40 CFR 63.648 - Equipment leak standards.

§ 63.648 Equipment leak standards.

(a) Each owner or operator of an existing source subject to the provisions of this subpart shall comply with the provisions of 40 CFR part 60, subpart VV, and paragraph (b) of this section except as provided in paragraphs (a)(1) and (2), (c) through (i), and (j)(1) and (2) of this section. Each owner or operator of a new source subject to the provisions of this subpart shall comply with subpart H of this part except as provided in paragraphs (c) through (i) and (j)(1) and (2) of this section.

(1) For purposes of compliance with this section, the provisions of 40 CFR part 60, subpart VV apply only to equipment in organic HAP service, as defined in § 63.641 of this subpart.

(2) Calculation of percentage leaking equipment components for subpart VV of 40 CFR part 60 may be done on a process unit basis or a sourcewide basis. Once the owner or operator has decided, all subsequent calculations shall be on the same basis unless a permit change is made.

(3) If a flare is used as a control device, on and after January 30, 2019, the flare shall meet the requirements of § 63.670. Prior to January 30, 2019, the flare shall meet the applicable requirements of part 60, subpart VV of this chapter, or the requirements of § 63.670.

(b) The use of monitoring data generated before August 18, 1995 to qualify for less frequent monitoring of valves and pumps as provided under 40 CFR part 60 subpart VV or subpart H of this part and paragraph (c) of this section (i.e., quarterly or semiannually) is governed by the requirements of paragraphs (b)(1) and (b)(2) of this section.

(1) Monitoring data must meet the test methods and procedures specified in § 60.485(b) of 40 CFR part 60, subpart VV or § 63.180(b)(1) through (b)(5) of subpart H of this part except for minor departures.

(2) Departures from the criteria specified in § 60.485(b) of 40 CFR part 60 subpart VV or § 63.180(b)(1) through (b)(5) of subpart H of this part or from the monitoring frequency specified in subpart VV or in paragraph (c) of this section (such as every 6 weeks instead of monthly or quarterly) are minor and do not significantly affect the quality of the data. An example of a minor departure is monitoring at a slightly different frequency (such as every 6 weeks instead of monthly or quarterly). Failure to use a calibrated instrument is not considered a minor departure.

(c) In lieu of complying with the existing source provisions of paragraph (a) in this section, an owner or operator may elect to comply with the requirements of §§ 63.161 through 63.169, 63.171, 63.172, 63.175, 63.176, 63.177, 63.179, and 63.180 of subpart H except as provided in paragraphs (c)(1) through (12) and (e) through (i) of this section.

(1) The instrument readings that define a leak for light liquid pumps subject to § 63.163 of subpart H of this part and gas/vapor and light liquid valves subject to § 63.168 of subpart H of this part are specified in table 2 of this subpart.

(2) In phase III of the valve standard, the owner or operator may monitor valves for leaks as specified in paragraphs (c)(2)(i) or (c)(2)(ii) of this section.

(i) If the owner or operator does not elect to monitor connectors, then the owner or operator shall monitor valves according to the frequency specified in table 8 of this subpart.

(ii) If an owner or operator elects to monitor connectors according to the provisions of § 63.649, paragraphs (b), (c), or (d), then the owner or operator shall monitor valves at the frequencies specified in table 9 of this subpart.

(3) The owner or operator shall decide no later than the first required monitoring period after the phase I compliance date specified in § 63.640(h) whether to calculate the percentage leaking valves on a process unit basis or on a sourcewide basis. Once the owner or operator has decided, all subsequent calculations shall be on the same basis unless a permit change is made.

(4) The owner or operator shall decide no later than the first monitoring period after the phase III compliance date specified in § 63.640(h) whether to monitor connectors according to the provisions in § 63.649, paragraphs (b), (c), or (d).

(5) Connectors in gas/vapor service or light liquid service are subject to the requirements for connectors in heavy liquid service in § 63.169 of subpart H of this part (except for the agitator provisions). The leak definition for valves, connectors, and instrumentation systems subject to § 63.169 is 1,000 parts per million.

(6) In phase III of the pump standard, except as provided in paragraph (c)(7) of this section, owners or operators that achieve less than 10 percent of light liquid pumps leaking or three light liquid pumps leaking, whichever is greater, shall monitor light liquid pumps monthly.

(7) Owners or operators that achieve less than 3 percent of light liquid pumps leaking or one light liquid pump leaking, whichever is greater, shall monitor light liquid pumps quarterly.

(8) An owner or operator may make the election described in paragraphs (c)(3) and (c)(4) of this section at any time except that any election to change after the initial election shall be treated as a permit modification according to the terms of part 70 of this chapter.

(9) When complying with the requirements of § 63.168(e)(3)(i), non-repairable valves shall be included in the calculation of percent leaking valves the first time the valve is identified as leaking and non-repairable. Otherwise, a number of non-repairable valves up to a maximum of 1 percent per year of the total number of valves in organic HAP service up to a maximum of 3 percent may be excluded from calculation of percent leaking valves for subsequent monitoring periods. When the number of non-repairable valves exceeds 3 percent of the total number of valves in organic HAP service, the number of non-repairable valves exceeding 3 percent of the total number shall be included in the calculation of percent leaking valves.

(10) If in phase III of the valve standard any valve is designated as being leakless, the owner or operator has the option of following the provisions of 40 CFR 60.482-7(f). If an owner or operator chooses to comply with the provisions of 40 CFR 60.482-7(f), the valve is exempt from the valve monitoring provisions of § 63.168 of subpart H of this part.

(11) [Reserved]

(12) If a flare is used as a control device, on and after January 30, 2019, the flare shall meet the requirements of § 63.670. Prior to January 30, 2019, the flare shall meet the applicable requirements of §§ 63.172 and 63.180, or the requirements of § 63.670.

(d) Upon startup of new sources, the owner or operator shall comply with § 63.163(a)(1)(ii) of subpart H of this part for light liquid pumps and § 63.168(a)(1)(ii) of subpart H of this part for gas/vapor and light liquid valves.

(e) For reciprocating pumps in heavy liquid service and agitators in heavy liquid service, owners and operators are not required to comply with the requirements in § 63.169 of subpart H of this part.

(f) Reciprocating pumps in light liquid service are exempt from §§ 63.163 and 60.482 if recasting the distance piece or reciprocating pump replacement is required.

(g) Compressors in hydrogen service are exempt from the requirements of paragraphs (a) and (c) of this section if an owner or operator demonstrates that a compressor is in hydrogen service.

(1) Each compressor is presumed not to be in hydrogen service unless an owner or operator demonstrates that the piece of equipment is in hydrogen service.

(2) For a piece of equipment to be considered in hydrogen service, it must be determined that the percentage hydrogen content can be reasonably expected always to exceed 50 percent by volume.

(i) For purposes of determining the percentage hydrogen content in the process fluid that is contained in or contacts a compressor, the owner or operator shall use either:

(A) Procedures that conform to those specified in § 60.593(b)(2) of 40 part 60, subpart GGG.

(B) Engineering judgment to demonstrate that the percentage content exceeds 50 percent by volume, provided the engineering judgment demonstrates that the content clearly exceeds 50 percent by volume.

(1) When an owner or operator and the Administrator do not agree on whether a piece of equipment is in hydrogen service, the procedures in paragraph (g)(2)(i)(A) of this section shall be used to resolve the disagreement.

(2) If an owner or operator determines that a piece of equipment is in hydrogen service, the determination can be revised only by following the procedures in paragraph (g)(2)(i)(A) of this section.

(h) Each owner or operator of a source subject to the provisions of this subpart must maintain all records for a minimum of 5 years.

(i) Reciprocating compressors are exempt from seal requirements if recasting the distance piece or compressor replacement is required.

(j) Except as specified in paragraph (j)(4) of this section, the owner or operator must comply with the requirements specified in paragraphs (j)(1) and (2) of this section for pressure relief devices, such as relief valves or rupture disks, in organic HAP gas or vapor service instead of the pressure relief device requirements of § 60.482-4 or § 63.165, as applicable. Except as specified in paragraphs (j)(4) and (5) of this section, the owner or operator must also comply with the requirements specified in paragraph (j)(3) of this section for all pressure relief devices.

(1)Operating requirements. Except during a pressure release, operate each pressure relief device in organic HAP gas or vapor service with an instrument reading of less than 500 ppm above background as detected by Method 21 of 40 CFR part 60, appendix A-7.

(2)Pressure release requirements. For pressure relief devices in organic HAP gas or vapor service, the owner or operator must comply with the applicable requirements in paragraphs (j)(2)(i) through (iii) of this section following a pressure release.

(i) If the pressure relief device does not consist of or include a rupture disk, conduct instrument monitoring, as specified in § 60.485(b) or § 63.180(c), as applicable, no later than 5 calendar days after the pressure relief device returns to organic HAP gas or vapor service following a pressure release to verify that the pressure relief device is operating with an instrument reading of less than 500 ppm.

(ii) If the pressure relief device includes a rupture disk, either comply with the requirements in paragraph (j)(2)(i) of this section (not replacing the rupture disk) or install a replacement disk as soon as practicable after a pressure release, but no later than 5 calendar days after the pressure release. The owner or operator must conduct instrument monitoring, as specified in § 60.485(b) or § 63.180(c), as applicable, no later than 5 calendar days after the pressure relief device returns to organic HAP gas or vapor service following a pressure release to verify that the pressure relief device is operating with an instrument reading of less than 500 ppm.

(iii) If the pressure relief device consists only of a rupture disk, install a replacement disk as soon as practicable after a pressure release, but no later than 5 calendar days after the pressure release. The owner or operator may not initiate startup of the equipment served by the rupture disk until the rupture disc is replaced. The owner or operator must conduct instrument monitoring, as specified in § 60.485(b) or § 63.180(c), as applicable, no later than 5 calendar days after the pressure relief device returns to organic HAP gas or vapor service following a pressure release to verify that the pressure relief device is operating with an instrument reading of less than 500 ppm.

(3)Pressure release management. Except as specified in paragraphs (j)(4) and (5) of this section, the owner or operator shall comply with the requirements specified in paragraphs (j)(3)(i) through (v) of this section for all pressure relief devices in organic HAP service no later than January 30, 2019.

(i) The owner or operator must equip each affected pressure relief device with a device(s) or use a monitoring system that is capable of:

(A) Identifying the pressure release;

(B) Recording the time and duration of each pressure release; and

(C) Notifying operators immediately that a pressure release is occurring. The device or monitoring system may be either specific to the pressure relief device itself or may be associated with the process system or piping, sufficient to indicate a pressure release to the atmosphere. Examples of these types of devices and systems include, but are not limited to, a rupture disk indicator, magnetic sensor, motion detector on the pressure relief valve stem, flow monitor, or pressure monitor.

(ii) The owner or operator must apply at least three redundant prevention measures to each affected pressure relief device and document these measures. Examples of prevention measures include:

(A) Flow, temperature, level and pressure indicators with deadman switches, monitors, or automatic actuators.

(B) Documented routine inspection and maintenance programs and/or operator training (maintenance programs and operator training may count as only one redundant prevention measure).

(C) Inherently safer designs or safety instrumentation systems.

(D) Deluge systems.

(E) Staged relief system where initial pressure relief valve (with lower set release pressure) discharges to a flare or other closed vent system and control device.

(iii) If any affected pressure relief device releases to atmosphere as a result of a pressure release event, the owner or operator must perform root cause analysis and corrective action analysis according to the requirement in paragraph (j)(6) of this section and implement corrective actions according to the requirements in paragraph (j)(7) of this section. The owner or operator must also calculate the quantity of organic HAP released during each pressure release event and report this quantity as required in § 63.655(g)(10)(iii). Calculations may be based on data from the pressure relief device monitoring alone or in combination with process parameter monitoring data and process knowledge.

(iv) The owner or operator shall determine the total number of release events occurred during the calendar year for each affected pressure relief device separately. The owner or operator shall also determine the total number of release events for each pressure relief device for which the root cause analysis concluded that the root cause was a force majeureevent, as defined in this subpart.

(v) Except for pressure relief devices described in paragraphs (j)(4) and (5) of this section, the following release events are a violation of the pressure release management work practice standards.

(A) Any release event for which the root cause of the event was determined to be operator error or poor maintenance.

(B) A second release event not including force majeure events from a single pressure relief device in a 3 calendar year period for the same root cause for the same equipment.

(C) A third release event not including force majeure events from a single pressure relief device in a 3 calendar year period for any reason.

(4)Pressure relief devices routed to a control device. If all releases and potential leaks from a pressure relief device are routed through a closed vent system to a control device, back into the process or to the fuel gas system, the owner or operator is not required to comply with paragraph (j)(1), (2), or (3) (if applicable) of this section. Both the closed vent system and control device (if applicable) must meet the requirements of § 63.644. When complying with this paragraph (j)(4), all references to “Group 1 miscellaneous process vent” in § 63.644 mean “pressure relief device.” If a pressure relief device complying with this paragraph (j)(4) is routed to the fuel gas system, then on and after January 30, 2019, any flares receiving gas from that fuel gas system must be in compliance with § 63.670.

(5)Pressure relief devices exempted from pressure release management requirements. The following types of pressure relief devices are not subject to the pressure release management requirements in paragraph (j)(3) of this section.

(i) Pressure relief devices in heavy liquid service, as defined in § 63.641.

(ii) Pressure relief devices that only release material that is liquid at standard conditions (1 atmosphere and 68 degrees Fahrenheit) and that are hard-piped to a controlled drain system (i.e., a drain system meeting the requirements for Group 1 wastewater streams in § 63.647(a)) or piped back to the process or pipeline.

(iii) Thermal expansion relief valves.

(iv) Pressure relief devices designed with a set relief pressure of less than 2.5 psig.

(v) Pressure relief devices that do not have the potential to emit 72 lbs/day or more of VOC based on the valve diameter, the set release pressure, and the equipment contents.

(vi) Pressure relief devices on mobile equipment.

(6)Root cause analysis and corrective action analysis. A root cause analysis and corrective action analysis must be completed as soon as possible, but no later than 45 days after a release event. Special circumstances affecting the number of root cause analyses and/or corrective action analyses are provided in paragraphs (j)(6)(i) through (iv) of this section.

(i) You may conduct a single root cause analysis and corrective action analysis for a single emergency event that causes two or more pressure relief devices installed on the same equipment to release.

(ii) You may conduct a single root cause analysis and corrective action analysis for a single emergency event that causes two or more pressure relief devices to release, regardless of the equipment served, if the root cause is reasonably expected to be a force majeure event, as defined in this subpart.

(iii) Except as provided in paragraphs (j)(6)(i) and (ii) of this section, if more than one pressure relief device has a release during the same time period, an initial root cause analysis shall be conducted separately for each pressure relief device that had a release. If the initial root cause analysis indicates that the release events have the same root cause(s), the initially separate root cause analyses may be recorded as a single root cause analysis and a single corrective action analysis may be conducted.

(7)Corrective action implementation. Each owner or operator required to conduct a root cause analysis and corrective action analysis as specified in paragraphs (j)(3)(iii) and (j)(6) of this section shall implement the corrective action(s) identified in the corrective action analysis in accordance with the applicable requirements in paragraphs (j)(7)(i) through (iii) of this section.

(i) All corrective action(s) must be implemented within 45 days of the event for which the root cause and corrective action analyses were required or as soon thereafter as practicable. If an owner or operator concludes that no corrective action should be implemented, the owner or operator shall record and explain the basis for that conclusion no later than 45 days following the event.

(ii) For corrective actions that cannot be fully implemented within 45 days following the event for which the root cause and corrective action analyses were required, the owner or operator shall develop an implementation schedule to complete the corrective action(s) as soon as practicable.

(iii) No later than 45 days following the event for which a root cause and corrective action analyses were required, the owner or operator shall record the corrective action(s) completed to date, and, for action(s) not already completed, a schedule for implementation, including proposed commencement and completion dates.

[ 60 FR 43260, Aug. 18, 1995, as amended at 61 FR 29880, June 12, 1996; 63 FR 44141, Aug. 18, 1998; 80 FR 75244, Dec. 1, 2015; 81 FR 45241, July 13, 2016]

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