42 CFR § 483.450 - Condition of participation: Client behavior and facility practices.

§ 483.450 Condition of participation: Client behavior and facility practices.

(a) Standard: Facility practices—Conduct toward clients.

(1) The facility must develop and implement written policies and procedures for the management of conduct between staff and clients. These policies and procedures must—

(i) Promote the growth, development and independence of the client;

(ii) Address the extent to which client choice will be accommodated in daily decision-making, emphasizing self-determination and self-management, to the extent possible;

(iii) Specify client conduct to be allowed or not allowed; and

(iv) Be available to all staff, clients, parents of minor children, and legal guardians.

(2) To the extent possible, clients must participate in the formulation of these policies and procedures.

(3) Clients must not discipline other clients, except as part of an organized system of self-government, as set forth in facility policy.

(b) Standard: Management of inappropriate client behavior.

(1) The facility must develop and implement written policies and procedures that govern the management of inappropriate client behavior. These policies and procedures must be consistent with the provisions of paragraph (a) of this section. These procedures must—

(i) Specify all facility approved interventions to manage inappropriate client behavior;

(ii) Designate these interventions on a hierarchy to be implemented, ranging from most positive or least intrusive, to least positive or most intrusive;

(iii) Insure, prior to the use of more restrictive techniques, that the client's record documents that programs incorporating the use of less intrusive or more positive techniques have been tried systematically and demonstrated to be ineffective; and

(iv) Address the following:

(A) The use of time-out rooms.

(B) The use of physical restraints.

(C) The use of drugs to manage inappropriate behavior.

(D) The application of painful or noxious stimuli.

(E) The staff members who may authorize the use of specified interventions.

(F) A mechanism for monitoring and controlling the use of such interventions.

(2) Interventions to manage inappropriate client behavior must be employed with sufficient safeguards and supervision to ensure that the safety, welfare and civil and human rights of clients are adequately protected.

(3) Techniques to manage inappropriate client behavior must never be used for disciplinary purposes, for the convenience of staff or as a substitute for an active treatment program.

(4) The use of systematic interventions to manage inappropriate client behavior must be incorporated into the client's individual program plan, in accordance with § 483.440(c) (4) and (5) of this subpart.

(5) Standing or as needed programs to control inappropriate behavior are not permitted.

(c) Standard: Time-out rooms.

(1) A client may be placed in a room from which egress is prevented only if the following conditions are met:

(i) The placement is a part of an approved systematic time-out program as required by paragraph (b) of this section. (Thus, emergency placement of a client into a time-out room is not allowed.)

(ii) The client is under the direct constant visual supervision of designated staff.

(iii) The door to the room is held shut by staff or by a mechanism requiring constant physical pressure from a staff member to keep the mechanism engaged.

(2) Placement of a client in a time-out room must not exceed one hour.

(3) Clients placed in time-out rooms must be protected from hazardous conditions including, but not limited to, presence of sharp corners and objects, uncovered light fixtures, unprotected electrical outlets.

(4) A record of time-out activities must be kept.

(d) Standard: Physical restraints.

(1) The facility may employ physical restraint only—

(i) As an integral part of an individual program plan that is intended to lead to less restrictive means of managing and eliminating the behavior for which the restraint is applied;

(ii) As an emergency measure, but only if absolutely necessary to protect the client or others from injury; or

(iii) As a health-related protection prescribed by a physician, but only if absolutely necessary during the conduct of a specific medical or surgical procedure, or only if absolutely necessary for client protection during the time that a medical condition exists.

(2) Authorizations to use or extend restraints as an emergency must be:

(i) In effect no longer than 12 consecutive hours; and

(ii) Obtained as soon as the client is restrained or stable.

(3) The facility must not issue orders for restraint on a standing or as needed basis.

(4) A client placed in restraint must be checked at least every 30 minutes by staff trained in the use of restraints, released from the restraint as quickly as possible, and a record of these checks and usage must be kept.

(5) Restraints must be designed and used so as not to cause physical injury to the client and so as to cause the least possible discomfort.

(6) Opportunity for motion and exercise must be provided for a period of not less than 10 minutes during each two hour period in which restraint is employed, and a record of such activity must be kept.

(7) Barred enclosures must not be more than three feet in height and must not have tops.

(e) Standard: Drug usage.

(1) The facility must not use drugs in doses that interfere with the individual client's daily living activities.

(2) Drugs used for control of inappropriate behavior must be approved by the interdisciplinary team and be used only as an integral part of the client's individual program plan that is directed specifically towards the reduction of and eventual elimination of the behaviors for which the drugs are employed.

(3) Drugs used for control of inappropriate behavior must not be used until it can be justified that the harmful effects of the behavior clearly outweigh the potentially harmful effects of the drugs.

(4) Drugs used for control of inappropriate behavior must be—

(i) Monitored closely, in conjunction with the physician and the drug regimen review requirement at § 483.460(j), for desired responses and adverse consequences by facility staff; and

(ii) Gradually withdrawn at least annually in a carefully monitored program conducted in conjunction with the interdisciplinary team, unless clinical evidence justifies that this is contraindicated.