28 CFR 42.104 - Discrimination prohibited.
(a) General. No person in the United States shall, on the ground of race, color, or national origin be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be otherwise subjected to discrimination under any program to which this subpart applies.
(b) Specific discriminatory actions prohibited.
(1) A recipient to which this subpart applies may not, directly or through contractual or other arrangements, on the ground of race, color, or national origin:
(v) Treat an individual differently from others in determining whether he satisfies any admission, enrollment, quota, eligibility, membership, or other requirement or condition which individuals must meet in order to be provided any disposition, service, financial aid, function or benefit provided under the program; or
(vi) Deny an individual an opportunity to participate in the program through the provision of services or otherwise or afford him an opportunity to do so which is different from that afforded others under the program (including the opportunity to participate in the program as an employee but only to the extent set forth in paragraph (c) of this section).
(vii) Deny a person the opportunity to participate as a member of a planning or advisory body which is an integral part of the program.
(2) A recipient, in determining the type of disposition, services, financial aid, benefits, or facilities which will be provided under any such program, or the class of individuals to whom, or the situations in which, such will be provided under any such program, or the class of individuals to be afforded an opportunity to participate in any such program, may not, directly or through contractual or other arrangements, utilize criteria or methods of administration which have the effect of subjecting individuals to discrimination because of their race, color, or national origin, or have the effect of defeating or substantially impairing accomplishment of the objectives of the program as respects individuals of a particular race, color, or national origin.
(3) In determining the site or location of facilities, a recipient or applicant may not make selections with the purpose or effect of excluding individuals from, denying them the benefits of, or subjecting them to discrimination under any program to which this subpart applies, on the ground of race, color, or national origin; or with the purpose or effect of defeating or substantially impairing the accomplishment of the objectives of the Act or this subpart.
(4) For the purposes of this section the disposition, services, financial aid, or benefits provided under a program receiving Federal financial assistance shall be deemed to include all portions of the recipient's program or activity, including facilities, equipment, or property provided with the aid of Federal financial assistance.
(5) The enumeration of specific forms of prohibited discrimination in this paragraph and in paragraph (c) of this section does not limit the generality of the prohibition in paragraph (a) of this section.
(i) In administering a program regarding which the recipient has previously discriminated against persons on the ground of race, color, or national origin, the recipient must take affirmative action to overcome the effects of prior discrimination.
(ii) Even in the absence of such prior discrimination, a recipient in administering a program may take affirmative action to overcome the effects of conditions which resulted in limiting participation by persons of a particular race, color, or national origin.
(c) Employment practices.
(1) Whenever a primary objective of the Federal financial assistance to a program to which this subpart applies, is to provide employment, a recipient of such assistance may not (directly or through contractual or other arrangements) subject any individual to discrimination on the ground of race, color, or national origin in its employment practices under such program (including recruitment or recruitment advertising, employment, layoff, or termination, upgrading, demotion, or transfer, rates of pay or other forms of compensation, and use of facilities). That prohibition also applies to programs as to which a primary objective of the Federal financial assistance is (i) to assist individuals, through employment, to meet expenses incident to the commencement or continuation of their education or training, or (ii) to provide work experience which contributes to the education or training of the individuals involved. The requirements applicable to construction employment under any such program shall be those specified in or pursuant to part III of Executive Order 11246 or any Executive order which supersedes it.
(2) In regard to Federal financial assistance which does not have providing employment as a primary objective, the provisions of paragraph (c)(1) of this section apply to the employment practices of the recipient if discrimination on the ground of race, color, or national origin in such employment practices tends, on the ground of race, color, or national origin, to exclude persons from participation in, to deny them the benefits of or to subject them to discrimination under the program receiving Federal financial assistance. In any such case, the provisions of paragraph (c)(1) of this section shall apply to the extent necessary to assure equality of opportunity to and nondiscriminatory treatment of beneficiaries.