# 40 CFR § 63.459 - Alternative standards.

§ 63.459 Alternative standards.

(a) Flint River Mill. The owner or operator of the pulping system using the kraft process at the manufacturing facility, commonly called Weyerhaeuser Company Flint River Operations, at Old Stagecoach Road, Oglethorpe, Georgia, (hereafter the Site) shall comply with all provisions of this subpart, except as specified in paragraphs (a)(1) through (a)(5) of this section.

(1) The owner or operator of the pulping system is not required to control total HAP emissions from equipment systems specified in paragraphs (a)(1)(i) and (a)(1)(ii) if the owner or operator complies with paragraphs (a)(2) through (a)(5) of this section.

(i) The brownstock diffusion washer vent and first stage brownstock diffusion washer filtrate tank vent in the pulp washing system specified in § 63.443(a)(1)(iii).

(ii) The oxygen delignification system specified in § 63.443(a)(1)(v).

(2) The owner or operator of the pulping system shall control total HAP emissions from equipment systems listed in paragraphs (a)(2)(i) through (a)(2)(ix) of this section as specified in § 63.443(c) and (d) of this subpart no later than April 16, 2002.

(i) The weak liquor storage tank;

(ii) The boilout tank;

(iii) The utility tank;

(vii) The precipitator make down tanks numbers one, two and three;

(viii) The salt cake mix tank; and

(ix) The NaSH storage tank.

(3) The owner and operator of the pulping system shall operate the Isothermal Cooking system at the site while pulp is being produced in the continuous digester at any time after April 16, 2002.

(i) The owner or operator shall monitor the following parameters to demonstrate that isothermal cooking is in operation:

(A) Continuous digester dilution factor; and

(B) The difference between the continuous digester vapor zone temperature and the continuous digester extraction header temperature.

(ii) The isothermal cooking system shall be in operation when the continuous digester dilution factor and the temperature difference between the continuous digester vapor zone temperature and the continuous digester extraction header temperature are maintained as set forth in Table 2:

Table 2 to Subpart S - Isothermal Cooking System Operational Values

Parameter Instrument number Limit Units
Digester Dilution Factor K1DILFAC >0.0 None
Difference in Digester Vapor Zone Temperature and Digester 03TI0311 <10 Degrees F.

(iii) The owner or operator shall certify annually the operational status of the isothermal cooking system.

(4) [Reserved]

(5) Definitions. All descriptions and references to equipment and emission unit ID numbers refer to equipment at the Site. All terms used in this paragraph shall have the meaning given them in this part and this paragraph. For the purposes of this paragraph only the following additional definitions apply:

Boilout tank means the tank that provides tank storage capacity for recovery of black liquor spills and evaporator water washes for return to the evaporators (emission unit ID No. U606);

Brownstock diffusion washer means the equipment used to wash pulp from the surge chests to further reduce lignin carryover in the pulp;

Continuous digester means the digester system used to chemically and thermally remove the lignin binding the wood chips to produce individual pulp fibers (emission unit ID No. P300);

Fifty percent solids black liquor storage tank means the tank used to store intermediate black liquor prior to final evaporation in the 1A, 1B, and 1C Concentrators (emission unit ID No. U605);

First stage brownstock diffusion washer means the equipment that receives and stores filtrate from the first stage of washing for return to the pressure diffusion washer;

Isothermal cooking system means the 1995-1996 modernization of brownstock pulping process including conversion of the Kamyr continuous vapor phase digester to an extended delignification unit and changes in the knotting, screening, and oxygen stage systems:

NaSH storage tank means the tank used to store sodium hydrosulfite solution prior to use as make-up to the liquor system

North sixty-seven percent solids black liquor storage tank means one of two tanks used to store black liquor prior to burning in the Recovery Boiler for chemical recovery (emission unit ID No. U501);

Precipitator make down tank numbers one, two and three mean tanks used to mix collected particulate from electrostatic precipitator chamber number one with 67% black liquor for recycle to chemical recovery in the Recovery Boiler (emission unit ID Nos. U504, U505 and U506);

Salt cake mix tank means the tank used to mix collected particulate from economizer hoppers with black liquor for recycle to chemical recovery in the Recovery Boiler (emission unit ID No. U503);

South sixty-seven percent solids black liquor storage tank means one of two tanks used to store black liquor prior to burning in the Recovery Boiler for chemical recovery (emission unit ID No. U502);

Utility tank means the tank used to store fifty percent liquor and, during black liquor tank inspections and repairs, to serve as a backup liquor storage tank (emission unit ID No. U611);

Weak gas system means high volume, low concentration or HVLC system as defined in § 63.441; and

Weak liquor storage tank means the tank that provide surge capacity for weak black liquor from digesting prior to feed to multiple effect evaporators (emission unit ID No. U610).

(b) Tomahawk Wisconsin Mill -

(1) Applicability.

(i) The provisions of this paragraph (b) apply to the owner or operator of the stand-alone semi-chemical pulp and paper mill located at N9090 County Road E in Tomahawk, Wisconsin, referred to as the Tomahawk Mill.

(ii) The owner or operator is not required to comply with the provisions of this paragraph (b) if the owner and operator chooses to comply with the otherwise applicable sections of this subpart and provides the EPA with notice.

(iii) If the owner or operator chooses to comply with the provisions of this paragraph (b) the owner or operator shall comply with all applicable provisions of this part, including this subpart, except the following:

(B) Section 63.443(c); and

(2) Collection and routing of HAP emissions.

(i) The owner or operator shall collect the total HAP emissions from each LVHC system.

(ii) Each LVHC system shall be enclosed and the HAP emissions shall be vented into a closed-vent system. The enclosures and closed-vent system shall meet requirements specified in paragraph (b)(6) of this section.

(iii) The HAP emissions shall be routed as follows:

(A) The HAP emissions collected in the closed-vent system from the digester system shall be routed through the primary indirect contact condenser, secondary indirect contact condenser, and evaporator indirect contact condenser; and

(B) The HAP emissions collected in the closed-vent system from the evaporator system and foul condensate standpipe shall be routed through the evaporator indirect contact condenser.

(3) Collection and routing of pulping process condensates.

(i) The owner or operator shall collect the pulping process condensates from the following equipment systems:

(A) Primary indirect contact condenser;

(B) Secondary indirect contact condenser; and

(C) Evaporator indirect contact condenser.

(ii) The collected pulping process condensates shall be conveyed in a closed collection system that is designed and operated to meet the requirements specified in paragraph (b)(7) of this section.

(iii) The collected pulping process condensates shall be routed in the closed collection system to the wastewater treatment plant anaerobic basins for biodegradation.

(iv) The pulping process condensates shall be discharged into the wastewater treatment plant anaerobic basins below the liquid surface of the wastewater treatment plant anaerobic basins.

(4) HAP destruction efficiency requirements of the wastewater treatment plant.

(i) The owner or operator shall achieve a destruction efficiency of at least one pound of HAPs per ton of ODP by biodegradation in the wastewater treatment plant.

(ii) The following calculation shall be performed to determine the HAP destruction efficiency by biodegradation in the wastewater treatment plant:

${\mathrm{HAP}}_{d}=\frac{\left[\left({\mathrm{RME}}_{\mathrm{fr}}×{\mathrm{RME}}_{c}\right)+\left({\mathrm{PPC}}_{\mathrm{fr}}×{\mathrm{PPC}}_{c}\right)-\left({\mathrm{ABD}}_{\mathrm{fr}}×{\mathrm{ABD}}_{c}\right)\right]×8.34}{{\mathrm{ODP}}_{r}}$

Where:
HAPd = HAP destruction efficiency of wastewater treatment plant (pounds of HAPs per ton of ODP);
RMEfr = flow rate of raw mill effluent (millions of gallons per day);
RMEc = HAP concentration of raw mill effluent (milligrams per liter);
PPCfr = flow rate of pulping process condensates (millions of gallons per day);
PPCc = HAP concentration of pulping process condensates (milligrams per liter);
ABDfr = flow rate of anaerobic basin discharge (millions of gallons per day);
ABDc = HAP concentration of anaerobic basin discharge (milligrams per liter); and
ODPr = rate of production of oven dried pulp (tons per day).

(5) Monitoring requirements and parameter ranges.

(i) The owner or operator shall install, calibrate, operate, and maintain according to the manufacturer's specifications a continuous monitoring system (CMS, as defined in § 63.2), using a continuous recorder, to monitor the following parameters:

(A) Evaporator indirect contact condenser vent temperature;

(C) Wastewater treatment plant effluent flow rate; and

(D) Production rate of ODP.

(ii) The owner or operator shall additionally monitor, on a daily basis, in each of the four anaerobic basins, the ratio of volatile acid to alkalinity (VA/A ratio). The owner or operator shall use the test methods identified for determining acidity and alkalinity as specified in 40 CFR 136.3, Table 1B.

(iii) The temperature of the evaporator indirect contact condenser vent shall be maintained at or below 140 °F on a continuous basis.

(iv) The VA/A ratio in each of the four anaerobic basins shall be maintained at or below 0.5 on a continuous basis.

(A) The owner or operator shall measure the methanol concentration of the outfall of any basin, using NCASI Method DI/MEOH 94.03 (incorporated by reference, see § 63.14), when the VA/A ratio of that basin exceeds the following:

(1) 0.38, or

(2) The highest VA/A ratio at which the outfall of any basin has previously measured non-detect for methanol, using NCASI Method DI/MEOH 94.03 (incorporated by reference, see § 63.14).

(B) If the outfall of that basin measures detect for methanol, the owner or operator shall verify compliance with the emission standard specified in paragraph (b)(4) of this section by conducting a performance test pursuant to the requirements specified in paragraph (b)(8) of this section.

(v) The owner or operator may seek to establish or reestablish the parameter ranges, and/or the parameters required to be monitored as provided in paragraphs (b)(5)(i) through (v) of this section, by following the provisions of § 63.453(n)(1) through (4).

(6) Standards and monitoring requirements for each enclosure and closed-vent system.

(i) The owner or operator shall comply with the design and operational requirements specified in paragraphs (b)(6)(ii) through (iv) of this section, and the monitoring requirements of paragraphs (b)(6)(v) through (x) of this section for each enclosure and closed-vent system used for collecting and routing of HAP emissions as specified in paragraph (b)(2) of this section.

(ii) Each enclosure shall be maintained at negative pressure at each enclosure or hood opening as demonstrated by the procedures specified in § 63.457(e). Each enclosure or hood opening closed during the initial performance test shall be maintained in the same closed and sealed position as during the performance test at all times except when necessary to use the opening for sampling, inspection, maintenance, or repairs.

(iii) Each component of the closed-vent system that is operated at positive pressure shall be designed for and operated with no detectable leaks as indicated by an instrument reading of less than 500 parts per million by volume above background, as measured by the procedures specified in § 63.457(d).

(iv) Each bypass line in the closed-vent system that could divert vent streams containing HAPs to the atmosphere without meeting the routing requirements specified in paragraph (b)(2) of this section shall comply with either of the following requirements:

(A) On each bypass line, the owner or operator shall install, calibrate, maintain, and operate according to the manufacturer's specifications a flow indicator that provides a record of the presence of gas stream flow in the bypass line at least once every 15 minutes. The flow indicator shall be installed in the bypass line in such a way as to indicate flow in the bypass line; or

(B) For bypass line valves that are not computer controlled, the owner or operator shall maintain the bypass line valve in the closed position with a car seal or seal placed on the valve or closure mechanism in such a way that the valve or closure mechanism cannot be opened without breaking the seal.

(v) For each enclosure opening, the owner or operator shall perform, at least once every 30 days, a visual inspection of the closure mechanism specified in paragraph (b)(6)(ii) of this section to ensure the opening is maintained in the closed position and sealed.

(vi) For each closed-vent system required by paragraph (b)(2) of this section, the owner or operator shall perform a visual inspection every 30 days and at other times as requested by the Administrator. The visual inspection shall include inspection of ductwork, piping, enclosures, and connections to covers for visible evidence of defects.

(vii) For positive pressure closed-vent systems, or portions of closed-vent systems, the owner or operator shall demonstrate no detectable leaks as specified in paragraph (b)(6)(iii) of this section, measured initially and annually by the procedures in § 63.457(d).

(viii) For each enclosure that is maintained at negative pressure, the owner or operator shall demonstrate initially and annually that it is maintained at negative pressure as specified in § 63.457(e).

(ix) For each valve or closure mechanism as specified in paragraph (b)(6)(iv)(B) of this section, the owner or operator shall perform an inspection at least once every 30 days to ensure that the valve is maintained in the closed position and the emissions point gas stream is not diverted through the bypass line.

(x) If an inspection required by paragraph (b)(6) of this section identifies visible defects in ductwork, piping, enclosures, or connections to covers required by paragraph (b)(6) of this section, or if an instrument reading of 500 parts per million by volume or greater above background is measured, or if the enclosure openings are not maintained at negative pressure, then the following corrective actions shall be taken as soon as follows:

(A) A first effort to repair or correct the closed-vent system shall be made as soon as practicable but no later than 5 calendar days after the problem is identified.

(B) The repair or corrective action shall be completed no later than 15 calendar days after the problem is identified.

(7) Standards and monitoring requirements for the pulping process condensates closed collection system.

(i) The owner or operator shall comply with the design and operational requirements specified in paragraphs (b)(7)(ii) through (iii) of this section, and monitoring requirements of paragraph (b)(7)(iv) for the equipment systems in paragraph (b)(3) of this section used to route the pulping process condensates in a closed collection system.

(ii) Each closed collection system shall meet the individual drain system requirements specified in §§ 63.960, 63.961, and 63.962, except that the closed vent systems shall be designed and operated in accordance with paragraph (b)(6) of this section, instead of in accordance with § 63.693 as specified in § 63.692(a)(3)(ii), (b)(3)(ii)(A), and (b)(3)(ii)(B)(5)(iii); and

(iii) If a condensate tank is used in the closed collection system, the tank shall meet the following requirements:

(A) The fixed roof and all openings (e.g., access hatches, sampling ports, gauge wells) shall be designed and operated with no detectable leaks as indicated by an instrument reading of less than 500 parts per million above background, and vented into a closed-vent system that meets the requirements of paragraph (b)(6) of this section and routed in accordance with paragraph (b)(2) of this section; and

(B) Each opening shall be maintained in a closed, sealed position (e.g., covered by a lid that is gasketed and latched) at all times that the tank contains pulping process condensates or any HAPs removed from a pulping process condensate stream except when it is necessary to use the opening for sampling, removal, or for equipment inspection, maintenance, or repair.

(iv) For each pulping process condensate closed collection system used to comply with paragraph (b)(3) of this section, the owner or operator shall perform a visual inspection every 30 days and shall comply with the inspection and monitoring requirements specified in § 63.964 except for the closed-vent system and control device inspection and monitoring requirements specified in § 63.964(a)(2).

(8) Quarterly performance testing.

(i) The owner or operator shall, within 45 days after the beginning of each quarter, conduct a performance test.

(ii) The owner or operator shall use NCASI Method DI/HAPS-99.01 (incorporated by reference, see § 63.14) to collect a grab sample and determine the HAP concentration of the Raw Mill Effluent, Pulping Process Condensates, and Anaerobic Basin Discharge for the quarterly performance test conducted during the first quarter each year.

(iii) For each of the remaining three quarters, the owner or operator may use NCASI Method DI/MEOH 94.03 (incorporated by reference, see § 63.14) as a surrogate to collect and determine the HAP concentration of the Raw Mill Effluent, Pulping Process Condensates, and Anaerobic Basin Discharge.

(iv) The sample used to determine the HAP or Methanol concentration in the Raw Mill Effluent, Pulping Process Condensates, or Anaerobic Basin Discharge shall be a composite of four grab samples taken evenly spaced over an eight hour time period.

(v) The Raw Mill Effluent grab samples shall be taken from the raw mill effluent composite sampler.

(vi) The Pulping Process Condensates grab samples shall be taken from a line tap on the closed condensate collection system prior to discharge into the wastewater treatment plant.

(vii) The Anaerobic Basic Discharge grab samples shall be taken subsequent to the confluence of the four anaerobic basin discharges.

(viii) The flow rate of the Raw Mill Effluent, Pulping Process Condensates, and Anaerobic Basin Discharge, and the production rate of ODP shall be averaged over eight hours.

(ix) The data collected as specified in paragraphs (b)(5) and (b)(8) of this section shall be used to determine the HAP destruction efficiency of the wastewater treatment plant as specified in paragraph (b)(4)(ii) of this section.

(x) The HAP destruction efficiency shall be at least as great as that specified by paragraph (b)(4)(i) of this section.

(9) Recordkeeping requirements.

(i) The owner or operator shall comply with the recordkeeping requirements as specified in Table 1 of subpart S of part 63 as it pertains to § 63.10.

(ii) The owner or operator shall comply with the recordkeeping requirements as specified in § 63.454(b).

(iii) The owner or operator shall comply with the recordkeeping requirements as specified in § 63.453(d).

(10) Reporting requirements.

(i) Each owner or operator shall comply with the reporting requirements as specified in Table 1 of § 63.10.

(ii) Each owner or operator shall comply with the reporting requirements as specified in § 63.455(d).

(11) Violations.

(i) Failure to comply with any applicable provision of this part shall constitute a violation.

(ii) Periods of excess emissions shall not constitute a violation provided the time of excess emissions divided by the total process operating time in a semi-annual reporting period does not exceed one percent. All periods of excess emission shall be reported, and shall include:

(iii) Notwithstanding paragraph (b)(11)(ii) of this section, any excess emissions that present an imminent threat to public health or the environment, or may cause serious harm to public health or the environment, shall constitute a violation.

[66 FR 34124, June 27, 2001, as amended at 66 FR 52538, Oct. 16, 2001; 69 FR 19740, Apr. 13, 2004; 77 FR 55713, Sept. 11, 2012]