40 CFR § 1037.105 - CO2 emission standards for vocational vehicles.

§ 1037.105 CO2 emission standards for vocational vehicles.

(a) The standards of this section apply for the following vehicles:

(1) Heavy-duty vehicles at or below 14,000 pounds GVWR that are excluded from the standards in 40 CFR 86.1819 or that use engines certified under § 1037.150(m).

(2) Vehicles above 14,000 pounds GVWR and at or below 26,000 pounds GVWR, but not certified to the vehicle standards in 40 CFR 86.1819.

(3) Vehicles above 26,000 pounds GVWR that are not tractors.

(4) Vocational tractors.

(b) CO2 standards in this paragraph (b) apply based on modeling and testing as specified in subpart F of this part. The provisions of § 1037.241 specify how to comply with these standards. Standards differ based on engine cycle, vehicle size, and intended vehicle duty cycle. See § 1037.510(c) to determine which duty cycle applies.

(1) Model year 2027 and later vehicles are subject to CO2 standards corresponding to the selected subcategories as shown in the following table:

Table 1 of § 1037.105 - Phase 2 CO2 Standards for Model Year 2027 and Later Vocational Vehicles

[g/ton-mile]

Engine cycle Vehicle size Multi-purpose Regional Urban
Compression-ignition Light HDV 330 291 367
Compression-ignition Medium HDV 235 218 258
Compression-ignition Heavy HDV 230 189 269
Spark-ignition Light HDV 372 319 413
Spark-ignition Medium HDV 268 247 297

(2) Model year 2024 through 2026 vehicles are subject to CO2 standards corresponding to the selected subcategories as shown in the following table:

Table 2 of § 1037.105 - Phase 2 CO2 Standards for Model Year 2024 Through 2026 Vocational Vehicles

[g/ton-mile]

Engine cycle Vehicle size Multi-purpose Regional Urban
Compression-ignition Light HDV 344 296 385
Compression-ignition Medium HDV 246 221 271
Compression-ignition Heavy HDV 242 194 283
Spark-ignition Light HDV 385 324 432
Spark-ignition Medium HDV 279 251 310

(3) Model year 2021 Through 2023 vehicles are subject to CO2 standards corresponding to the selected subcategories as shown in the following table:

Table 3 of § 1037.105 - Phase 2 CO2 Standards for Model Year 2021 Through 2023 Vocational Vehicles

[g/ton-mile]

Engine cycle Vehicle size Multi-purpose Regional Urban
Compression-ignition Light HDV 373 311 424
Compression-ignition Medium HDV 265 234 296
Compression-ignition Heavy HDV 261 205 308
Spark-ignition Light HDV 407 335 461
Spark-ignition Medium HDV 293 261 328

(4) Model year 2014 through 2020 vehicles are subject to Phase 1 CO2 standards as shown in the following table:

Table 4 of § 1037.105 - Phase 1 CO2 Standards for Model Year 2014 Through 2020 Vocational Vehicles

[g/ton-mile]

Vehicle size CO2 standard for
model years 2014-2016
CO2 standard for
model year 2017 and later
Light HDV 388 373
Medium HDV 234 225
Heavy HDV 226 222

(c) No CH4 or N2O standards apply under this section. See 40 CFR part 1036 for CH4 or N2O standards that apply to engines used in these vehicles.

(d) You may generate or use emission credits for averaging, banking, and trading to demonstrate compliance with the standards in paragraph (b) of this section as described in subpart H of this part. This requires that you specify a Family Emission Limit (FEL) for CO2 for each vehicle subfamily. The FEL may not be less than the result of emission modeling from § 1037.520. These FELs serve as the emission standards for the vehicle subfamily instead of the standards specified in paragraph (b) of this section.

(e) The exhaust emission standards of this section apply for the full useful life, expressed in service miles or calendar years, whichever comes first. The following useful life values apply for the standards of this section:

(1) 150,000 miles or 15 years, whichever comes first, for Light HDV.

(2) 185,000 miles or 10 years, whichever comes first, for Medium HDV.

(3) 435,000 miles or 10 years, whichever comes first, for Heavy HDV.

(f) See § 1037.631 for provisions that exempt certain vehicles used in off-road operation from the standards of this section.

(g) You may optionally certify a vocational vehicle to the standards and useful life applicable to a heavier vehicle service class (such as Medium HDV instead of Light HDV). Provisions related to generating emission credits apply as follows:

(1) If you certify all your vehicles from a given vehicle service class in a given model year to the standards and useful life that applies for a heavier vehicle service class, you may generate credits as appropriate for the heavier service class.

(2) Class 8 hybrid vehicles with light or medium heavy-duty engines may be certified to compression-ignition standards for the Heavy HDV service class. You may generate and use credits as allowed for the Heavy HDV service class.

(3) Except as specified in paragraphs (g)(1) and (2) of this section, you may not generate credits with the vehicle. If you include lighter vehicles in a subfamily of heavier vehicles with an FEL below the standard, exclude the production volume of lighter vehicles from the credit calculation. Conversely, if you include lighter vehicles in a subfamily with an FEL above the standard, you must include the production volume of lighter vehicles in the credit calculation.

(h) You may optionally certify certain vocational vehicles to alternative Phase 2 standards as specified in this paragraph (h) instead of the standards specified in paragraph (b) of this section. You may apply these provisions to any qualifying vehicles even though these standards were established for custom chassis. For example, large diversified vehicle manufacturers may certify vehicles to the refuse hauler standards of this section as long as the manufacturer ensures that those vehicles qualify as refuse haulers when placed into service. GEM simulates vehicle operation for each type of vehicle based on an assigned vehicle service class, independent of the vehicle's actual characteristics, as shown in Table 5 of this section; however, standards apply for the vehicle's useful life based on its actual characteristics as specified in paragraph (e) of this section. Vehicles certified to these standards must include the following statement on the emission control label: “THIS VEHICLE WAS CERTIFIED AS A [identify vehicle type as identified in Table 5 of this section] UNDER 40 CFR 1037.105(h)].” These custom-chassis standards apply as follows:

(1) The following alternative emission standards apply by vehicle type and model year as follows:

Table 5 of § 1037.105 - Phase 2 Custom Chassis Standards

[g/ton-mile]

Vehicle type a Assigned vehicle service class MY 2021-2026 MY 2027+
School bus Medium HDV 291 271
Motor home Medium HDV 228 226
Coach bus Heavy HDV 210 205
Other bus Heavy HDV 300 286
Refuse hauler Heavy HDV 313 298
Concrete mixer Heavy HDV 319 316
Mixed-use vehicle Heavy HDV 319 316
Emergency vehicle Heavy HDV 324 319

a Vehicle types are generally defined in § 1037.801. “Other bus” includes any bus that is not a school bus or a coach bus. A “mixed-use vehicle” is one that meets at least one of the criteria specified in § 1037.631(a)(1) and at least one of the criteria in § 1037.631(a)(2), but not both.

(2) You may generate or use emission credits for averaging to demonstrate compliance with the alternative standards as described in subpart H of this part. This requires that you specify a Family Emission Limit (FEL) for CO2 for each vehicle subfamily. The FEL may not be less than the result of emission modeling as described in § 1037.520. These FELs serve as the emission standards for the vehicle subfamily instead of the standards specified in this paragraph (h). Calculate credits using the equation in § 1037.705(b) with the standard payload for the assigned vehicle service class and the useful life identified in paragraph (e) of this section. Each separate vehicle type identified in Table 5 of this section (or group of vehicle types identified in a single row) represents a separate averaging set. You may not use averaging for vehicles meeting standards under paragraph (h)(5) through (7) of this section, and you may not bank or trade emission credits from any vehicles certified under this paragraph (h).

(3) [Reserved]

(4) For purposes of emission modeling under § 1037.520, consider motor homes and coach buses to be subject to the Regional duty cycle, and consider all other vehicles to be subject to the Urban duty cycle.

(5) Emergency vehicles are deemed to comply with the standards of this paragraph (h) if they use tires with TRRL at or below 8.4 kg/tonne (8.7 g/tonne for model years 2021 through 2026).

(6) Concrete mixers and mixed-use vehicles are deemed to comply with the standards of this paragraph (h) if they use tires with TRRL at or below 7.1 kg/tonne (7.6 g/tonne for model years 2021 through 2026).

(7) Motor homes are deemed to comply with the standards of this paragraph (h) if they have tires with TRRL at or below 6.0 kg/tonne (6.7 g/tonne for model years 2021 through 2026) and automatic tire inflation systems or tire pressure monitoring systems with wheels on all axles.

(8) Vehicles certified to standards under this paragraph (h) must use engines certified under 40 CFR part 1036 for the appropriate model year, except that motor homes and emergency vehicles may use engines certified with the loose-engine provisions of § 1037.150(m). This also applies for vehicles meeting standards under paragraphs (h)(5) through (7) of this section.

[81 FR 74048, Oct. 25, 2016, as amended at 86 FR 34459, June 29, 2021]

The following state regulations pages link to this page.