40 CFR § 1037.103 - Evaporative and refueling emission standards.

§ 1037.103 Evaporative and refueling emission standards.

(a)Applicability. Evaporative and refueling emission standards apply to heavy-duty vehicles as follows:

(1) Complete and incomplete heavy-duty vehicles at or below 14,000 pounds GVWR must meet evaporative and refueling emission standards as specified in 40 CFR part 86, subpart S, instead of the requirements specified in this section.

(2)Heavy-duty vehicles above 14,000 pounds GVWR that run on volatile liquid fuel (such as gasoline or ethanol) or gaseous fuel (such as natural gas or LPG) must meet evaporative and refueling emission standards as specified in this section.

(b)Emission standards. The evaporative and refueling emission standards and measurement procedures specified in 40 CFR 86.1813 apply for vehicles above 14,000 pounds GVWR, except as described in this section. The evaporative emission standards phase in over model years 2018 through 2022, with provisions allowing for voluntary compliance with the standards as early as model year 2015. Count vehicles subject to standards under this section the same as heavy-duty vehicles at or below 14,000 pounds GVWR to comply with the phase-in requirements specified in 40 CFR 86.1813. These vehicles may generate and use emission credits as described in 40 CFR part 86, subpart S, but only for vehicles that are tested for certification instead of relying on the provisions of paragraph (c) of this section. The following provisions apply instead of what is specified in 40 CFR 86.1813:

(1) The refueling standards in 40 CFR 86.1813-17(b) apply to complete vehicles starting in model year 2022; they are optional for incomplete vehicles.

(2) The leak standard in 40 CFR 86.1813-17(a)(4) does not apply.

(3) The FEL cap relative to the diurnal plus hot soak standard for low-altitude testing is 1.9 grams per test.

(4) The diurnal plus hot soak standard for high-altitude testing is 2.3 grams per test.

(5) Testing does not require measurement of exhaust emissions. Disregard references in subpart B of this part to procedures, equipment specifications, and recordkeeping related to measuring exhaust emissions. All references to the exhaust test under 40 CFR part 86, subpart B, are considered the “dynamometer run” as part of the evaporative testing sequence under this subpart.

(6)Vehicles not yet subject to the Tier 3 standards in 40 CFR 86.1813 must meet evaporative emission standards as specified in 40 CFR 86.008-10(b)(1) and (2) for Otto-cycle applications and 40 CFR 86.007-11(b)(3)(ii) and (b)(4)(ii) for diesel-cycle applications.

(c)Compliance demonstration. You may provide a statement in the application for certification that vehicles above 14,000 pounds GVWR comply with evaporative and refueling emission standards instead of submitting test data if you include an engineering analysis describing how vehicles include design parameters, equipment, operating controls, or other elements of design that adequately demonstrate that vehicles comply with the standards. We would expect emission control components and systems to exhibit a comparable degree of control relative to vehicles that comply based on testing. For example, vehicles that comply under this paragraph (c) should rely on comparable material specifications to limit fuel permeation, and components should be sized and calibrated to correspond with the appropriate fuel capacities, fuel flow rates, purge strategies, and other vehicle operating characteristics. You may alternatively show that design parameters are comparable to those for vehicles at or below 14,000 pounds GVWR certified under 40 CFR part 86, subpart S.

(d)CNG refueling requirement. Compressed natural gas vehicles must meet the requirements for fueling connection devices as specified in 40 CFR 86.1813-17(f)(1). Vehicles meeting these requirements are deemed to comply with evaporative and refueling emission standards.

(e)LNG refueling requirement. Fuel tanks for liquefied natural gas vehicles must meet the hold-time requirements in Section 4.2 of SAE J2343 (incorporated by reference in § 1037.810), as modified by this paragraph (e). All pressures noted are gauge pressure. Vehicles with tanks meeting these requirements are deemed to comply with evaporative and refueling emission standards. The provisions of this paragraph (e) are optional for vehicles produced before January 1, 2020. The hold-time requirements of SAE J2343 apply, with the following clarifications and additions:

(1) Hold time must be at least 120 hours. Use the following procedure to determine hold time for an LNG fuel tank that will be installed on a heavy-duty vehicle:

(i) Prepare the stored (offboard) fuel and the vehicle such that tank pressure after the refueling event stabilizes below 690 kPa.

(ii) Fill the tank to the point of automatic shutoff using a conventional refueling system. This is intended to achieve a net full condition.

(iii) The hold time starts when tank pressure increases to 690 kPa, and ends when the tank first vents for pressure relief. Use good engineering judgment to document the point at which the pressure-relief valve opens.

(iv) Keep the tank at rest away from direct sun with ambient temperatures between (10 and 30) °C throughout the measurement procedure.

(2) Following a complete refueling event as described in paragraph (e)(1) of this section and a short drive, installed tanks may not increase in pressure by more than 9 kPa per hour over a minimum 12 hour interval when parked away from direct sun with ambient temperatures at or below 30 °C. Calculate the allowable pressure gain by multiplying the park time in hours by 9 and rounding to the nearest whole number. Do not include the first hour after engine shutdown, and start the test only when tank pressure is between 345 and 900 kPa.

(3) The standards described in this paragraph (e) apply over the vehicle's useful life as specified in paragraph (f) of this section. The warranty requirements of § 1037.120 also apply for these standards.

(4) You may specify any amount of inspection and maintenance, consistent with good engineering judgment, to ensure that tanks meet the standards in this paragraph (e) during and after the useful life.

(f)Useful life. The evaporative emission standards of this section apply for the full useful life, expressed in service miles or calendar years, whichever comes first. The useful life values for the standards of this section are the same as the values described for evaporative emission standards in 40 CFR 86.1805.

(g)Auxiliary engines and separate fuel systems. The provisions of this paragraph (g) apply for vehicles with auxiliary engines. This includes any engines installed in the final vehicle configuration that contribute no motive power through the vehicle's transmission.

(1) Auxiliary engines and associated fuel-system components must be installed when testing complete vehicles. If the auxiliary engine draws fuel from a separate fuel tank, you must fill the extra fuel tank before the start of diurnal testing as described for the vehicle's main fuel tank. Use good engineering judgment to ensure that any nonmetal portions of the fuel system related to the auxiliary engine have reached stabilized levels of permeation emissions. The auxiliary engine must not operate during the running loss test or any other portion of testing under this section.

(2) For testing with incomplete vehicles, you may omit installation of auxiliary engines and associated fuel-system components as long as those components installed in the final configuration are certified to meet the applicable emission standards for Small SI equipment described in 40 CFR 1054.112 or for Large SI engines in 40 CFR 1048.105. For any fuel-system components that you do not install, your installation instructions must describe this certification requirement.