40 CFR § 1037.101 - Overview of emission standards for heavy-duty vehicles.

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§ 1037.101 Overview of emission standards for heavy-duty vehicles.
Link to an amendment published at 88 FR 4635, Jan. 24, 2023.

(a) This part specifies emission standards for certain vehicles and for certain pollutants. This part contains standards and other regulations applicable to the emission of the air pollutant defined as the aggregate group of six greenhouse gases: Carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, methane, hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons, and sulfur hexafluoride.

(b) The regulated emissions are addressed in four groups:

(1) Exhaust emissions of NOX, HC, PM, and CO. These pollutants are sometimes described collectively as “criteria pollutants” because they are either criteria pollutants under the Clean Air Act or precursors to the criteria pollutant ozone. These pollutants are also sometimes described collectively as “non-greenhouse gas pollutants”, although they do not necessarily have negligible global warming potential. As described in § 1037.102, standards for these pollutants are provided in 40 CFR part 86.

(2) Exhaust emissions of CO2,CH4, and N2O. These pollutants are described collectively in this part as “greenhouse gas pollutants” because they are regulated primarily based on their impact on the climate. These standards are provided in §§ 1037.105 through 1037.107.

(3) Hydrofluorocarbons. These pollutants are also “greenhouse gas pollutants” but are treated separately from exhaust greenhouse gas pollutants listed in paragraph (b)(2) of this section. These standards are provided in § 1037.115.

(4) Fuel evaporative emissions. These requirements are described in § 1037.103.

(c) The regulated heavy-duty vehicles are addressed in different groups as follows:

(1) For criteria pollutants, vocational vehicles and tractors are regulated based on gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR), whether they are considered “spark-ignition” or “compression-ignition,” and whether they are first sold as complete or incomplete vehicles.

(2) For greenhouse gas pollutants, vehicles are regulated in the following groups:

(i) Tractors above 26,000 pounds GVWR.

(ii) Trailers.

(iii) Vocational vehicles.

(3) The greenhouse gas emission standards apply differently depending on the vehicle service class as described in § 1037.140. In addition, standards apply differently for vehicles with spark-ignition and compression-ignition engines. References in this part 1037 to “spark-ignition” or “compression-ignition” generally relate to the application of standards under 40 CFR 1036.140. For example, a vehicle with an engine certified to spark-ignition standards under 40 CFR part 1036 is generally subject to requirements under this part 1037 that apply for spark-ignition vehicles. However, note that emission standards for heavy heavy-duty engines are considered to be compression-ignition standards for purposes of applying vehicle emission standards under this part. Also, for spark-ignition engines voluntarily certified as compression-ignition engines under 40 CFR part 1036, you must choose at certification whether your vehicles are subject to spark-ignition standards or compression-ignition standards.

(4) For evaporative and refueling emissions, vehicles are regulated based on the type of fuel they use. Vehicles fueled with volatile liquid fuels or gaseous fuels are subject to evaporative emission standards. Vehicles up to a certain size that are fueled with gasoline, diesel fuel, ethanol, methanol, or LPG are subject to refueling emission standards.