40 CFR 412.46 - New source performance standards (NSPS).
Any new source subject to this subpart must achieve the following effluent limitations representing the application of NSPS:
(a) For CAFO production areas. There must be no discharge of manure, litter, or process wastewater pollutants into waters of the U.S. from the production area, subject to paragraphs (a)(1) through (a)(3) of this section.
(1) Any CAFO subject to this subpart may request that the Director establish NPDES permit best management practice effluent limitations designed to ensure no discharge of manure, litter, or process wastewater based upon a site-specific evaluation of the CAFO's open surface manure storage structure. The NPDES permit best management practice effluent limitations must address the CAFO's entire production area. In the case of any CAFO using an open surface manure storage structure for which the Director establishes such effluent limitations, “no discharge of manure, litter, or process wastewater pollutants,” as used in this section, means that the storage structure is designed, operated, and maintained in accordance with best management practices established by the Director on a site-specific basis after a technical evaluation of the storage structure. The technical evaluation must address the following elements:
(i) Information to be used in the design of the open manure storage structure including, but not limited to, the following: minimum storage periods for rainy seasons, additional minimum capacity for chronic rainfalls, applicable technical standards that prohibit or otherwise limit land application to frozen, saturated, or snow-covered ground, planned emptying and dewatering schedules consistent with the CAFO's Nutrient Management Plan, additional storage capacity for manure intended to be transferred to another recipient at a later time, and any other factors that would affect the sizing of the open manure storage structure.
(ii) The design of the open manure storage structure as determined by the most recent version of the National Resource Conservation Service's Animal Waste Management (AWM) software. CAFOs may use equivalent design software or procedures as approved by the Director.
(iii) All inputs used in the open manure storage structure design including actual climate data for the previous 30 years consisting of historical average monthly precipitation and evaporation values, the number and types of animals, anticipated animal sizes or weights, any added water and bedding, any other process wastewater, and the size and condition of outside areas exposed to rainfall and contributing runoff to the open manure storage structure.
(iv) The planned minimum period of storage in months including, but not limited to, the factors for designing an open manure storage structure listed in paragraph (a)(1)(i) of this section. Alternatively the CAFO may determine the minimum period of storage by specifying times the storage pond will be emptied consistent with the CAFO's Nutrient Management Plan.
(v) Site-specific predicted design specifications including dimensions of the storage facility, daily manure and wastewater additions, the size and characteristics of the land application areas, and the total calculated storage period in months.
(vi) An evaluation of the adequacy of the designed manure storage structure using the most recent version of the Soil Plant Air Water (SPAW) Hydrology Tool. The evaluation must include all inputs to SPAW including but not limited to daily precipitation, temperature, and evaporation data for the previous 100 years, user-specified soil profiles representative of the CAFO's land application areas, planned crop rotations consistent with the CAFO's Nutrient Management Plan, and the final modeled result of no overflows from the designed open manure storage structure. For those CAFOs where 100 years of local weather data for the CAFO's location is not available, CAFOs may use a simulation with a confidence interval analysis conducted over a period of 100 years. The Director may approve equivalent evaluation and simulation procedures.
(vii) The Director may waive the requirement of (a)(1)(vi) for a site-specific evaluation of the designed manure storage structure and instead authorize a CAFO to use a technical evaluation developed for a class of specific facilities within a specified geographical area.
(viii) Waste management and storage facilities designed, constructed, operated, and maintained consistent with the analysis conducted in paragraphs (a)(1)(i) through (a)(1)(vii) of this section and operated in accordance with the additional measures and records required by § 412.47(a) and (b), will fulfill the requirements of this section.
(ix) The Director has the discretion to request additional information to support a request for effluent limitations based on a site-specific open surface manure storage structure.
(2) The production area must be operated in accordance with the additional measures required by § 412.47(a) and (b).
(3) Provisions for upset/bypass, as provided in 40 CFR 122.41(m)-(n), apply to a new source subject to this provision.
(b) For CAFO land application areas: the CAFO shall attain the same limitations and requirements as § 412.43(b)(1).
(c) The CAFO shall attain the limitations and requirements of this paragraph as of the date of permit coverage.
(d) Any source subject to this subpart that commenced discharging after April 14, 1993, and prior to April 14, 2003, which was a new source subject to the standards specified in § 412.15, revised as of July 1, 2002, must continue to achieve those standards for the applicable time period specified in 40 CFR 122.29(d)(1). Thereafter, the source must achieve the standards specified in § 412.43(a) and (b).
(e) Any source subject to this subpart that commenced discharging after April 14, 2003, and prior to January 20, 2009, which was a new source subject to the standards specified in § 412.46(a) through (d) in the July 1, 2008, edition of 40 CFR part 439, must continue to achieve those standards for the applicable time period specified in 40 CFR 122.29(d)(1).