that would be United States property if held directly by FS2. However, under paragraph (b)(3) of this section, FS2 is treated as holding United States property under paragraph (b)(1)(iii) only to the extent the amount held indirectly under paragraph (b)(1)(iii) of this section exceeds the amount of United States property that FS2 is treated as holding as a result of the application of § 1.956-4(c) with respect to the obligation with which FS2 funds FPRS. The amount of United States property that FS2 is treated as indirectly holding under paragraph (b)(1)(iii) of this section and § 1.956-2(a) ($100x) exceeds the amount determined under § 1.956-4(c) ($40x) by $60x. Thus, FS2 is considered to hold United States property within the meaning of section 956(c) in the amount of $100x ($40x under § 1.956-4(c) and $60x under paragraphs (b)(1)(iii) and (b)(3) of this section). P does not have an income inclusion under sections 951(a)(1)(B) and 956 with respect to FS1 related to the P obligation held by FPRS.

(c)-(d) [Reserved]

(e)Amount attributable to property -

(1)General rule. Except as provided in subparagraph (2) of this paragraph, for purposes of paragraph (b)(1) of this section the amount taken into account with respect to any United States property shall be its adjusted basis, as of the applicable determination date, reduced by any liability (other than a liability described in subparagraph (3) of this paragraph) to which such property is subject on such date. To be taken into account under this subparagraph, a liability must constitute a specific charge against the property involved. Thus, a liability evidenced by an open account or a liability secured only by the general credit of the controlled foreign corporation will not be taken into account. On the other hand, if a liability constitutes a specific charge against several items of property and cannot definitely be allocated to any single item of property, the liability shall be apportioned against each of such items of property in that ratio which the adjusted basis of such item on the applicable determination date bears to the adjusted basis of all such items at such time. A liability in excess of the adjusted basis of the property which is subject to such liability shall not be taken into account for the purpose of reducing the adjusted basis of other property which is not subject to such liability. See § 1.956-1(e)(6) for a special rule for determining amounts attributable to United States property acquired as the result of certain nonrecognition transactions.

(2)Rule for pledges and guarantees. For purposes of this section, the amount of an obligation treated as held (before application of § 1.956-4(b)) as a result of a pledge or guarantee described in § 1.956-2(c) is the unpaid principal amount of the obligation on the applicable determination date.

(3)Excluded charges. For purposes of subparagraph (1) of this paragraph, a specific charge created with respect to any item of property principally for the purpose of artificially increasing or decreasing the amount of a controlled foreign corporation's investment of earnings in United States property will not be recognized; whether a specific charge is created principally for such purpose will depend upon all the facts and circumstances of each case. One of the factors that will be considered in making such a determination with respect to a loan is whether the loan is from a related person, as defined in section 954 (d)(3) and paragraph (e) of § 1.954-1.

(4)Statement required. If for purposes of this section a United States shareholder of a controlled foreign corporation reduces the adjusted basis of property which constitutes United States property on the ground that such property is subject to a liability, he shall attach to his return a statement setting forth the adjusted basis of the property before the reduction and the amount and nature of the reduction.

(5) [Reserved] For further guidance, see § 1.956-1T(e)(5).

(6)Adjusted basis of property acquired in certain nonrecognition transactions -

(i)Scope. This paragraph (e)(6) provides rules for determining, solely for purposes of applying section 956, the adjusted basis of specified United States property acquired by a controlled foreign corporation pursuant to an exchange in which the controlled foreign corporation's basis in such specified United States property is determined under section 362(a). This paragraph (e)(6) also applies if specified United States property, the adjusted basis in which has been determined under these regulations, is transferred (in one or more subsequent exchanges) to a related person (within the meaning of section 954(d)(3)), pursuant to one or more exchanges in which the related person's adjusted basis in such property is determined, in whole or in part, by reference to the transferor controlled foreign corporation's adjusted basis in such property.

(ii)Definition of specified United States property. For purposes of this paragraph (e)(6), specified United States property is stock of a domestic corporation described in section 956(c)(1)(B) or an obligation of a domestic corporation described in section 956(c)(1)(C) that is acquired by a controlled foreign corporation from the domestic issuing corporation. Specified United States property does not include property described in section 956(c)(2).

(iii)Adjusted basis of specified United States property. Solely for purposes of applying section 956, the adjusted basis of specified United States property acquired by a controlled foreign corporation in connection with an exchange to which this paragraph (e)(6) applies shall be no less than the fair market value of any property transferred by the controlled foreign corporation in exchange for such specified United States property. For purposes of this paragraph (e)(6), the term property has the meaning set forth in section 317(a), but also includes any liability that is assumed by the controlled foreign corporation in connection with the exchange notwithstanding the application of section 357(a). The assumption of a liability by the controlled foreign corporation in connection with the exchange will be considered the transfer of property. The fair market value of such property will be the amount of the liability assumed. The fair market value of any property transferred by the controlled foreign corporation in exchange for the specified United States property shall be determined at the time of the exchange.

(iv)Timing. For purposes of § 1.956-2(d)(1)(i)(a), a controlled foreign corporation that acquires specified United States property in an exchange to which this paragraph (e)(6) applies acquires an adjusted basis in such property at the time of the controlled foreign corporation's exchange of property for such specified United States property.

(v)Transfers to r elated persons. If a controlled foreign corporation transfers specified United States property, the adjusted basis in which has been determined under this paragraph (e)(6), to a related person (within the meaning of section 954(d)(3)) (related person transferee) in one or more exchanges pursuant to which the related person transferee's adjusted basis in such specified United States property is determined, in whole or in part, by reference to the controlled foreign corporation's adjusted basis in such specified United States property, then, solely for purposes of applying section 956 following such exchange, the controlled foreign corporation's adjusted basis in any United States property received in the exchange (or exchanges) shall be no less than the aggregate adjusted basis of the specified United States property as determined under paragraph (e)(6)(iii) of this section, and the related person transferee's adjusted basis in such specified United States property shall be no less than the adjusted basis of such specified United States property in the hands of the controlled foreign corporation as determined under paragraph (e)(6)(iii) of this section. This paragraph (e)(6)(v) shall also apply in the case of one or more successive transfers of the specified United States property by a related person transferee to one or more persons related to the controlled foreign corporation (within the meaning of section 954(d)(3)). This paragraph (e)(6)(v) shall apply regardless of whether a subsequent transfer was part of a plan (or series of related transactions) that includes the controlled foreign corporation's acquisition of the specified United States property.

(vi)Examples. The rules of this paragraph (e)(6) are illustrated by the following examples:

Example 1.
(i)Facts. USP, a domestic corporation, is the common parent of an affiliated group that joins in the filing of a consolidated return. USP owns 100 percent of the stock of US1 and US2, both domestic corporations and members of the USP consolidated group. US1 owns 100 percent of the stock of CFC, a controlled foreign corporation. US2 issues $100x of its stock to CFC in exchange for $10x of CFC stock and $90x cash. US2's transfer of its stock to CFC is described in section 351, US2 recognizes no gain in the exchange under section 1032(a), and CFC's basis in the US2 stock acquired in the exchange is determined under section 362(a).

(ii)Analysis. The US2 stock acquired by CFC in the exchange constitutes specified United States property under paragraph (e)(6)(ii) of this section because CFC acquires the US2 stock from US2, the issuing corporation. Therefore, because CFC's adjusted basis in the US2 stock is determined under section 362(a), then for purposes of applying section 956, CFC's adjusted basis in the US2 stock shall, under paragraph (e)(6)(iii) of this section, be no less than $90x, the fair market value of the property exchanged by CFC for the US2 stock (the $10x of CFC stock issued in the exchange does not constitute property for purposes of paragraph (e)(6)(iii) of this section). Pursuant to paragraph (e)(6)(iv) of this section, for purposes of § 1.956-2(d)(1)(i)(a) CFC shall be treated as acquiring its adjusted basis of no less than $90x in the US2 stock at the time of its transfer of property to US2 in exchange for the US2 stock. The result would be the same if, instead of CFC transferring $90x of cash to US2 in the exchange, CFC assumes a $90x liability of US2.

Example 2.
(i)Facts. USP, a domestic corporation, owns 100 percent of the stock of USS, a domestic corporation. USP also owns 100 percent of the stock of CFC, a controlled foreign corporation. USP's adjusted basis in its USS stock equals the fair market value of the USS stock, or $100x. USP transfers its USS stock to CFC in exchange for $100x of CFC stock. USP's transfer of its USS stock to CFC is described in section 351, USP recognizes no gain in the exchange under section 351(a), and CFC's adjusted basis in the USS stock acquired in the exchange, determined under section 362(a), equals $100x.

(ii)Analysis. The USS stock acquired by CFC in the exchange does not constitute specified United States property under paragraph (e)(6)(ii) of this section because CFC acquires the USS stock from USP. Therefore, CFC's adjusted basis in the USS stock, for purposes of section 956, is not determined under this paragraph (e)(6). Instead, CFC's adjusted basis in the USS stock is determined under the general rule of section 956(a) and under paragraphs (e)(1) through (4) of this section. As determined under section 362(a), CFC's adjusted basis in the USS stock is $100x.

Example 3.
(i)Facts. USP, a domestic corporation, owns 100 percent of the stock of CFC1, a controlled foreign corporation. CFC1 holds specified United States property (within the meaning of paragraph (e)(6)(ii) of this section) with an adjusted basis of $30x for purposes of applying section 956 that was determined under paragraph (e)(6)(iii) of this section. CFC1 owns 100 percent of the stock of CFC2, a controlled foreign corporation. CFC1 transfers the specified United States property to CFC2 in an exchange described in section 351. CFC2's adjusted basis in the specified United States property is determined under section 362(a).

(ii)Analysis. In the section 351 exchange, CFC1 transferred specified United States property to CFC2 with an adjusted basis that was determined under paragraph (e)(6)(iii) of this section. Further, CFC2's adjusted basis in the specified United States property is determined under section 362(a) by reference, in whole or in part, to CFC1's adjusted basis in such property. Therefore, for purposes of applying section 956, pursuant to paragraph (e)(6)(v) of this section CFC2's adjusted basis in the specified United States property shall be no less than $30x. Paragraph (e)(6)(v) of this section would also apply if CFC2 subsequently transfers the specified United States property to another person related to CFC1 (within the meaning of section 954(d)(3)) if such related person's adjusted basis in the specified United States property is determined by reference, in whole or in part, to CFC2's adjusted basis in such property. See also § 1.956-1T(b)(4) if one of the principal purposes of CFC1's transfer of property to CFC2 was the avoidance of the application of section 956 with respect to CFC1.

(f) [Reserved]. For further guidance, see § 1.956-1T(f).

(g)Effective/applicability date.

(1)Paragraph (a) of this section applies to taxable years of controlled foreign corporations ending on or after November 3, 2016, and to taxable years of United States shareholders in which or with which such taxable years end.

(2)Paragraph (b) of this section applies to taxable years of controlled foreign corporations ending on or after September 1, 2015, and to taxable years of United States shareholders in which or with which such taxable years end, with respect to property acquired on or after September 1, 2015. See paragraph (b)(4) of § 1.956-1T, as contained in 26 CFR part 1 revised as of April 1, 2015, for the rules applicable to taxable years of controlled foreign corporations ending before September 1, 2015, and property acquired before September 1, 2015. For purposes of this paragraph (g)(2), a deemed exchange of property pursuant to section 1001 on or after September 1, 2015 constitutes an acquisition of the property on or after that date.

(3)Paragraph (e)(2) of this section applies to taxable years of controlled foreign corporations ending on or after November 3, 2016, and taxable years of United States shareholders in which or with which such taxable years end, with respect to pledges or guarantees entered into on or after September 1, 2015. For purposes of this paragraph (g)(3), a pledgor or guarantor is treated as entering into a pledge or guarantee when there is a significant modification, within the meaning of § 1.1001-3(e), of an obligation with respect to which it is a pledgor or guarantor on or after September 1, 2015.

(Secs. 956(c), 7805, Internal Revenue Code of 1954 (76 Stat. 1017, 68A Stat. 917; (26 U.S.C. 956(c) and 7805 respectively)))
[T.D. 6704, 29 FR 2600, Feb. 20, 1964, as amended by T.D. 6795, 30 FR 942, Jan. 29, 1965; T.D. 7712, 45 FR 52374, Aug. 7, 1980; T.D. 8209, 53 FR 22171, June 14, 1988; T.D. 9402, 73 FR 35582, June 24, 2008; T.D. 9630, 76 FR 36994, June 24, 2011; T.D. 9733, 80 FR 52981, Sept. 2, 2015; 80 FR 66416, Oct. 29, 2015; T.D. 9792, 81 FR 76505, Nov. 3, 2016]