40 CFR § 1066.110 - Equipment specifications for emission sampling systems.

§ 1066.110 Equipment specifications for emission sampling systems.
Link to an amendment published at 88 FR 4708, Jan. 24, 2023.

(a) This section specifies equipment related to emission testing, other than measurement instruments. This equipment includes dynamometers (described further in subpart C of this part) and various emission-sampling hardware.

(b) The following equipment specifications apply for testing under this part:

(1) Connect a vehicle's exhaust system to any dilution stage as follows:

(i) Minimize lengths of laboratory exhaust tubing. You may use a total length of laboratory exhaust tubing up to 4 m without needing to heat or insulate the tubing. However, you may use a total length of laboratory exhaust tubing up to 10 m, or up to 15 m for samples not involving PM measurement, if you insulate and/or heat the tubing to minimize the temperature difference between the exhaust gas and the whole tubing wall over the course of the emission test. The laboratory exhaust tubing starts at the end of the vehicle's tailpipe and ends at the first sample point or the first dilution point. The laboratory exhaust tubing may include flexible sections, but we recommend that you limit the amount of flexible tubing to the extent practicable. For multiple-tailpipe configurations where the tailpipes combine into a single flow path for emission sampling, the start of the laboratory exhaust tubing may be taken at the last joint where the exhaust flow first becomes a single, combined flow.

(ii) For vehicles above 14,000 pounds GVWR, you may shorten the tailpipe up to the outlet of the last aftertreatment device or silencer, whichever is furthest downstream.

(iii) You may insulate or heat any laboratory exhaust tubing.

(iv) Use laboratory exhaust tubing materials that are smooth-walled and not chemically reactive with exhaust constituents. (For purposes of this paragraph (b)(1), nominally smooth spiral-style and accordion-style flexible tubing are considered to be smooth-walled.) For measurements involving PM, tubing materials must also be electrically conductive. Stainless steel is an acceptable material for any testing. You may use short sections of nonconductive flexible tubing to connect a PM sampling system to the vehicle's tailpipe; use good engineering judgment to limit the amount of nonconductive surface area exposed to the vehicle's exhaust.

(v) We recommend that you use laboratory exhaust tubing that has either a wall thickness of less than 2 mm or is air gap-insulated to minimize temperature differences between the wall and the exhaust.

(vi) You must seal your system to the extent necessary to ensure that any remaining leaks do not affect your ability to demonstrate compliance with the applicable standards. We recommend that you seal all known leaks.

(vii) Electrically ground the entire exhaust system, with the exception of nonconductive flexible tubing, as allowed under paragraph (b)(1)(iv) of this section.

(viii) For vehicles with multiple tailpipes, route the exhaust into a single flow. To ensure mixing of the multiple exhaust streams before emission sampling, we recommend a minimum Reynolds number, Re#, of 4000 for the combined exhaust stream, where Re# is based on the inside diameter of the combined flow at the first sampling point. You may configure the exhaust system with turbulence generators, such as orifice plates or fins, to achieve good mixing; this may be necessary for good mixing if Re# is less than 4000. Re# is defined in 40 CFR 1065.640.

(2) Use equipment specifications in 40 CFR 1065.140 through 40 CFR 1065.190, except as follows:

(i) For PM background measurement, the following provisions apply instead of the analogous provisions in 40 CFR 1065.140(b):

(A) You need not measure PM background for every test. You may apply PM background correction for a single site or multiple sites using a moving-average background value as long as your background PM sample media (e.g., filters) were all made by the same manufacturer from the same material. Use good engineering judgment to determine how many background samples make up the moving average and how frequently to update those values. For example, you might take one background sample per week and average that sample into previous background values, maintaining five observations for each calculated average value. Background sampling time should be representative of the duration of the test interval to which the background correction is applied.

(B) You may sample background PM from the dilution tunnel at any time before or after an emission test using the same sampling system used during the emission test. For this background sampling, the dilution tunnel blower must be turned on, the vehicle must be disconnected from the laboratory exhaust tubing, and the laboratory exhaust tubing must be capped. You may run this PM blank test in combination with the dilute exhaust flow verification (propane check) in 40 CFR 1065.341, as long as the exhaust tubing inlet to the CVS has a filter meeting the requirements of 40 CFR 1065.140(b)(3).

(C) The duration of your background sample may be different than that of the test cycle in which you are applying the background correction, consistent with good engineering judgment.

(D) Your PM background correction may not exceed 5 µg or 5% of the net PM mass expected at the standard, whichever is greater.

(ii) The provisions of 40 CFR 1065.140(d)(2)(iv) do not apply.

(iii) For PM samples, configure dilution systems using the following limits:

(A) Control the dilution air temperature as described in 40 CFR 1065.140(e)(1), except that the temperature may be set to (15 to 52) °C. Use good engineering judgment to control PM sample temperature as required under 40 CFR 1065.140(e)(4).

(B) Apply the provisions of this paragraph (b)(2)(iii)(B) instead of 40 CFR 1065.140(e)(2). Add dilution air to the raw exhaust such that the overall dilution factor of diluted exhaust to raw exhaust, as shown in Eq. 1066.610-2 or 1066.610-3, is within the range of (7:1 to 20:1). Compliance with this dilution factor range may be determined for an individual test interval or as a time-weighted average over the entire duty cycle as determined in Eq. 1066.610-4. The maximum dilution factor limit of 20:1 does not apply for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), since the dilution factor is infinite when the engine is off; however we strongly recommend that you stay under the specified maximum dilution factor limit when the engine is running. For partial-flow sampling systems, determine dilution factor using Eq. 1066.610-3. To determine the overall dilution factor for PM samples utilizing secondary dilution air, multiply the dilution factor from the CVS by the dilution ratio of secondary dilution air to primary diluted exhaust.

(C) You may use a higher target filter face velocity as specified in 40 CFR 1065.170(c)(1)(vi), up to 140 cm/s, if you need to increase filter loading for PM measurement.

(iv) In addition to the allowances in 40 CFR 1065.140(c)(6), you may heat the dilution air as described in paragraph (b)(2)(iii)(A) of this section to prevent or limit aqueous condensation.

(v) If you choose to dilute the exhaust by using a remote mix tee, which dilutes the exhaust at the tailpipe, you may use the following provisions consistent with good engineering judgment, as long as they do not affect your ability to demonstrate compliance with the applicable standards:

(A) You may use smooth-walled flexible tubing (including accordion-style) in the dilution tunnel upstream of locations for flow measurement or gaseous emission measurement.

(B) You may use smooth-walled electrically conductive flexible tubing in the dilution tunnel upstream of the location for PM emission measurements.

(C) All inside surfaces upstream of emission sampling must be made of 300 series stainless steel or polymer-based materials.

(D) Use good engineering judgment to ensure that the materials you choose do not cause significant loss of PM from your sample.

(vi) Paragraph (b)(1)(vi) of this section applies instead of 40 CFR 1065.145(b).

(vii) Vehicles other than HEVs that apply technology involving engine shutdown during idle may apply the sampling provisions of § 1066.501(c).

(c) The following table summarizes the requirements of paragraph (b)(2) of this section:

Table 1 of § 1066.110 - Summary of Equipment Specifications From 40 CFR Part 1065, Subpart B, That Apply for Chassis Testing

40 CFR part 1065
Applicability for chassis testing under this part
40 CFR 1065.140 Use all except as noted:
40 CFR 1065.140(b) applies as described in this section.
Use 40 CFR 1065.140(c)(6), with the additional allowance described in this section.
Do not use 40 CFR 1065.140(d)(2)(iv).
Use 40 CFR 1065.140(e)(1) as described in this section.
Do not use 40 CFR 1065.140(e)(2).
40 CFR 1065.145 Use all except 40 CFR 1065.145(b).
40 CFR 1065.150 Use all.
40 CFR 1065.170 Use all except as noted:
Use 40 CFR 1065.170(c)(1)(vi) as described in this section.
40 CFR 1065.190 Use all.
[79 FR 23823, Apr. 28, 2014, as amended at 81 FR 74196, Oct. 25, 2016]