40 CFR § 1039.245 - How do I determine deterioration factors from exhaust durability testing?

§ 1039.245 How do I determine deterioration factors from exhaust durability testing?

This section describes how to determine deterioration factors, either with an engineering analysis, with pre-existing test data, or with new emission measurements. Apply these deterioration factors to determine whether your engines will meet the duty-cycle emission standards throughout the useful life as described in § 1039.240.

(a) You may ask us to approve deterioration factors for an engine family with established technology based on engineering analysis instead of testing. Engines certified to a NOX + NMHC standard or FEL greater than the Tier 3 NOX + NMHC standard described in appendix I of this part are considered to rely on established technology for gaseous emission control, except that this does not include any engines that use exhaust-gas recirculation or aftertreatment. In most cases, technologies used to meet the Tier 1 and Tier 2 emission standards would be considered to be established technology.

(b) You may ask us to approve deterioration factors for an engine family based on emission measurements from similar highway or nonroad engines if you have already given us these data for certifying the other engines in the same or earlier model years. Use good engineering judgment to decide whether the two engines are similar. We will approve your request if you show us that the emission measurements from other engines reasonably represent in-use deterioration for the engine family for which you have not yet determined deterioration factors.

(c) If you are unable to determine deterioration factors for an engine family under paragraph (a) or (b) of this section, select engines, subsystems, or components for testing. Determine deterioration factors based on service accumulation and related testing to represent the deterioration expected from in-use engines over the full useful life. You must measure emissions from the emission-data engine at least three times with evenly spaced intervals of service accumulation. You may use extrapolation to determine deterioration factors once you have established a trend of changing emissions with age for each pollutant. You may use an engine installed in nonroad equipment to accumulate service hours instead of running the engine only in the laboratory. You may perform maintenance on emission-data engines as described in § 1039.125 and 40 CFR part 1065, subpart E. Use good engineering judgment for all aspects of the effort to establish deterioration factors under this paragraph (c).

(d) Include the following information in your application for certification:

(1) If you use test data from a different engine family, explain why this is appropriate and include all the emission measurements on which you base the deterioration factor.

(2) If you determine your deterioration factors based on engineering analysis, explain why this is appropriate and include a statement that all data, analyses, evaluations, and other information you used are available for our review upon request.

(3) If you do testing to determine deterioration factors, describe the form and extent of service accumulation, including a rationale for selecting the service-accumulation period and the method you use to accumulate hours.

(e) You may alternatively determine and verify deterioration factors based on bench-aged aftertreatment as described in 40 CFR 1036.245 and 1036.246, with the following exceptions:

(1) The minimum required aging for engines as specified in 40 CFR 1036.245(c)(2) is 1,500 hours. Operate the engine for service accumulation using the same sequence of duty cycles that would apply for determining a deterioration factor under paragraph (c) of this section.

(2) Use good engineering judgment to perform verification testing using the procedures of § 1039.515 rather than 40 CFR 1036.555. For PEMS testing, measure emissions as the equipment goes through its normal operation over the course of the day (or shift-day).

(3) Apply infrequent regeneration adjustment factors as specified in § 1039.525 rather than 40 CFR 1036.580.

[69 FR 39213, June 29, 2004, as amended at 72 FR 53131, Sept. 18, 2007; 75 FR 22991, Apr. 30, 2010; 86 FR 34505, June 29, 2021; 88 FR 4659, Jan. 24, 2023]