42 CFR § 483.460 - Condition of participation: Health care services.

§ 483.460 Condition of participation: Health care services.

(a) Standard: Physician services.

(1) The facility must ensure the availability of physician services 24 hours a day.

(2) The physician must develop, in coordination with licensed nursing personnel, a medical care plan of treatment for a client if the physician determines that an individual client requires 24-hour licensed nursing care. This plan must be integrated in the individual program plan.

(3) The facility must provide or obtain preventive and general medical care as well as annual physical examinations of each client that at a minimum include the following:

(i) Evaluation of vision and hearing.

(ii) Immunizations, using as a guide the recommendations of the Public Health Service Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices or of the Committee on the Control of Infectious Diseases of the American Academy of Pediatrics.

(iii) Routine screening laboratory examinations as determined necessary by the physician, and special studies when needed.

(iv) Tuberculosis control, appropriate to the facility's population, and in accordance with the recommendations of the American College of Chest Physicians or the section of diseases of the chest of the American Academy of Pediatrics, or both.

(4) The intermediate care facility for individuals with intellectual disabilities (ICF/IID) must develop and implement policies and procedures to ensure all of the following:

(i) When COVID–19 vaccine is available to the facility, each client and staff member is offered the COVID–19 vaccine unless the immunization is medically contraindicated or the client or staff member has already been immunized.

(ii) Before offering COVID–19 vaccine, all staff members are provided with education regarding the benefits and risks and potential side effects associated with the vaccine.

(iii) Before offering COVID–19 vaccine, each client or the client's representative receives education regarding the benefits and risks and potential side effects associated with the COVID–19 vaccine.

(iv) In situations where COVID–19 vaccination requires multiple doses, the client, client's representative, or staff member is provided with current information regarding each additional dose, including any changes in the benefits or risks and potential side effects associated with the COVID–19 vaccine, before requesting consent for administration of each additional doses.

(v) The client, or client's representative, has the opportunity to accept or refuse a COVID–19 vaccine, and change their decision;

(vi) The client's medical record includes documentation that indicates, at a minimum, the following:

(A) That the client or client's representative was provided education regarding the benefits and risks and potential side effects of COVID–19 vaccine; and

(B) Each dose of COVID–19 vaccine administered to the client; or

(C) If the client did not receive the COVID–19 vaccine due to medical contraindications or refusal.

(5) To the extent permitted by State law, the facility may utilize physician assistants and nurse practitioners to provide physician services as described in this section.

(b) Standard: Physician participation in the individual program plan. A physician must participate in—

(1) The establishment of each newly admitted client's initial individual program plan as required by § 456.380 of this chapter that specified plan of care requirements for ICFs; and

(2) If appropriate, physicians must participate in the review and update of an individual program plan as part of the interdisciplinary team process either in person or through written report to the interdisciplinary team.

(c) Standard: Nursing services. The facility must provide clients with nursing services in accordance with their needs. These services must include—

(1) Participation as appropriate in the development, review, and update of an individual program plan as part of the interdisciplinary team process;

(2) The development, with a physician, of a medical care plan of treatment for a client when the physician has determined that an individual client requires such a plan;

(3) For those clients certified as not needing a medical care plan, a review of their health status which must—

(i) Be by a direct physical examination;

(ii) Be by a licensed nurse;

(iii) Be on a quarterly or more frequent basis depending on client need;

(iv) Be recorded in the client's record; and

(v) Result in any necessary action (including referral to a physician to address client health problems).

(4) Other nursing care as prescribed by the physician or as identified by client needs; and

(5) Implementing, with other members of the interdisciplinary team, appropriate protective and preventive health measures that include, but are not limited to—

(i) Training clients and staff as needed in appropriate health and hygiene methods;

(ii) Control of communicable diseases and infections, including the instruction of other personnel in methods of infection control; and

(iii) Training direct care staff in detecting signs and symptoms of illness or dysfunction, first aid for accidents or illness, and basic skills required to meet the health needs of the clients.

(d) Standard: Nursing staff.

(1) Nurses providing services in the facility must have a current license to practice in the State.

(2) The facility must employ or arrange for licensed nursing services sufficient to care for clients health needs including those clients with medical care plans.

(3) The facility must utilize registered nurses as appropriate and required by State law to perform the health services specified in this section.

(4) If the facility utilizes only licensed practical or vocational nurses to provide health services, it must have a formal arrangement with a registered nurse to be available for verbal or onsite consultation to the licensed practical or vocational nurse.

(5) Non-licensed nursing personnel who work with clients under a medical care plan must do so under the supervision of licensed persons.

(e) Standard: Dental services.

(1) The facility must provide or make arrangements for comprehensive diagnostic and treatment services for each client from qualified personnel, including licensed dentists and dental hygienists either through organized dental services in-house or through arrangement.

(2) If appropriate, dental professionals must participate, in the development, review and update of an individual program plan as part of the interdisciplinary process either in person or through written report to the interdisciplinary team.

(3) The facility must provide education and training in the maintenance of oral health.

(f) Standard: Comprehensive dental diagnostic services. Comprehensive dental diagnostic services include—

(1) A complete extraoral and intraoral examination, using all diagnostic aids necessary to properly evaluate the client's oral condition, not later than one month after admission to the facility (unless the examination was completed within twelve months before admission);

(2) Periodic examination and diagnosis performed at least annually, including radiographs when indicated and detection of manifestations of systemic disease; and

(3) A review of the results of examination and entry of the results in the client's dental record.

(g) Standard: Comprehensive dental treatment. The facility must ensure comprehensive dental treatment services that include—

(1) The availability for emergency dental treatment on a 24-hour-a-day basis by a licensed dentist; and

(2) Dental care needed for relief of pain and infections, restoration of teeth, and maintenance of dental health.

(h) Standard: Documentation of dental services.

(1) If the facility maintains an in-house dental service, the facility must keep a permanent dental record for each client, with a dental summary maintained in the client's living unit.

(2) If the facility does not maintain an in-house dental service, the facility must obtain a dental summary of the results of dental visits and maintain the summary in the client's living unit.

(i) Standard: Pharmacy services. The facility must provide or make arrangements for the provision of routine and emergency drugs and biologicals to its clients. Drugs and biologicals may be obtained from community or contract pharmacists or the facility may maintain a licensed pharmacy.

(j) Standard: Drug regimen review.

(1) A pharmacist with input from the interdisciplinary team must review the drug regimen of each client at least quarterly.

(2) The pharmacist must report any irregularities in clients' drug regimens to the prescribing physician and interdisciplinary team.

(3) The pharmacist must prepare a record of each client's drug regimen reviews and the facility must maintain that record.

(4) An individual medication administration record must be maintained for each client.

(5) As appropriate the pharmacist must participate in the development, implementation, and review of each client's individual program plan either in person or through written report to the interdisciplinary team.

(k) Standard: Drug administration. The facility must have an organized system for drug administration that identifies each drug up to the point of administration. The system must assure that—

(1) All drugs are administered in compliance with the physician's orders;

(2) All drugs, including those that are self-administered, are administered without error;

(3) Unlicensed personnel are allowed to administer drugs only if State law permits;

(4) Clients are taught how to administer their own medications if the interdisciplinary team determines that self administration of medications is an appropriate objective, and if the physician does not specify otherwise;

(5) The client's physician is informed of the interdisciplinary team's decision that self-administration of medications is an objective for the client;

(6) No client self-administers medications until he or she demonstrates the competency to do so;

(7) Drugs used by clients while not under the direct care of the facility are packaged and labeled in accordance with State law; and

(8) Drug administration errors and adverse drug reactions are recorded and reported immediately to a physician.

(l) Standard: Drug storage and recordkeeping.

(1) The facility must store drugs under proper conditions of sanitation, temperature, light, humidity, and security.

(2) The facility must keep all drugs and biologicals locked except when being prepared for administration. Only authorized persons may have access to the keys to the drug storage area. Clients who have been trained to self administer drugs in accordance with § 483.460(k)(4) may have access to keys to their individual drug supply.

(3) The facility must maintain records of the receipt and disposition of all controlled drugs.

(4) The facility must, on a sample basis, periodically reconcile the receipt and disposition of all controlled drugs in schedules II through IV (drugs subject to the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970, 21 U.S.C. 801 et seq., as implemented by 21 CFR part 308).

(5) If the facility maintains a licensed pharmacy, the facility must comply with the regulations for controlled drugs.

(m) Standard: Drug labeling.

(1) Labeling of drugs and biologicals must—

(i) Be based on currently accepted professional principles and practices; and

(ii) Include the appropriate accessory and cautionary instructions, as well as the expiration date, if applicable.

(2) The facility must remove from use—

(i) Outdated drugs; and

(ii) Drug containers with worn, illegible, or missing labels.

(3) Drugs and biologicals packaged in containers designated for a particular client must be immediately removed from the client's current medication supply if discontinued by the physician.

(n) Standard: Laboratory services.

(1) If a facility chooses to provide laboratory services, the laboratory must meet the requirements specified in part 493 of this chapter.

(2) If the laboratory chooses to refer specimens for testing to another laboratory, the referral laboratory must be certified in the appropriate specialties and subspecialities of service in accordance with the requirements of part 493 of this chapter.

[53 FR 20496, June 3, 1988, as amended at 57 FR 7136, Feb. 28, 1992; 86 FR 26336, May 13, 2021; 86 FR 61621, Nov. 5, 2021]