47 CFR § 15.31 - Measurement standards.
(a) The following measurement procedures are used by the Commission to determine compliance with the technical requirements in this part. Except where noted, copies of these procedures are available from the Commission's current duplicating contractor whose name and address are available from the Commission's Consumer and Governmental Affairs Bureau at 1–888–CALL-FCC (1–888–225–5322).
(1) FCC/OET MP–2: Measurement of UHF Noise Figures of TV Receivers.
(2) Unlicensed Personal Communications Service (UPCS) devices are to be measured for compliance using ANSI C63.17–2013: “American National Standard Methods of Measurement of the Electromagnetic and Operational Compatibility of Unlicensed Personal Communications Services (UPCS) Devices” (incorporated by reference, see § 15.38).
(4) Unintentional radiators are to be measured for compliance using the following procedure excluding clauses 4.5.3, 4.6, 6.2.13, 8.2.2, 9, and 13: ANSI C63.4–2014 (incorporated by reference, see § 15.38).
(b) All parties making compliance measurements on equipment subject to the requirements of this part are urged to use these measurement procedures. Any party using other procedures should ensure that such other procedures can be relied on to produce measurement results compatible with the FCC measurement procedures. The description of the measurement procedure used in testing the equipment for compliance and a list of the test equipment actually employed shall be made part of an application for certification or included with the data required to be retained by the party responsible for devices authorized pursuant to Supplier's Declaration of Conformity.
(c) Except as otherwise indicated in § 15.256, for swept frequency equipment, measurements shall be made with the frequency sweep stopped at those frequencies chosen for the measurements to be reported.
(d) Field strength measurements shall be made, to the extent possible, on an open area test site. Test sites other than open area test sites may be employed if they are properly calibrated so that the measurement results correspond to what would be obtained from an open area test site. In the case of equipment for which measurements can be performed only at the installation site, such as perimeter protection systems, carrier current systems, and systems employing a “leaky” coaxial cable as an antenna, measurements for Supplier's Declaration of Conformity or for obtaining a grant of equipment authorization shall be performed at a minimum of three installations that can be demonstrated to be representative of typical installation sites.
(e) For intentional radiators, measurements of the variation of the input power or the radiated signal level of the fundamental frequency component of the emission, as appropriate, shall be performed with the supply voltage varied between 85% and 115% of the nominal rated supply voltage. For battery operated equipment, the equipment tests shall be performed using a new battery.
(f) To the extent practicable, the device under test shall be measured at the distance specified in the appropriate rule section. The distance specified corresponds to the horizontal distance between the measurement antenna and the closest point of the equipment under test, support equipment or interconnecting cables as determined by the boundary defined by an imaginary straight line periphery describing a simple geometric configuration enclosing the system containing the equipment under test. The equipment under test, support equipment and any interconnecting cables shall be included within this boundary.
(1) At frequencies at or above 30 MHz, measurements may be performed at a distance other than what is specified provided: measurements are not made in the near field except where it can be shown that near field measurements are appropriate due to the characteristics of the device; and it can be demonstrated that the signal levels needed to be measured at the distance employed can be detected by the measurement equipment. Measurements shall not be performed at a distance greater than 30 meters unless it can be further demonstrated that measurements at a distance of 30 meters or less are impractical. When performing measurements at a distance other than that specified, the results shall be extrapolated to the specified distance using an extrapolation factor of 20 dB/decade (inverse linear-distance for field strength measurements; inverse-linear-distance-squared for power density measurements).
(2) At frequencies below 30 MHz, measurements may be performed at a distance closer than that specified in the regulations; however, an attempt should be made to avoid making measurements in the near field. Pending the development of an appropriate measurement procedure for measurements performed below 30 MHz, when performing measurements at a closer distance than specified, the results shall be extrapolated to the specified distance by either making measurements at a minimum of two distances on at least one radial to determine the proper extrapolation factor or by using the square of an inverse linear distance extrapolation factor (40 dB/decade). This paragraph (f) shall not apply to Access BPL devices operating below 30 MHz.
(3) For Access BPL devices operating below 30 MHz, measurements shall be performed at the 30-meter reference distance specified in the regulations whenever possible. Measurements may be performed at a distance closer than that specified in the regulations if circumstances such as high ambient noise levels or geographic limitations are present. When performing measurements at a distance which is closer than specified, the field strength results shall be extrapolated to the specified distance by using the square of an inverse linear distance extrapolation factor (i.e., 40 dB/decade) in conjunction with the slant-range distance defined in § 15.3(hh) of this part. As an alternative, a site-specific extrapolation factor derived from a straight line best fit of measurements of field strength in dBµV/m vs. logarithmic distance in meters for each carrier frequency, as determined by a linear least squares regression calculation from measurements for at least four distances from the power line, may be used. Compliance measurements for Access BPL and the use of site-specific extrapolation factors shall be made in accordance with the Measurement Guidelines for Access BPL systems specified by the Commission. Site-specific determination of the distance extrapolation factor shall not be used at locations where a ground conductor is present within 30 meters if the Access BPL signals are on the neutral/grounded line of a power system.
(4) The applicant for a grant of certification shall specify the extrapolation method used in the application filed with the Commission. For equipment subject to Supplier's Declaration of Conformity, this information shall be retained with the measurement data.
(5) When measurement distances of 30 meters or less are specified in the regulations, the Commission will test the equipment at the distance specified unless measurement at that distance results in measurements being performed in the near field. When measurement distances of greater than 30 meters are specified in the regulations, the Commission will test the equipment at a closer distance, usually 30 meters, extrapolating the measured field strength to the specified distance using the methods shown in this section.
(6) Measurements shall be performed at a sufficient number of radials around the equipment under test to determine the radial at which the field strength values of the radiated emissions are maximized. The maximum field strength at the frequency being measured shall be reported in the equipment authorization report. This paragraph shall not apply to Access BPL equipment on overhead medium voltage lines. In lieu thereof, the measurement guidelines established by the Commission for Access BPL shall be followed.
(g) Equipment under test shall be positioned and adjusted, using those controls that are readily accessible to or are intended to be accessible to the consumer, in such a manner as to maximize the level of the emissions. For those devices to which wire leads may be attached by the operator, tests shall be performed with wire leads attached. The wire leads shall be of the length to be used with the equipment if that length is known. Otherwise, wire leads one meter in length shall be attached to the equipment. Longer wire leads may be employed if necessary to interconnect to associated peripherals.
(h) A composite system, as defined in § 2.947(f) of this chapter, that incorporates a carrier current system shall be tested as if the carrier current system were incorporated in a separate device; that is, the device shall be tested for compliance with whatever rules would apply to the device were the carrier current system not incorporated, and the carrier current system shall be tested for compliance with the rules applicable to carrier current systems.
(i) If the device under test provides for the connection of external accessories, including external electrical input signals, the device shall be tested with the accessories attached. The device under test shall be fully exercised with these external accessories. The emission tests shall be performed with the device and accessories configured in a manner that tends to produce maximized emissions within the range of variations that can be expected under normal operating conditions. In the case of multiple accessory external ports, an external accessory shall be connected to one of each type of port. Only one test using peripherals or external accessories that are representative of the devices that will be employed with the equipment under test is required. All possible equipment combinations do not need to be tested. The accessories or peripherals connected to the device being tested shall be unmodified, commercially available equipment.
(j) If the equipment under test consists of a central control unit and an external or internal accessory(ies) (peripheral) and the party declaring compliance of the equipment or applying for a grant of equipment authorization manufactures or assembles the central control unit and at least one of the accessory devices that can be used with that control unit, testing of the control unit and/or the accessory(ies) must be performed using the devices manufactured or assembled by that party, in addition to any other needed devices which the party does not manufacture or assemble. If the party declaring compliance of the equipment or applying for a grant of equipment authorization does not manufacture or assemble the central control unit and at least one of the accessory devices that can be used with that control unit or the party can demonstrate that the central control unit or accessory(ies) normally would be marketed or used with equipment from a different entity, testing of the central control unit and/or the accessory(ies) must be performed using the specific combination of equipment which is intended to be marketed or used together. Only one test using peripherals or accessories that are representative of the devices that will be employed with the equipment under test is required. All possible equipment combinations are not required to be tested. The accessories or peripherals connected to the device being tested shall be unmodified, commercially available equipment.
(k) Composite systems (i.e., systems that incorporate different devices contained in a single enclosure or in separate enclosures connected by wire or cable) shall be measured for compliance with the technical standards of this part in accordance with the procedures in § 2.947(f) of this chapter. For digital devices that consist of a combination of Class A and Class B devices, the total combination of which results in a Class A digital device, it is only necessary to demonstrate that the equipment combination complies with the limits for a Class A device. This equipment combination may not be employed for obtaining a grant of equipment authorization or declaring compliance of a Class B digital device. However, if the digital device combination consists of a Class B central control unit, e.g., a personal computer, and a Class A internal peripheral(s), it must be demonstrated that the Class B central control unit continues to comply with the limits for a Class B digital device with the Class A internal peripheral(s) installed but not active.
(l) Measurements of radio frequency emissions conducted to the public utility power lines shall be performed using a 50 ohm/50 uH line-impedance stabilization network (LISN).
(m) Measurements on intentional radiators or receivers, other than TV broadcast receivers, shall be performed and, if required, reported for each band in which the device can be operated with the device operating at the number of frequencies in each band specified in the following table:
|Frequency range over which device operates||Number of frequencies||Location in the range of operation|
|1 MHz or less||1||Middle.|
|1 to 10 MHz||2||1 near top and 1 near bottom.|
|More than 10 MHz||3||1 near top, 1 near middle and 1 near bottom.|
(n) Measurements on TV broadcast receivers shall be performed with the receiver tuned to each VHF frequency and also shall include the following oscillator frequencies: 520, 550, 600, 650, 700, 750, 800, 850, 900 and 931 MHz. If measurements cannot be made on one or more of the latter UHF frequencies because of the presence of signals from licensed radio stations or for other reasons to be detailed in the measurement report, measurements shall be made with the receiver oscillator at a nearby frequency. If the receiver is not capable of receiving channels above 806 MHz, the measurements employing the oscillator frequencies 900 and 931 MHz may be omitted.
(o) The amplitude of spurious emissions from intentional radiators and emissions from un intentional radiators which are attenuated more than 20 dB below the permissible value need not be reported unless specifically required elsewhere in this part.
(p) In those cases where the provisions in this section conflict with the measurement procedures in paragraph (a) of this section and the procedures were implemented after June 23, 1989, the provisions contained in the measurement procedures shall take precedence.
(q) As an alternative to § 15.256, a level probing radar (LPR) may be certified as an intentional radiator by showing compliance with the general provisions for operation under part 15 subpart C of this chapter, provided that the device is tested in accordance with the provisions in either paragraphs (q)(1) or (2) of this section. Compliance with the general provisions for an intentional radiator may require compliance with other rules in this part, e.g., §§ 15.5, 15.31, and 15.35, etc., when referenced.
(1) An LPR device intended for installation inside metal and concrete enclosures may show compliance for radiated emissions when measured outside a representative enclosure with the LPR installed inside, in accordance with the measurement guidelines established by the Commission for these devices. LPR devices operating inside these types of enclosures shall ensure that the enclosure is closed when the radar device is operating. Care shall be taken to ensure that gaskets, flanges, and other openings are sealed to eliminate signal leakage outside of the structure. The responsible party shall take reasonable steps to ensure that LPR devices intended for use in these types of enclosures shall not be installed in open-air environments or inside enclosures with lower radio-frequency attenuating characteristics (e.g., fiberglass, plastic, etc.). An LPR device approved under this subsection may only be operated in the type of enclosure for which it was approved.
(2) Except as provided in paragraph (q)(1) of this section, an LPR device shall be placed in testing positions that ensure the field strength values of the radiated emissions are maximized, including in the main beam of the LPR antenna.