40 CFR 63.342 - Standards.

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§ 63.342 Standards.

(a)

(1) At all times, each owner or operator must operate and maintain any affected source subject to the requirements of this subpart, including associated air pollution control equipment and monitoring equipment, in a manner consistent with safety and good air pollution control practices for minimizing emissions. The general duty to minimize emissions does not require the owner or operator to make any further efforts to reduce emissions if levels required by this standard have been achieved. Determination of whether such operation and maintenance procedures are being used will be based on information available to the Administrator which may include, but is not limited to, monitoring results, review of operation and maintenance procedures, review of operation and maintenance records, and inspection of the source.

(2) Each owner or operator of an affected source subject to the provisions of this subpart shall comply with these requirements in this section on and after the compliance dates specified in § 63.343(a). All affected sources are regulated by applying maximum achievable control technology.

(b) Applicability of emission limitations.

(1) The emission limitations in this section apply during tank operation as defined in § 63.341, and during periods of startup and shutdown as these are routine occurrences for affected sources subject to this subpart. In response to an action to enforce the standards set forth in this subpart, the owner or operator may assert a defense to a claim for civil penalties for violations of such standards that are caused by a malfunction, as defined in 40 CFR 63.2. Appropriate penalties may be assessed, however, if the owner or operator fails to meet the burden of proving all the requirements in the affirmative defense. The affirmative defense shall not be available for claims for injunctive relief.

(i) To establish the affirmative defense in any action to enforce such a standard, the owner or operator must timely meet the reporting requirements of paragraph (b)(1)(ii) of this section, and must prove by a preponderance of evidence that:

(A) The violation was caused by a sudden, infrequent, and unavoidable failure of air pollution control equipment, process equipment, or a process to operate in a normal and usual manner; and could not have been prevented through careful planning, proper design or better operation and maintenance practices; and did not stem from any activity or event that could have been foreseen and avoided, or planned for; and was not part of a recurring pattern indicative of inadequate design, operation, or maintenance; and

(B) Repairs were made as expeditiously as possible when exceeded violation occurred. Off-shift and overtime labor were used, to the extent practicable to make these repairs; and

(C) The frequency, amount and duration of the violation (including any bypass) were minimized to the maximum extent practicable; and

(D) If the violation resulted from a bypass of control equipment or a process, then the bypass was unavoidable to prevent loss of life, personal injury, or severe property damage; and

(E) All possible steps were taken to minimize the impact of the violation on ambient air quality, the environment, and human health; and

(F) All emissions monitoring and control systems were kept in operation if at all possible, consistent with safety and good air pollution control practices; and

(G) All of the actions in response to the violation were documented by properly signed, contemporaneous operating logs; and

(H) At all times, the affected sources were operated in a manner consistent with good practices for minimizing emissions; and

(I) A written root cause analysis was prepared, the purpose of which is to determine, correct, and eliminate the primary causes of the malfunction and the excess emissions resulting from the malfunction event at issue. The analysis shall also specify, using the best monitoring methods and engineering judgment, the amount of excess emissions that were the result of the malfunction.

(ii) Report. The owner or operator seeking to assert an affirmative defense shall submit a written report to the Administrator with all necessary supporting documentation, that it has met the requirements set forth in paragraph (i) of this section. This affirmative defense report shall be included in the first periodic compliance, deviation report or excess emission report otherwise required after the initial occurrence of the violation of the relevant standard (which may be the end of any applicable averaging period). If such compliance, deviation report or excess emission report is due less than 45 days after the initial occurrence of the violation, the affirmation defense report may be included in the second compliance, deviation report or excess emission report due after the initial occurrence of the violation of the relevant standard.

(2) If an owner or operator is controlling a group of tanks with a common add-on air pollution control device, the emission limitations of paragraphs (c), (d), and (e) of this section apply whenever any one affected source is operated. The emission limitation that applies to the group of affected sources is:

(i) The emission limitation identified in paragraphs (c), (d), and (e) of this section if the affected sources are performing the same type of operation (e.g., hard chromium electroplating), are subject to the same emission limitation, and are not controlled by an add-on air pollution control device also controlling nonaffected sources;

(ii) The emission limitation calculated according to § 63.344(e)(3) if affected sources are performing the same type of operation, are subject to the same emission limitation, and are controlled with an add-on air pollution control device that is also controlling nonaffected sources; and

(iii) The emission limitation calculated according to § 63.344(e)(4) if affected sources are performing different types of operations, or affected sources are performing the same operations but subject to different emission limitations, and are controlled with an add-on air pollution control device that may also be controlling emissions from nonaffected sources.

(c)

(1) Standards for open surface hard chromium electroplating tanks. During tank operation, each owner or operator of an existing, new, or reconstructed affected source shall control chromium emissions discharged to the atmosphere from that affected source by either:

(i) Not allowing the concentration of total chromium in the exhaust gas stream discharged to the atmosphere to exceed 0.011 milligrams of total chromium per dry standard cubic meter (mg/dscm) of ventilation air (4.8 × 10−6 grains per dry standard cubic foot (gr/dscf)) for all open surface hard chromium electroplating tanks that are existing affected sources and are located at large hard chromium electroplating facilities; or

(ii) Not allowing the concentration of total chromium in the exhaust gas stream discharged to the atmosphere to exceed 0.015 mg/dscm (6.6 × 10−6 gr/dscf) for all open surface hard chromium electroplating tanks that are existing affected sources and are located at small, hard chromium electroplating facilities; or

(iii) If a chemical fume suppressant containing a wetting agent is used, not allowing the surface tension of the electroplating or anodizing bath contained within the affected tank to exceed 40 dynes per centimeter (dynes/cm) (2.8 × 10−3 pound-force per foot (lbf/ft)), as measured by a stalagmometer, or 33 dynes/cm (2.3 × 10−3 lbf/ft), as measured by a tensiometer at any time during tank operation; or

(iv) Not allowing the concentration of total chromium in the exhaust gas stream discharged to the atmosphere to exceed 0.006 mg/dscm of ventilation air (2.6 × 10−6 gr/dscf) for all open surface hard chromium electroplating tanks that are new affected sources; or

(v) After September 21, 2015, the owner or operator of an affected open surface hard chromium electroplating tank shall not add PFOS-based fume suppressants to any affected open surface hard chromium electroplating tank.

(2) Standards for enclosed hard chromium electroplating tanks. During tank operation, each owner or operator of an existing, new, or reconstructed affected source shall control chromium emissions discharged to the atmosphere from that affected source by either:

(i) Not allowing the concentration of total chromium in the exhaust gas stream discharged to the atmosphere to exceed 0.011 mg/dscm of ventilation air (4.8 × 10−6 gr/dscf) for all enclosed hard chromium electroplating tanks that are existing affected sources and are located at large hard chromium electroplating facilities; or

(ii) Not allowing the concentration of total chromium in the exhaust gas stream discharged to the atmosphere to exceed 0.015 mg/dscm (6.6 × 10−6 gr/dscf) for all enclosed hard chromium electroplating tanks that are existing affected sources and are located at small, hard chromium electroplating facilities; or

(iii) If a chemical fume suppressant containing a wetting agent is used, not allowing the surface tension of the electroplating or anodizing bath contained within the affected tank to exceed 40 dynes/cm (2.8 × 10−3 lbf/ft), as measured by a stalagmometer, or 33 dynes/cm (2.3 × 10−3 lbf/ft), as measured by a tensiometer at any time during tank operation; or

(iv) Not allowing the mass rate of total chromium in the exhaust gas stream discharged to the atmosphere to exceed the maximum allowable mass emission rate determined by using the calculation procedure in § 63.344(f)(1)(i) for all enclosed hard chromium electroplating tanks that are existing affected sources and are located at large hard chromium electroplating facilities; or

(v) Not allowing the mass rate of total chromium in the exhaust gas stream discharged to the atmosphere to exceed the maximum allowable mass emission rate determined by using the calculation procedure in § 63.344(f)(1)(ii) if the enclosed hard chromium electroplating tank is an existing affected source and is located at a small, hard chromium electroplating facility.

(vi) Not allowing the concentration of total chromium in the exhaust gas stream discharged to the atmosphere to exceed 0.006 mg/dscm of ventilation air (2.6 × 10−6 gr/dscf) for all enclosed hard chromium electroplating tanks that are new affected sources; or

(vii) Not allowing the mass rate of total chromium in the exhaust gas stream discharged to the atmosphere to exceed the maximum allowable mass emission rate determined by using the calculation procedure in § 63.344(f)(1)(iii) if the enclosed hard chromium electroplating tank is a new affected source.

(viii) After September 21, 2015, the owner or operator of an affected enclosed hard chromium electroplating tank shall not add PFOS-based fume suppressants to any affected enclosed hard chromium electroplating tank.

(3)

(i) An owner or operator may demonstrate the size of a hard chromium electroplating facility through the definitions in § 63.341(a). Alternatively, an owner or operator of a facility with a maximum cumulative potential rectifier capacity of 60 million amp-hr/yr or more may be considered small if the actual cumulative rectifier capacity is less than 60 million amp-hr/yr as demonstrated using the following procedures:

(A) If records show that the facility's previous annual actual rectifier capacity was less than 60 million amp-hr/yr, by using nonresettable ampere-hr meters and keeping monthly records of actual ampere-hr usage for each 12-month rolling period following the compliance date in accordance with § 63.346(b)(12). The actual cumulative rectifier capacity for the previous 12-month rolling period shall be tabulated monthly by adding the capacity for the current month to the capacities for the previous 11 months; or

(B) By accepting a federally-enforceable limit on the maximum cumulative potential rectifier capacity of a hard chromium electroplating facility and by maintaining monthly records in accordance with § 63.346(b)(12) to demonstrate that the limit has not been exceeded. The actual cumulative rectifier capacity for the previous 12-month rolling period shall be tabulated monthly by adding the capacity for the current month to the capacities for the previous 11 months.

(ii) Once the monthly records required to be kept by § 63.346(b)(12) and by this paragraph (c)(3)(ii) show that the actual cumulative rectifier capacity over the previous 12-month rolling period corresponds to the large designation, the owner or operator is subject to the emission limitation identified in paragraph (c)(1)(i), (iii), (c)(2)(i), (iii), or (iv) of this section, in accordance with the compliance schedule of § 63.343(a)(5).

(d) Standards for decorative chromium electroplating tanks using a chromic acid bath and chromium anodizing tanks. During tank operation, each owner or operator of an existing, new, or reconstructed affected source shall control chromium emissions discharged to the atmosphere from that affected source by either:

(1) Not allowing the concentration of total chromium in the exhaust gas stream discharged to the atmosphere to exceed 0.007 mg/dscm (3.1 × 10−6 gr/dscf) for all existing decorative chromium electroplating tanks using a chromic acid bath and all existing chromium anodizing tanks; or

(2) Not allowing the concentration of total chromium in the exhaust gas stream discharged to the atmosphere to exceed 0.006 mg/dscm (2.6 × 10−6 gr/dscf) for all new or reconstructed decorative chromium electroplating tanks using a chromic acid bath and all new or reconstructed chromium anodizing tanks; or

(3) If a chemical fume suppressant containing a wetting agent is used, not allowing the surface tension of the electroplating or anodizing bath contained within the affected tank to exceed 40 dynes/cm (2.8 × 10−3 lbf/ft), as measured by a stalagmometer or 33 dynes/cm (2.3 × 10−3 lbf/ft), as measured by a tensiometer at any time during tank operation, for all existing, new, or reconstructed decorative chromium electroplating tanks using a chromic acid bath and all existing, new, or reconstructed chromium anodizing tanks; or

(4) After September 21, 2015, the owner or operator of an affected decorative chromium electroplating tank or an affected chromium anodizing tank shall not add PFOS-based fume suppressants to any affected decorative chromium electroplating tank or chromium anodizing tank.

(e) Standards for decorative chromium electroplating tanks using a trivalent chromium bath.

(1) Each owner or operator of an existing, new, or reconstructed decorative chromium electroplating tank that uses a trivalent chromium bath that incorporates a wetting agent as a bath ingredient is subject to the recordkeeping and reporting requirements of §§ 63.346(b)(14) and 63.347(i), but are not subject to the work practice requirements of paragraph (f) of this section, or the continuous compliance monitoring requirements in § 63.343(c). The wetting agent must be an ingredient in the trivalent chromium bath components purchased as a package.

(2) After September 21, 2015, the owner or operator of an affected decorative chromium electroplating tank using a trivalent chromium bath shall not add PFOS-based fume suppressants to any affected decorative chromium electroplating tank.

(3) Each owner or operator of an existing, new, or reconstructed decorative chromium electroplating tank that uses a trivalent chromium bath that does not incorporate a wetting agent as a bath ingredient is subject to the standards of paragraph (d) of this section.

(4) Each owner or operator of an existing, new, or reconstructed decorative chromium electroplating tank that had been using a trivalent chromium bath that incorporated a wetting agent and ceases using this type of bath must fulfill the reporting requirements of § 63.347(i)(3) and comply with the applicable emission limitation within the timeframe specified in § 63.343(a)(7).

(f) Operation and maintenance practices. All owners or operators subject to the standards in paragraphs (c) and (d) of this section are subject to these operation and maintenance practices.

(1)

(i) At all times, including periods of startup, shutdown, and malfunction, owners or operators shall operate and maintain any affected source, including associated air pollution control devices and monitoring equipment, in a manner consistent with good air pollution control practices.

(ii) Malfunctions shall be corrected as soon as practicable after their occurrence.

(iii) Operation and maintenance requirements established pursuant to section 112 of the Act are enforceable independent of emissions limitations or other requirements in relevant standards.

(2)

(i) Determination of whether acceptable operation and maintenance procedures are being used will be based on information available to the Administrator, which may include, but is not limited to, monitoring results; review of the operation and maintenance plan, procedures, and records; and inspection of the source.

(ii) Based on the results of a determination made under paragraph (f)(2)(i) of this section, the Administrator may require that an owner or operator of an affected source make changes to the operation and maintenance plan required by paragraph (f)(3) of this section for that source. Revisions may be required if the Administrator finds that the plan:

(A) Does not address a malfunction that has occurred;

(B) Fails to provide for the proper operation of the affected source, the air pollution control techniques, or the control system and process monitoring equipment during a malfunction in a manner consistent with good air pollution control practices; or

(C) Does not provide adequate procedures for correcting malfunctioning process equipment, air pollution control techniques, or monitoring equipment as quickly as practicable.

(3) Operation and maintenance plan.

(i) The owner or operator of an affected source subject to paragraph (f) of this section shall prepare an operation and maintenance plan no later than the compliance date, except for hard chromium electroplaters and the chromium anodizing operations in California which have until January 25, 1998. The plan shall be incorporated by reference into the source's title V permit, if and when a title V permit is required. The plan shall include the following elements:

(A) The plan shall specify the operation and maintenance criteria for the affected source, the add-on air pollution control device (if such a device is used to comply with the emission limits), and the process and control system monitoring equipment, and shall include a standardized checklist to document the operation and maintenance of this equipment;

(B) For sources using an add-on control device or monitoring equipment to comply with this subpart, the plan shall incorporate the operation and maintenance practices for that device or monitoring equipment, as identified in Table 1 of this section, if the specific equipment used is identified in Table 1 of this section;

(C) If the specific equipment used is not identified in Table 1 of this section, the plan shall incorporate proposed operation and maintenance practices. These proposed operation and maintenance practices shall be submitted for approval as part of the submittal required under § 63.343(d);

(D) The plan shall specify procedures to be followed to ensure that equipment or process malfunctions due to poor maintenance or other preventable conditions do not occur; and

(E) The plan shall include a systematic procedure for identifying malfunctions of process equipment, add-on air pollution control devices, and process and control system monitoring equipment and for implementing corrective actions to address such malfunctions.

(F) The plan shall include housekeeping procedures, as specified in Table 2 of this section.

(ii) If the operation and maintenance plan fails to address or inadequately addresses an event that meets the characteristics of a malfunction at the time the plan is initially developed, the owner or operator shall revise the operation and maintenance plan within 45 days after such an event occurs. The revised plan shall include procedures for operating and maintaining the process equipment, add-on air pollution control device, or monitoring equipment during similar malfunction events, and a program for corrective action for such events.

(iii) Recordkeeping associated with the operation and maintenance plan is identified in § 63.346(b). Reporting associated with the operation and maintenance plan is identified in § 63.347 (g) and (h) and paragraph (f)(3)(iv) of this section.

(iv) If actions taken by the owner or operator during periods of malfunction are inconsistent with the procedures specified in the operation and maintenance plan required by paragraph (f)(3)(i) of this section, the owner or operator shall record the actions taken for that event and shall report by phone such actions within 2 working days after commencing actions inconsistent with the plan. This report shall be followed by a letter within 7 working days after the end of the event, unless the owner or operator makes alternative reporting arrangements, in advance, with the Administrator.

(v) The owner or operator shall keep the written operation and maintenance plan on record after it is developed to be made available for inspection, upon request, by the Administrator for the life of the affected source or until the source is no longer subject to the provisions of this subpart. In addition, if the operation and maintenance plan is revised, the owner or operator shall keep previous (i.e., superseded) versions of the operation and maintenance plan on record to be made available for inspection, upon request, by the Administrator for a period of 5 years after each revision to the plan.

(vi) To satisfy the requirements of paragraph (f)(3) of this section, the owner or operator may use applicable standard operating procedure (SOP) manuals, Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) plans, or other existing plans, provided the alternative plans meet the requirements of this section.

(g) The standards in this section that apply to chromic acid baths shall not be met by using a reducing agent to change the form of chromium from hexavalent to trivalent.

Table 1 to § 63.342 - Summary of Operation and Maintenance Practices

Control technique Operation and maintenance practices Frequency
Composite mesh-pad (CMP) system 1. Visually inspect device to ensure there is proper drainage, no chronic acid buildup on the pads, and no evidence of chemical attack on the structural integrity of the device 1. 1/quarter.
2. Visually inspect back portion of the mesh pad closest to the fan to ensure there is no breakthrough of chromic acid mist 2. 1/quarter.
3. Visually inspect ductwork from tank to the control device to ensure there are no leaks 3. 1/quarter.
4. Perform washdown of the composite mesh-pads in accordance with manufacturers recommendations 4. Per manufacturer.
Packed-bed scrubber (PSB) 1. Visually inspect device to ensure there is proper drainage, no chromic acid buildup on the packed beds, and no evidence of chemical attack on the structural integrity of the device 1. 1/quarter.
2. Visually inspect back portion of the chevron blade mist eliminator to ensure that it is dry and there is no breakthrough of chromic acid mist 2. 1/quarter.
3. Same as number 3 above 3. 1/quarter.
4. Add fresh makeup water to the top of the packed bed a b 4. Whenever makeup is added.
PBS/CMP system 1. Same as for CMP system 1. 1/quarter.
2. Same as for CMP system 2. 1/quarter.
3. Same as for CMP system 3. 1/quarter.
4. Same as for CMP system 4. Per manufacturer.
Fiber-bed mist eliminator c 1. Visually inspect fiber-bed unit and prefiltering device to ensure there is proper drainage, no chromic acid buildup in the units, and no evidence of chemical attack on the structural integrity of the devices 1. 1/quarter.
2. Visually inspect ductwork from tank or tanks to the control device to ensure there are no leaks 2. 1/quarter.
3. Perform washdown of fiber elements in accordance with manufacturers recommendations 3. Per manufacturer.
Air pollution control device (APCD) not listed in rule To be proposed by the source for approval by the Administrator To be proposed by the source for approval by the Administrator.
Monitoring Equipment
Pitot tube Backflush with water, or remove from the duct and rinse with fresh water. Replace in the duct and rotate 180 degrees to ensure that the same zero reading is obtained. Check pitot tube ends for damage. Replace pitot tube if cracked or fatigued 1/quarter.
Stalagmometer Follow manufacturers recommendations

a If greater than 50 percent of the scrubber water is drained (e.g., for maintenance purposes), makeup water may be added to the scrubber basin.

b For horizontal-flow scrubbers, top is defined as the section of the unit directly above the packing media such that the makeup water would flow perpendicular to the air flow through the packing. For vertical-flow units, the top is defined as the area downstream of the packing material such that the makeup water would flow countercurrent to the air flow through the unit.

c Work practice standards for the control device installed upstream of the fiber-bed mist eliminator to prevent plugging do not apply as long as the work practice standards for the fiber-bed unit are followed.

Table 2 to § 63.342 - Housekeeping Practices

For You must: At this minimum frequency
1. Any substance used in an affected chromium electroplating or chromium anodizing tank that contains hexavalent chromium (a) Store the substance in a closed container in an enclosed storage area or building; AND
(b) Use a closed container when transporting the substance from the enclosed storage area
At all times, except when transferring the substance to and from the container.
Whenever transporting substance, except when transferring the substance to and from the container.
2. Each affected tank, to minimize spills of bath solution that result from dragout. Note: this measure does not require the return of contaminated bath solution to the tank. This requirement applies only as the parts are removed from the tank. Once away from the tank area, any spilled solution must be handled in accordance with Item 4 of these housekeeping measures (a) Install drip trays that collect and return to the tank any bath solution that drips or drains from parts as the parts are removed from the tank; OR
(b) Contain and return to the tank any bath solution that drains or drips from parts as the parts are removed from the tank; OR
(c) Collect and treat in an onsite wastewater treatment plant any bath solution that drains or drips from parts as the parts are removed from the tank
Prior to operating the tank.
Whenever removing parts from an affected tank.
Whenever removing parts from an affected tank.
3. Each spraying operation for removing excess chromic acid from parts removed from, and occurring over, an affected tank Install a splash guard to minimize overspray during spraying operations and to ensure that any hexavalent chromium laden liquid captured by the splash guard is returned to the affected chromium electroplating or anodizing tank Prior to any such spraying operation.
4. Each operation that involves the handling or use of any substance used in an affected chromium electroplating or chromium anodizing tank that contains hexavalent chromium Begin clean up, or otherwise contain, all spills of the substance. Note: substances that fall or flow into drip trays, pans, sumps, or other containment areas are not considered spills Within 1 hour of the spill.
5. Surfaces within the enclosed storage area, open floor area, walkways around affected tanks contaminated with hexavalent chromium from an affected chromium electroplating or chromium anodizing tank (a) Clean the surfaces using one or more of the following methods: HEPA vacuuming; Hand-wiping with a damp cloth; Wet mopping; Hose down or rinse with potable water that is collected in a wastewater collection system; Other cleaning method approved by the permitting authority; OR
(b) Apply a non-toxic chemical dust suppressant to the surfaces
At least once every 7 days if one or more chromium electroplating or chromium anodizing tanks were used, or at least after every 40 hours of operating time of one or more affection chromium electroplating or chromium anodizing tank, whichever is later.
According to manufacturer's recommendations.
6. All buffing, grinding, or polishing operations that are located in the same room as chromium electroplating or chromium anodizing operations Separate the operation from any affected electroplating or anodizing operation by installing a physical barrier; the barrier may take the form of plastic strip curtains Prior to beginning the buffing, grinding, or polishing operation.
7. All chromium or chromium-containing wastes generated from housekeeping activities Store, dispose, recover, or recycle the wastes using practices that do not lead to fugitive dust and in accordance with hazardous waste requirements At all times.
[60 FR 4963, Jan. 25, 1995; 60 FR 33122, June 27, 1995, as amended at 61 FR 27787, June 3, 1996; 62 FR 42920, Aug. 11, 1997; 68 FR 37347, June 23, 2003; 69 FR 42894, July 19, 2004; 71 FR 20456, Apr. 20, 2006; 77 FR 58243, Sept. 19, 2012]

This is a list of United States Code sections, Statutes at Large, Public Laws, and Presidential Documents, which provide rulemaking authority for this CFR Part.

This list is taken from the Parallel Table of Authorities and Rules provided by GPO [Government Printing Office].

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United States Code

Title 40 published on 2015-07-01

The following are ALL rules, proposed rules, and notices (chronologically) published in the Federal Register relating to 40 CFR Part 63 after this date.

  • 2015-12-07; vol. 80 # 234 - Monday, December 7, 2015
    1. 80 FR 76152 - National Emission Standards for Aerospace Manufacturing and Rework Facilities Risk and Technology Review
      GPO FDSys XML | Text
      ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
      Final rule.
      This final action is effective on December 7, 2015.
      40 CFR Part 63