26 CFR § 1.956-1 - Shareholder's pro rata share of the average of the amounts of United States property held by a controlled foreign corporation.

§ 1.956-1 Shareholder's pro rata share of the average of the amounts of United States property held by a controlled foreign corporation.

(a)Overview and scope -

(1)In general. Subject to the provisions of section 951(a) and the regulations in this part, a United States shareholder of a controlled foreign corporation is required to include in gross income the amount determined under section 956 with respect to the shareholder for the taxable year but only to the extent not excluded from gross income under section 959(a)(2) and the regulations in this part.

(2)Reduction for certain United States shareholders -

(i)In general. For a taxable year of a controlled foreign corporation, the amount determined under section 956 with respect to each share of stock of the controlled foreign corporation owned (within the meaning of section 958(a)) by a United States shareholder is the amount that would be determined under section 956 with respect to such share for the taxable year, absent the application of this paragraph (a)(2) for the taxable year (such amount, the tentative section 956 amount, and in the aggregate with respect to all shares owned (within the meaning of section 958(a)) by the United States shareholder, the aggregate tentative section 956 amount), reduced by the amount of the deduction under section 245A, if any, that the shareholder would be allowed if the shareholder received as a distribution from the controlled foreign corporation an amount equal to the tentative section 956 amount with respect to such share on the last day during the taxable year on which the foreign corporation is a controlled foreign corporation (hypothetical distribution). For purposes of the preceding sentence, in the case of a United States shareholder that is a domestic partnership, the aggregate amount of the deductions under section 245A, if any, that domestic corporations that are partners of the domestic partnership (including indirect partners through other partnerships) would be allowed with respect to a hypothetical distribution is treated as the amount of the deduction under section 245A that the domestic partnership would be allowed.

(ii)Determination of the amount of the deduction that would be allowed under section 245A with respect to a hypothetical distribution. For purposes of determining the amount of the deduction under section 245A that a United States shareholder would be allowed with respect to a share of stock of a controlled foreign corporation by reason of a hypothetical distribution, the rules in paragraphs (a)(2)(ii)(A) through (C) of this section apply -

(A) If a United States shareholder owns a share of stock of a controlled foreign corporation indirectly (within the meaning of section 958(a)(2)), then -

(1) Sections 245A(a) through (d), 246(a), and 959 apply to the hypothetical distribution as if the United States shareholder directly owned (within the meaning of section 958(a)(1)(A)) the share;

(2) Section 245A(e) applies to the hypothetical distribution as if the distribution were made to the United States shareholder through each entity by reason of which the United States shareholder indirectly owns such share and pro rata with respect to the equity that gives rise to such indirect ownership;

(3) To the extent that a distribution treated as made to a controlled foreign corporation pursuant to the hypothetical distribution by reason of paragraph (a)(2)(ii)(A)(2) of this section would be subject to section 245A(e)(2), the United States shareholder is treated as not being allowed a deduction under section 245A by reason of the hypothetical distribution; and

(4) Section 246(c) applies to the hypothetical distribution by substituting the phrase “owned (within the meaning of section 958(a))” for the term “held” each place it appears in section 246(c);

(B) Section 246(c) applies to the hypothetical distribution by substituting “the last day during the taxable year on which the foreign corporation is a controlled foreign corporation” for the phrase “the date on which such share becomes ex-dividend with respect to such dividend” in section 246(c)(1)(A); and

(C) The hypothetical distribution is treated as attributable first to earnings and profits of the controlled foreign corporation described in section 959(c)(2), then to earnings and profits of the controlled foreign corporation described in section 959(c)(3).

(iii)Special rule in the case of domestic partnerships -

(A)In general. In the case of a domestic partnership whose tentative section 956 amount with respect to a share of stock of a controlled foreign corporation is reduced pursuant to paragraph (a)(2)(i) of this section for a taxable year, the portion of any inclusion under section 951(a)(1)(B) of the domestic partnership with respect to such share for the taxable year allocated to a partner of the domestic partnership (including an indirect partner through one or more other partnerships) must equal the product of the inclusion and the ratio determined by dividing -

(1) The net hypothetical distribution income with respect to the partner; by

(2) The aggregate of the net hypothetical distribution income with respect to all of the partners of the domestic partnership.

(B)Definition of net hypothetical distribution income. The term net hypothetical distribution income means, with respect to a hypothetical distribution to a domestic partnership and a partner of the domestic partnership (including an indirect partner through one or more other partnerships), the amount of the hypothetical distribution that would be allocable to the partner reduced by the amount of the deduction under section 245A with respect to the hypothetical distribution that would be allowable to the partner.

(3)Examples. The examples in this paragraph (a)(3) illustrate the application of paragraph (a)(2) of this section.

(i)Example 1 -

(A)Facts.

(1) USP, a domestic corporation, owns all of the single class of stock of FC, a foreign corporation. The stock of FC consists of 100 shares, and USP satisfies the holding period requirement of section 246(c) (as modified by paragraph (a)(2)(ii)(B) of this section) with respect to each share of FC stock. Any dividend from FC to USP would not constitute a hybrid dividend for purposes of section 245A(e). FC owns all of the stock of USS, a domestic corporation. FC's adjusted basis in the stock of USS is $0.

(2) The functional currency of FC is the U.S. dollar. FC has $100x of undistributed earnings as defined in section 245A(c)(2) at the end of the taxable year, $90x of which constitute undistributed foreign earnings as defined in section 245A(c)(3), and $10x of which are described in section 245(a)(5)(B) (that is, earnings attributable to a dividend that FC received from USS). None of the earnings and profits of FC are described in section 959(c)(1) or (2) or are earnings and profits attributable to income excluded from subpart F income under section 952(b). FC's applicable earnings (as defined in section 956(b)(1)) are $100x. FC also has held an obligation of USP with an adjusted basis of $120x on every day during the taxable year of FC, and such obligation was acquired while all of its stock was owned by USP.

(B)Analysis. Because USP directly owns all of the stock of FC at the end of FC's taxable year, USP's aggregate tentative section 956 amount with respect to FC is $100x, the lesser of USP's pro rata share of the average amounts of United States property held by FC ($120x) and its pro rata share of FC's applicable earnings ($100x). Under paragraph (a)(2)(i) of this section, USP's section 956 amount with respect to FC is its aggregate tentative section 956 amount with respect to FC reduced by the deduction under section 245A that USP would be allowed if USP received an amount equal to its aggregate tentative section 956 amount as a distribution with respect to the FC stock. USP would be allowed a $90x deduction under section 245A with respect to the foreign-source portion of the $100x hypothetical distribution (that is, an amount of the dividend that bears the same ratio to the dividend as the $90x of undistributed foreign earnings bears to the $100x of undistributed earnings). Accordingly, USP's section 956 amount with respect to FC is $10x, its aggregate tentative section 956 amount ($100x) with respect to FC reduced by the amount of the deduction that USP would have been allowed under section 245A with respect to the hypothetical distribution ($90x).

(ii)Example 2 -

(A)Facts. The facts are the same as in paragraph (a)(3)(i)(A) of this section (the facts in Example 1), except that all $100x of FC's undistributed earnings are described in section 959(c)(2).

(B)Analysis. As in paragraph (a)(3)(i)(B) of this section (the analysis in Example 1), USP's aggregate tentative section 956 amount with respect to FC is $100x, the lesser of USP's pro rata share of the average amounts of United States property held by FC ($120x) and its pro rata share of FC's applicable earnings ($100x). However, paragraph (a)(2) of this section does not reduce USP's section 956 amount because USP would not be allowed any deduction under section 245A with respect to the $100x hypothetical distribution by reason of section 959(a) and (d). Accordingly, USP's section 956 amount is $100x. However, under sections 959(a)(2) and 959(f)(1), USP's inclusion under section 951(a)(1)(B) with respect to FC is $0, because USP's section 956 amount with respect to FC does not exceed the earnings and profits of FC described in section 959(c)(2) with respect to USP. The $100x of earnings and profits of FC described in section 959(c)(2) are reclassified as earnings and profits described in section 959(c)(1).

(iii)Example 3 -

(A)Facts. The facts are the same as in paragraph (a)(3)(i)(A) of this section (the facts in Example 1), except that FC has $200x of undistributed earnings, which constitute undistributed foreign earnings as defined in section 245A(c)(3), of which $100x are described in section 959(c)(1)(A) and $100x are described in section 959(c)(3).

(B)Analysis. USP's aggregate tentative section 956 amount with respect to FC is $20x, the lesser of $20x, the excess of USP's pro rata share of the average amounts of United States property held by FC ($120x) over the earnings and profits described in section 959(c)(1)(A) with respect to USP ($100x), and its pro rata share of FC's applicable earnings ($100x). Under paragraph (a)(2)(i) of this section, USP's section 956 amount with respect to FC is its aggregate tentative section 956 amount with respect to FC reduced by the deduction under section 245A that USP would be allowed if USP received an amount equal to its aggregate tentative section 956 amount as a distribution with respect to the FC stock. USP would be allowed a $20x deduction under section 245A with respect to the foreign-source portion of the $20x hypothetical distribution, which, under paragraph (a)(2)(ii)(C) of this section, is treated as attributable to the earnings and profits of FC described in section 959(c)(3) despite the fact that FC has $100x of earnings and profits described in section 959(c)(1)(A) that would otherwise be distributed before earnings and profits described in section 959(c)(3). Accordingly, USP's section 956 amount with respect to FC is $0, its aggregate tentative section 956 amount ($20x) with respect to FC reduced by the amount of the deduction that USP would have been allowed under section 245A with respect to the hypothetical distribution after applying the rule in paragraph (a)(2)(ii)(C) of this section ($20x).

(iv)Example 4 -

(A)Facts. The facts are the same as in paragraph (a)(3)(i)(A) of this section (the facts in Example 1), except that USP is a domestic partnership in which USC1 and USC2, each a domestic corporation, and USI, a United States citizen, have owned 50%, 30%, and 20%, respectively, of the capital and profits interests for five years.

(B)Analysis. As in paragraph (a)(3)(i)(B) of this section (the analysis in Example 1), USP's aggregate tentative section 956 amount with respect to FC is $100x. Under paragraph (a)(2)(i) of this section, USP's section 956 amount with respect to FC is its aggregate tentative section 956 amount with respect to FC reduced by the aggregate amount of deductions under section 245A that USC1, USC2, and USI would be allowed if USP received an amount equal to its aggregate tentative section 956 amount as a distribution with respect to the FC stock. Assuming that, under section 245A, USC1 and USC2 would be allowed a $45x deduction and a $27x deduction, respectively, with respect to the foreign-source portion of their $50x and $30x distributive shares of the $100x hypothetical distribution (that is, an amount of the dividend that bears the same ratio to the dividend as the $90x of undistributed foreign earnings bears to the $100x of undistributed earnings), USP's section 956 amount with respect to FC is $28x, its aggregate tentative section 956 amount ($100x) with respect to FC reduced by the aggregate amount of the deductions that its partners would have been allowed under section 245A with respect to the hypothetical distribution ($72x ($45x + $27x)). Under paragraph (a)(2)(iii) of this section, the portion of its $28x inclusion under section 951(a)(1)(B) with respect to FC that is allocated to USC1 is $5x ($28x x (($50x−$45x)/($50x−$45x + $30x−$27x + $20x))); the portion that is allocated to USC2 is $3x ($28x x (($30x−$27x) / ($50x−$45x + $30x−$27x + $20x))); and the portion that is allocated to USI is $20x ($28x x ($20x / ($50x−$45x + $30x−$27x + $20x))).

(v)Example 5 -

(A)Facts.

(1) USP, a domestic corporation, owns all of the single class of stock of FC1, a foreign corporation, and has held such stock for five years. FC1 has held 70% of the single class of stock of FC2, a foreign corporation, for three years. The other 30% of the FC2 stock has been held since FC2's formation by a foreign individual unrelated to USP or FC1. Any dividend from FC2 or FC1 to FC1 or USP, respectively, would not constitute a hybrid dividend for purposes of section 245A(e). FC2 has a calendar taxable year. On December 1, Year 1, FC1 acquires the remaining 30% of the stock of FC2 for cash. On June 30, Year 2, FC1 sells to a third party the 30% of FC2 stock acquired in Year 1 at no gain. FC2 made no distributions during Year 1.

(2) The functional currency of FC1 and FC2 is the U.S. dollar. For Year 1, FC2 has $120x of undistributed earnings as defined in section 245A(c)(2), all of which constitute undistributed foreign earnings. None of the earnings and profits of FC2 are described in section 959(c)(1) or (2) or are earnings and profits attributable to income excluded from subpart F income under section 952(b). FC2's applicable earnings (as defined in section 956(b)(1)) for Year 1 are $120x. FC2 has held an obligation of USP with an adjusted basis of $100x on every day of Year 1 that was acquired while USP owned all of the stock of FC1 and FC1 held 70% of the single class of stock of FC2.

(B)Analysis. Because USP indirectly owns (within the meaning of section 958(a)) all of the stock of FC2 at the end of Year 1, USP's aggregate tentative section 956 amount with respect to FC2 for Year 1 is $100x, the lesser of USP's pro rata share of the average amounts of United States property held by FC2 ($100x) and its pro rata share of FC2's applicable earnings ($120x). Under paragraph (a)(2)(i) of this section, USP's section 956 amount with respect to FC2 for Year 1 is its aggregate tentative section 956 amount with respect to FC2 reduced by the deduction under section 245A that USP would be allowed if USP received an amount equal to its aggregate tentative section 956 amount as a distribution with respect to the FC2 stock that USP owns indirectly within the meaning of section 958(a)(2). For purposes of determining the consequences of this hypothetical distribution, under paragraph (a)(2)(ii)(A)(1) of this section, USP is treated as owning the FC2 stock directly. In addition, under paragraph (a)(2)(ii)(A)(4) of this section, the holding period requirement of section 246(c) is applied by reference to the period during which USP owned (within the meaning of section 958(a)) the stock of FC2. Therefore, with respect to the hypothetical distribution from FC2 to USP, USP would satisfy the holding period requirement under section 246(c) with respect to the 70% of the FC2 stock that USP indirectly owned for three years through FC1, but not with respect to the 30% of the FC2 stock that USP indirectly owned through FC1 for a period of less than 365 days. Accordingly, USP's section 956 amount with respect to FC2 for Year 1 is $30x, its aggregate tentative section 956 amount ($100x) reduced by the amount of the deduction that USP would have been allowed under section 245A with respect to the hypothetical distribution ($70x).

(b)Amount of United States property held indirectly by a controlled foreign corporation -

(1)General rule. For purposes of section 956, United States property held indirectly by a controlled foreign corporation includes -

(i)United States property held on behalf of the controlled foreign corporation by a trustee or a nominee;

(ii)United States property acquired by any other foreign corporation that is controlled by the controlled foreign corporation if a principal purpose of creating, organizing, or funding by any means (including through capital contributions or debt) the other foreign corporation is to avoid the application of section 956 with respect to the controlled foreign corporation; and

(iii)Property acquired by a partnership that is controlled by the controlled foreign corporation if the property would be United States property if held directly by the controlled foreign corporation, and a principal purpose of creating, organizing, or funding by any means (including through capital contributions or debt) the partnership is to avoid the application of section 956 with respect to the controlled foreign corporation.

(2)Control. For purposes of paragraphs (b)(1)(ii) and (iii) of this section, a controlled foreign corporation controls a foreign corporation or partnership if the controlled foreign corporation and the other foreign corporation or partnership are related within the meaning of section 267(b) or section 707(b). For this purpose, in determining whether two corporations are members of the same controlled group under section 267(b)(3), a person is considered to own stock owned directly by such person, stock owned for the purposes of section 1563(e)(1), and stock owned with the application of section 267(c).

(3)Coordination rule.Paragraph (b)(1)(iii) of this section applies only to the extent that the amount of United States property that is treated under that paragraph as held indirectly by a controlled foreign corporation through the partnership exceeds the sum of -

(i) The amount of United States property described in paragraph (b)(1)(iii) of this section that is treated as held by the controlled foreign corporation as a result of the application of § 1.956-4(b) with respect to the partnership; and

(ii) The amount of United States property that is treated as held by the controlled foreign corporation as a result of the application of § 1.956-4(c) with respect to any portion of an obligation attributable to the funding described in paragraph (b)(1)(iii) of this section of the partnership by the controlled foreign corporation.

(4)Examples. The examples in this paragraph (b)(4) illustrate the rules of this paragraph (b). In each example, P is a United States citizen that wholly owns two controlled foreign corporations, FS1 and FS2.

(i)Example 1 -

(A)Facts. FS1 sells inventory to FS2 in exchange for trade receivables due in 60 days. Avoiding the application of section 956 with respect to FS1 was not a principal purpose of establishing the trade receivables. FS2 has no earnings and profits, and FS1 has substantial accumulated earnings and profits. FS2 makes a loan to P equal to the amount it owes FS1 under the trade receivables. FS2 pays the trade receivables according to their terms.

(B)Result. FS1 will not be considered to indirectly hold United States property under this paragraph (b) because the funding of FS2 through the sale of inventory in exchange for the establishment of trade receivables was not undertaken with a principal purpose of avoiding the application of section 956 with respect to FS1.

(ii)Example 2 -

(A)Facts. The facts are the same as in paragraph (b)(4)(i)(A) of this section (the facts in Example 1), except that, with a principal purpose of avoiding the application of section 956 with respect to FS1, FS1 and FS2 agree to defer FS2's payment obligation, and FS2 does not timely pay the receivables.

(B)Result. FS1 is considered to hold indirectly United States property under this paragraph (b) and § 1.956-2(a) because there was a funding of FS2, a principal purpose of which was to avoid the application of section 956 with respect to FS1.

(iii)Example 3 -

(A)Facts. FS1 has $100x of post-1986 undistributed earnings and profits and $100x post-1986 foreign income taxes, but does not have any cash. FS2 has earnings and profits of at least $100x, no post-1986 foreign income taxes, and substantial cash. Neither FS1 nor FS2 has earnings and profits described in section 959(c)(1) or section 959(c)(2). FS2 loans $100x to FS1. FS1 then loans $100x to P. An income inclusion by P of $100x under sections 951(a)(1)(B) and 956 with respect to FS1 would result in foreign income taxes deemed paid by P under section 960. A principal purpose of funding FS1 through the loan from FS2 is to avoid the application of section 956 with respect to FS2.

(B)Result. Under paragraph (b)(1)(ii) of this section, FS2 is considered to indirectly hold the $100x obligation of P that is held by FS1. As a result, P has an income inclusion of $100x under sections 951(a)(1)(B) and 956 with respect to FS2, and the foreign income taxes deemed paid by P under section 960 is $0. P does not have an income inclusion under sections 951(a)(1)(B) and 956 with respect to FS1 related to the $100x loan from FS1 to P.

(iv)Example 4 -

(A)Facts. FS1 deposits $100x with BK, an unrelated foreign financial institution. FS2 subsequently borrows $100x from BK. BK would not have loaned the $100x to FS2 on the same terms absent FS1's deposit. FS2 loans the $100x borrowed from BK to P. FS2 has no earnings and profits, and FS1 has substantial accumulated earnings and profits. A principal purpose for the transactions is to avoid the application of section 956 with respect to FS1.

(B)Result. FS1 is considered to hold indirectly United States property under this paragraph (b) and § 1.956-2(a) because FS1's deposit with BK, which facilitates BK's loan to FS2, is considered a funding by FS1 of FS2, a principal purpose of which was to avoid the application of section 956 with respect to FS1.

(v)Example 5 -

(A)Facts. FS1 sells inventory to FS2 in exchange for $100x. The sale occurred in the ordinary course of FS1's trade or business and FS2's trade or business, and the terms of the sale are consistent with terms that would be observed among parties dealing at arm's length. FS1 makes a $100x loan to P. FS2 has no earnings and profits, and FS1 has substantial accumulated earnings and profits.

(B)Result. FS2 will not be considered to indirectly hold United States property under this paragraph (b) because a sale in the ordinary course of business for cash on terms that are consistent with those that would be observed among parties dealing at arm's length does not constitute a funding.

(vi)Example 6 -

(A)Facts. In Year 1, FS2 loans $100x to FS1 to finance FS1's trade or business. The terms of the loan are consistent with those that would be observed among parties dealing at arm's length. In Year 2, FS1 repays the loan in accordance with the terms of the loan. Immediately after the repayment by FS1, FS2 loans $100x to P. FS2 has no earnings and profits, and FS1 has substantial accumulated earnings and profits.

(B)Result. FS1 will not be considered to indirectly hold United States property under this paragraph (b) because a repayment of a loan that has terms that are consistent with those that would be observed among parties dealing at arm's length and that is repaid consistent with those terms does not constitute a funding.

(vii)Example 7 -

(A)Facts. FS1 has substantial earnings and profits. P and FS1 are the only partners in FPRS, a foreign partnership. FS1 contributes $600x cash to FPRS in exchange for a 60% interest in the partnership, and P contributes real estate located outside the United States ($400x value) to FPRS in exchange for a 40% interest in the partnership. There are no special allocations in the FPRS partnership agreement. FPRS lends $100x to P. Under § 1.956-4(b) and § 1.956-2(a), FS1 is treated as holding United States property of $60x (60% x $100x) as a result of the FPRS loan to P. A principal purpose of creating, organizing, or funding FPRS is to avoid the application of section 956 with respect to FS1.

(B)Result. Before taking into accountparagraph (b)(3) of this section, because FS1 controls FPRS and a principal purpose of creating, organizing, or funding FPRS was to avoid the application of section 956 with respect to FS1, FS1 is considered under paragraph (b)(1)(iii) of this section to indirectly hold the $100x obligation of P that would be United States property if held directly by FS1. However, under paragraph (b)(3) of this section, FS1 is treated as holding United States property under paragraph (b)(1)(iii) only to the extent the amount held indirectly under paragraph (b)(1)(iii) of this section exceeds the sum of the amount of the United States property that FS1 is treated as holding as a result of the application of § 1.956-4(b) with respect to FPRS. The amount of United States property that FS1 is treated as indirectly holding under paragraph (b)(1)(iii) of this section and § 1.956-2(a) ($100x) exceeds the amount determined under § 1.956-4(b) ($60x) by $40x. Thus, FS1 is considered to hold United States property within the meaning of section 956(c) in the amount of $100x ($60x under § 1.956-4(b) and $40x under paragraphs (b)(1)(iii) and (b)(3) of this section).

(viii)Example 8 -

(A)Facts. FS1 and FS2 have substantial earnings and profits. P and FS1 are the only partners in FPRS, a foreign partnership. There are no special allocations in the FPRS partnership agreement. P's liquidation value percentage with respect to FPRS is 40%, and FS1's liquidation value percentage with respect to FPRS is 60%. FS2 lends $100x to FPRS, and FPRS lends $100x to P. Under § 1.956-4(c) and § 1.956-2(a), FS2 is treated as holding United States property of $40x (40% x $100x) as a result of its loan to FPRS. A principal purpose of funding FPRS is to avoid the application of section 956 with respect to FS2.

(B)Result. Before taking into accountparagraph (b)(3) of this section, because FS2 controls FPRS and a principal purpose of funding FPRS was to avoid the application of section 956 with respect to FS2, FS2 is considered under paragraph (b)(1)(iii) of this section to indirectly hold the $100x obligation of P that would be United States property if held directly by FS2. However, under paragraph (b)(3) of this section, FS2 is treated as holding United States property under paragraph (b)(1)(iii) only to the extent the amount held indirectly under paragraph (b)(1)(iii) of this section exceeds the amount of United States property that FS2 is treated as holding as a result of the application of § 1.956-4(c) with respect to the obligation with which FS2 funds FPRS. The amount of United States property that FS2 is treated as indirectly holding under paragraph (b)(1)(iii) of this section and § 1.956-2(a) ($100x) exceeds the amount determined under § 1.956-4(c) ($40x) by $60x. Thus, FS2 is considered to hold United States property within the meaning of section 956(c) in the amount of $100x ($40x under § 1.956-4(c) and $60x under paragraphs (b)(1)(iii) and (b)(3) of this section). P does not have an income inclusion under sections 951(a)(1)(B) and 956 with respect to FS1 related to the P obligation held by FPRS.

(c)-(d) [Reserved]

(e)Amount attributable to property -

(1)General rule. Except as provided in subparagraph (2) of this paragraph, for purposes of paragraph (b)(1) of this section the amount taken into account with respect to any United States property shall be its adjusted basis, as of the applicable determination date, reduced by any liability (other than a liability described in subparagraph (3) of this paragraph) to which such property is subject on such date. To be taken into account under this subparagraph, a liability must constitute a specific charge against the property involved. Thus, a liability evidenced by an open account or a liability secured only by the general credit of the controlled foreign corporation will not be taken into account. On the other hand, if a liability constitutes a specific charge against several items of property and cannot definitely be allocated to any single item of property, the liability shall be apportioned against each of such items of property in that ratio which the adjusted basis of such item on the applicable determination date bears to the adjusted basis of all such items at such time. A liability in excess of the adjusted basis of the property which is subject to such liability shall not be taken into account for the purpose of reducing the adjusted basis of other property which is not subject to such liability. See § 1.956-1(e)(6) for a special rule for determining amounts attributable to United States property acquired as the result of certain nonrecognition transactions.

(2)Rule for pledges and guarantees. For purposes of this section, the amount of an obligation treated as held (before application of § 1.956-4(b)) as a result of a pledge or guarantee described in § 1.956-2(c) is the unpaid principal amount of the obligation on the applicable determination date.

(3)Excluded charges. For purposes of subparagraph (1) of this paragraph, a specific charge created with respect to any item of property principally for the purpose of artificially increasing or decreasing the amount of a controlled foreign corporation's investment of earnings in United States property will not be recognized; whether a specific charge is created principally for such purpose will depend upon all the facts and circumstances of each case. One of the factors that will be considered in making such a determination with respect to a loan is whether the loan is from a related person, as defined in section 954 (d)(3) and paragraph (e) of § 1.954-1.

(4)Statement required. If for purposes of this section a United States shareholder of a controlled foreign corporation reduces the adjusted basis of property which constitutes United States property on the ground that such property is subject to a liability, he shall attach to his return a statement setting forth the adjusted basis of the property before the reduction and the amount and nature of the reduction.

(5) [Reserved] For further guidance, see § 1.956-1T(e)(5).

(6)Adjusted basis of property acquired in certain nonrecognition transactions -

(i)Scope. This paragraph (e)(6) provides rules for determining, solely for purposes of applying section 956, the adjusted basis of specified United States property acquired by a controlled foreign corporation pursuant to an exchange in which the controlled foreign corporation's basis in such specified United States property is determined under section 362(a). This paragraph (e)(6) also applies if specified United States property, the adjusted basis in which has been determined under these regulations, is transferred (in one or more subsequent exchanges) to a related person (within the meaning of section 954(d)(3)), pursuant to one or more exchanges in which the related person's adjusted basis in such property is determined, in whole or in part, by reference to the transferor controlled foreign corporation's adjusted basis in such property.

(ii)Definition of specified United States property. For purposes of this paragraph (e)(6), specified United States property is stock of a domestic corporation described in section 956(c)(1)(B) or an obligation of a domestic corporation described in section 956(c)(1)(C) that is acquired by a controlled foreign corporation from the domestic issuing corporation. Specified United States property does not include property described in section 956(c)(2).

(iii)Adjusted basis of specified United States property. Solely for purposes of applying section 956, the adjusted basis of specified United States property acquired by a controlled foreign corporation in connection with an exchange to which this paragraph (e)(6) applies shall be no less than the fair market value of any property transferred by the controlled foreign corporation in exchange for such specified United States property. For purposes of this paragraph (e)(6), the term property has the meaning set forth in section 317(a), but also includes any liability that is assumed by the controlled foreign corporation in connection with the exchange notwithstanding the application of section 357(a). The assumption of a liability by the controlled foreign corporation in connection with the exchange will be considered the transfer of property. The fair market value of such property will be the amount of the liability assumed. The fair market value of any property transferred by the controlled foreign corporation in exchange for the specified United States property shall be determined at the time of the exchange.

(iv)Timing. For purposes of § 1.956-2(d)(1)(i)(a), a controlled foreign corporation that acquires specified United States property in an exchange to which this paragraph (e)(6) applies acquires an adjusted basis in such property at the time of the controlled foreign corporation's exchange of property for such specified United States property.

(v)Transfers to r elated persons. If a controlled foreign corporation transfers specified United States property, the adjusted basis in which has been determined under this paragraph (e)(6), to a related person (within the meaning of section 954(d)(3)) (related person transferee) in one or more exchanges pursuant to which the related person transferee's adjusted basis in such specified United States property is determined, in whole or in part, by reference to the controlled foreign corporation's adjusted basis in such specified United States property, then, solely for purposes of applying section 956 following such exchange, the controlled foreign corporation's adjusted basis in any United States property received in the exchange (or exchanges) shall be no less than the aggregate adjusted basis of the specified United States property as determined under paragraph (e)(6)(iii) of this section, and the related person transferee's adjusted basis in such specified United States property shall be no less than the adjusted basis of such specified United States property in the hands of the controlled foreign corporation as determined under paragraph (e)(6)(iii) of this section. This paragraph (e)(6)(v) shall also apply in the case of one or more successive transfers of the specified United States property by a related person transferee to one or more persons related to the controlled foreign corporation (within the meaning of section 954(d)(3)). This paragraph (e)(6)(v) shall apply regardless of whether a subsequent transfer was part of a plan (or series of related transactions) that includes the controlled foreign corporation's acquisition of the specified United States property.

(vi)Examples. The rules of this paragraph (e)(6) are illustrated by the following examples:

Example 1.
Facts. USP, a domestic corporation, is the common parent of an affiliated group that joins in the filing of a consolidated return. USP owns 100 percent of the stock of US1 and US2, both domestic corporations and members of the USP consolidated group. US1 owns 100 percent of the stock of CFC, a controlled foreign corporation. US2 issues $100x of its stock to CFC in exchange for $10x of CFC stock and $90x cash. US2's transfer of its stock to CFC is described in section 351, US2 recognizes no gain in the exchange under section 1032(a), and CFC's basis in the US2 stock acquired in the exchange is determined under section 362(a).

Analysis. The US2 stock acquired by CFC in the exchange constitutes specified United States property under paragraph (e)(6)(ii) of this section because CFC acquires the US2 stock from US2, the issuing corporation. Therefore, because CFC's adjusted basis in the US2 stock is determined under section 362(a), then for purposes of applying section 956, CFC's adjusted basis in the US2 stock shall, under paragraph (e)(6)(iii) of this section, be no less than $90x, the fair market value of the property exchanged by CFC for the US2 stock (the $10x of CFC stock issued in the exchange does not constitute property for purposes of paragraph (e)(6)(iii) of this section). Pursuant to paragraph (e)(6)(iv) of this section, for purposes of § 1.956-2(d)(1)(i)(a) CFC shall be treated as acquiring its adjusted basis of no less than $90x in the US2 stock at the time of its transfer of property to US2 in exchange for the US2 stock. The result would be the same if, instead of CFC transferring $90x of cash to US2 in the exchange, CFC assumes a $90x liability of US2.

Example 2.
Facts. USP, a domestic corporation, owns 100 percent of the stock of USS, a domestic corporation. USP also owns 100 percent of the stock of CFC, a controlled foreign corporation. USP's adjusted basis in its USS stock equals the fair market value of the USS stock, or $100x. USP transfers its USS stock to CFC in exchange for $100x of CFC stock. USP's transfer of its USS stock to CFC is described in section 351, USP recognizes no gain in the exchange under section 351(a), and CFC's adjusted basis in the USS stock acquired in the exchange, determined under section 362(a), equals $100x.

Analysis. The USS stock acquired by CFC in the exchange does not constitute specified United States property under paragraph (e)(6)(ii) of this section because CFC acquires the USS stock from USP. Therefore, CFC's adjusted basis in the USS stock, for purposes of section 956, is not determined under this paragraph (e)(6). Instead, CFC's adjusted basis in the USS stock is determined under the general rule of section 956(a) and under paragraphs (e)(1) through (4) of this section. As determined under section 362(a), CFC's adjusted basis in the USS stock is $100x.

Example 3.
Facts. USP, a domestic corporation, owns 100 percent of the stock of CFC1, a controlled foreign corporation. CFC1 holds specified United States property (within the meaning of paragraph (e)(6)(ii) of this section) with an adjusted basis of $30x for purposes of applying section 956 that was determined under paragraph (e)(6)(iii) of this section. CFC1 owns 100 percent of the stock of CFC2, a controlled foreign corporation. CFC1 transfers the specified United States property to CFC2 in an exchange described in section 351. CFC2's adjusted basis in the specified United States property is determined under section 362(a).

Analysis. In the section 351 exchange, CFC1 transferred specified United States property to CFC2 with an adjusted basis that was determined under paragraph (e)(6)(iii) of this section. Further, CFC2's adjusted basis in the specified United States property is determined under section 362(a) by reference, in whole or in part, to CFC1's adjusted basis in such property. Therefore, for purposes of applying section 956, pursuant to paragraph (e)(6)(v) of this section CFC2's adjusted basis in the specified United States property shall be no less than $30x. Paragraph (e)(6)(v) of this section would also apply if CFC2 subsequently transfers the specified United States property to another person related to CFC1 (within the meaning of section 954(d)(3)) if such related person's adjusted basis in the specified United States property is determined by reference, in whole or in part, to CFC2's adjusted basis in such property. See also § 1.956-1T(b)(4) if one of the principal purposes of CFC1's transfer of property to CFC2 was the avoidance of the application of section 956 with respect to CFC1.

(f) [Reserved]. For further guidance, see § 1.956-1T(f).

(g)Applicability dates.

(1)Paragraph (a)(1) of this section applies to taxable years of controlled foreign corporations ending on or after November 3, 2016, and to taxable years of United States shareholders in which or with which such taxable years end.

(2)Paragraph (b) of this section applies to taxable years of controlled foreign corporations ending on or after September 1, 2015, and to taxable years of United States shareholders in which or with which such taxable years end, with respect to property acquired on or after September 1, 2015. See paragraph (b)(4) of § 1.956-1T, as contained in 26 CFR part 1 revised as of April 1, 2015, for the rules applicable to taxable years of controlled foreign corporations ending before September 1, 2015, and property acquired before September 1, 2015. For purposes of this paragraph (g)(2), a deemed exchange of property pursuant to section 1001 on or after September 1, 2015 constitutes an acquisition of the property on or after that date.

(3)Paragraph (e)(2) of this section applies to taxable years of controlled foreign corporations ending on or after November 3, 2016, and taxable years of United States shareholders in which or with which such taxable years end, with respect to pledges or guarantees entered into on or after September 1, 2015. For purposes of this paragraph (g)(3), a pledgor or guarantor is treated as entering into a pledge or guarantee when there is a significant modification, within the meaning of § 1.1001-3(e), of an obligation with respect to which it is a pledgor or guarantor on or after September 1, 2015.

(4) Paragraphs (a)(2) and (3) of this section apply to taxable years of controlled foreign corporations beginning on or after July 22, 2019, and to taxable years of a United States shareholder in which or with which such taxable years of the controlled foreign corporations end. Notwithstanding the preceding sentence, a United States shareholder may apply paragraphs (a)(2) and (3) of this section to taxable years of controlled foreign corporations beginning after December 31, 2017, and to taxable years of the United States shareholder in which or with which such taxable years of the controlled foreign corporations end, provided that the United States shareholder and United States persons that are related (within the meaning of section 267 or 707) to the United States shareholder consistently apply those paragraphs with respect to all controlled foreign corporations in which they are United States shareholders for taxable years of the controlled foreign corporations beginning after December 31, 2017.

(5)Paragraph (e)(6) of this section applies to property acquired in exchanges occurring on or after June 24, 2011.

[T.D. 6704, 29 FR 2600, Feb. 20, 1964, as amended by T.D. 6795, 30 FR 942, Jan. 29, 1965; T.D. 7712, 45 FR 52374, Aug. 7, 1980; T.D. 8209, 53 FR 22171, June 14, 1988; T.D. 9402, 73 FR 35582, June 24, 2008; T.D. 9630, 76 FR 36994, June 24, 2011; T.D. 9733, 80 FR 52981, Sept. 2, 2015; 80 FR 66416, Oct. 29, 2015; T.D. 9792, 81 FR 76505, Nov. 3, 2016; T.D. 9859, 84 FR 23717, May 23, 2019; 84 FR 29799, June 25, 2019]