47 CFR § 76.5 - Definitions.
(a) Cable system or cable television system. A facility consisting of a set of closed transmission paths and associated signal generation, reception, and control equipment that is designed to provide cable service which includes video programming and which is provided to multiple subscribers within a community, but such term does not include:
(1) A facility that services only to retransmit the television signals of one or more television broadcast stations;
(2) A facility that serves subscribers without using any public right-of-way;
(3) A facility of a common carrier which is subject, in whole or in part, to the provisions of Title II of the Communications Act of 1934, as amended, except that such facility shall be considered a cable system to the extent such facility is used in the transmission of video programming directly to subscribers, unless the extent of such use is solely to provide interactive on-demand services;
(4) An open video system that complies with Section 653 of the Communications Act; or
(5) Any facilities of any electric utility used solely for operating its electric utility systems.
The provisions of subparts D and F of this part shall also apply to all facilities defined previously as cable systems on or before April 28, 1985, except those that serve subscribers without using any public right-of-way.
(b) Television station; television broadcast station. Any television broadcast station operating on a channel regularly assigned to its community by § 73.606 or § 73.622 of this chapter, and any television broadcast station licensed by a foreign government: Provided, however, That a television broadcast station licensed by a foreign government shall not be entitled to assert a claim to carriage, program exclusivity, or retransmission consent authorization pursuant to subpart D or F of this part, but may otherwise be carried if consistent with the rules on any service tier. Further provided that a television broadcast station operating on channels regularly assigned to its community by both §§ 73.606 and 73.622 of this chapter may assert a claim for carriage pursuant to subpart D of this part only for a channel assigned pursuant to § 73.606.
(c) Television translator station. A television broadcast translator station as defined in § 74.701 of this chapter.
(d) Grade A and Grade B contours. The field intensity contours defined in § 73.683(a) of this chapter.
(e) Specified zone of a television broadcast station. The area extending 56.3 air km (35 air miles) from the reference point in the community to which that station is licensed or authorized by the Commission. A list of reference points is contained in § 76.53. A television broadcast station that is authorized but not operating has a specified zone that terminates eighteen (18) months after the initial grant of its construction permit.
(f) Major television market. The specified zone of a commercial television station licensed to a community listed in § 76.51, or a combination of such specified zones where more than one community is listed.
(g) Designated community in a major television market. A community listed in § 76.51.
(h) Smaller television market. The specified zone of a commercial television station licensed to a community that is not listed in § 76.51.
(i) Significantly viewed. Viewed in over-the-air households as follows: (1) For a full or partial network station - a share of viewing hours of at least 3 percent (total week hours), and a net weekly circulation of at least 25 percent; and (2) for an independent station - a share of viewing hours of at least 2 percent (total week hours), and a net weekly circulation of at least 5 percent. See § 76.54.
As used in this paragraph, “share of viewing hours” means the total hours that over-the-air television households viewed the subject station during the week, expressed as a percentage of the total hours these households viewed all stations during the period, and “net weekly circulation” means the number of over-the-air television households that viewed the station for 5 minutes or more during the entire week, expressed as a percentage of the total over-the-air television households in the survey area.
(j) Full network station. A commercial television broadcast station that generally carries in weekly prime time hours 85 percent of the hours of programing offered by one of the three major national television networks with which it has a primary affiliation (i.e., right of first refusal or first call).
(k) Partial network station. A commercial television broadcast station that generally carries in prime time more than 10 hours of programming per week offered by the three major national television networks, but less than the amount specified in paragraph (j) of this section.
(l) Independent station. A commercial television broadcast station that generally carries in prime time not more than 10 hours of programing per week offered by the three major national television networks.
(m) A network program is any program delivered simultaneously to more than one broadcast station regional or national, commercial or noncommercial.
(n) Prime time. The 5-hour period from 6 to 11 p.m., local time, except that in the central time zone the relevant period shall be between the hours of 5 and 10 p.m., and in the mountain time zone each station shall elect whether the period shall be 6 to 11 p.m. or 5 to 10 p.m.
Unless the Commission is notified to the contrary, a station in the mountain time zone shall be presumed to have elected the 6 to 11 p.m. period.
(o) Cablecasting. Programming (exclusive of broadcast signals) carried on a cable television system. See paragraphs (y), (z) and (aa) (Classes II, III, and IV cable television channels) of this section.
(p) Origination cablecasting. Programing (exclusive of broadcast signals) carried on a cable television system over one or more channels and subject to the exclusive control of the cable operator.
(q) Legally qualified candidate.
(1) Any person who:
(i) Has publicly announced his or her intention to run for nomination or office;
(ii) Is qualified under the applicable local, State or Federal law to hold the office for which he or she is a candidate; and
(iii) Has met the qualifications set forth in either paragraphs (q)(2), (3) or (4) of this section.
(2) A person seeking election to any public office including that of President or Vice President of the United States, or nomination for any public office except that of President or Vice President, by means of a primary, general or special election, shall be considered a legally qualified candidate if, in addition to meeting the criteria set forth in paragraph (q)(1) of this section, that person:
(i) Has qualified for a place on the ballot, or
(ii) Has publicly committed himself or herself to seeking election by the write-in method and is eligible under applicable law to be voted for by sticker, by writing in his or her name on the ballot or by other method, and makes a substantial showing that he or she is a bona fide candidate for nomination or office.
(3) A person seeking nomination to any public office except that of President or Vice President of the United States, by means of a convention, caucus or similar procedure, shall be considered a legally qualified candidate if, in addition to meeting the requirements set forth in paragraph (q)(1) of this section, that person makes a substantial showing that he or she is a bona fide candidate for such nomination; except that no person shall be considered a legally qualified candidate for nomination by the means set forth in this paragraph prior to 90 days before the beginning of the convention, caucus or similar procedure in which he or she seeks nomination.
(4) A person seeking nomination for the office of President or Vice President of the United States shall, for the purposes of the Communications Act and the rules thereunder, be considered a legally qualified candidate only in those States or territories (or the District of Columbia) in which, in addition meeting the requirements set forth in paragraph (q)(1) of this section.
(i) He or she, or proposed delegates on his or her behalf, have qualified for the primary of Presidential preference ballot in that State, territory or the District of Columbia, or
(ii) He or she has made a substantial showing of bona fide candidacy for such nomination in that State, territory of the District of Columbia; except that such person meeting the requirements set forth in paragraph (q) (1) and (4) in at least 10 States (or nine and the District of Columbia) shall be considered a legally qualified candidate for nomination in all States, territories and the District of Columbia for purposes of the Act.
(5) The term “substantial showing” of a bona fide candidacy as used in paragraphs (q)(2) through (4) of this section means evidence that the person claiming to be a candidate has:
(i) Satisfied the requirements under applicable law to run as a write-in (such as registering, collecting signatures, paying fees, etc.); and
(ii) Has engaged to a substantial degree in activities commonly associated with political campaigning. Such activities normally would include making campaign speeches, distributing campaign literature, issuing press releases, maintaining a campaign committee, establishing campaign headquarters (even though the headquarters in some instances might be the residence of the candidate or his or her campaign manager), creating a campaign website, and using social media for the purpose of promoting or furthering a campaign for public office. Not all of the listed activities are necessarily required in each case to demonstrate a substantial showing, and there may be activities not listed herein which would contribute to such a showing. The creation of a campaign website and the use of social media shall be additional indicators of a bona fide candidacy, not determinative factors, and such digital activities must be combined with other activities commonly associated with political campaigning that are conducted in substantial portions of the relevant geographic area.
(r) Class I cable television channel. A signaling path provided by a cable television system to relay to subscriber terminals television broadcast programs that are received off-the-air or are obtained by microwave or by direct connection to a television broadcast station.
(s) Class II cable television channel. A signaling path provided by a cable television system to deliver to subscriber terminals television signals that are intended for reception by a television broadcast receiver without the use of an auxilliary decoding device and which signals are not involved in a broadcast transmission path.
(t) Class III cable television channel. A signaling path provided by a cable television system to deliver to subscriber terminals signals that are intended for reception by equipment other than a television broadcast receiver or by a television broadcast receiver only when used with auxiliary decoding equipment.
(u) Class IV cable television channel. A signaling path provided by a cable television system to transmit signals of any type from a subscriber terminal to another point in the cable television system.
(v) Subscriber terminal. The cable television system terminal to which a subscriber's equipment is connected. Separate terminals may be provided for delivery of signals of various classes. Terminal devices interconnected to subscriber terminals of a cable system must comply with the provisions of part 15 of this Chapter for TV interface devices.
(w) System noise. That combination of undesired and fluctuating disturbances within a cable television channel that degrades the transmission of the desired signal and that is due to modulation processes or thermal or other noise-producing effects, but does not include hum and other undesired signals of discrete frequency. System noise is specified in terms of its rms voltage or its mean power level as measured in the 4 MHz bandwidth between 1.25 and 5.25 MHz above the lower channel boundary of a cable television channel.
(x) Terminal isolation. The attenuation, at any subscriber terminal, between that terminal and any other subscriber terminal in the cable television system.
(y) Visual signal level. The rms voltage produced by the visual signal during the transmission of synchronizing pulses.
(z) Affiliate. When used in relation to any person, another person who owns or controls, is owned or controlled by, or is under common ownership or control with, such person.
(aa) Person. An individual, partnership, association, joint stock company, trust, corporation, or governmental entity.
(bb) Significant interest. A cognizable interest for attributing interests in broadcast, cable, and newspaper properties pursuant to §§ 73.3555, 73.3615, and 76.501.
(cc) Cable system operator. Any person or group of persons (1) who provides cable service over a cable system and directly or through one or more affiliates owns a significant interest in such cable system; or (2) who otherwise controls or is responsible for, through any arrangement, the management and operation of such a cable system.
(dd) System community unit: Community unit. A cable television system, or portion of a cable television system, that operates or will operate within a separate and distinct community or municipal entity (including unincorporated communities within unincorporated areas and including single, discrete unincorporated areas).
(1) As used in the context of cable service, subscriber or cable subscriber means a member of the general public who receives broadcast programming distributed by a cable television system and does not further distribute it.
(2) As used in the context of satellite service, subscriber or satellite subscriber means a person who receives a secondary transmission service from a satellite carrier and pays a fee for the service, directly or indirectly, to the satellite carrier or to a distributor.
(ff) Cable service. The one-way transmission to subscribers of video programming, or other programming service; and, subscriber interaction, if any, which is required for the selection or use of such video programming or other programming service. For the purposes of this definition, “video programming” is programming provided by, or generally considered comparable to programming provided by, a television broadcast station; and, “other programming service” is information that a cable operator makes available to all subscribers generally.
(gg) Satellite community.
(1) For purposes of the significantly viewed rules (see § 76.54), a separate and distinct community or municipal entity (including unincorporated communities within unincorporated areas and including single, discrete unincorporated areas). The boundaries of any such unincorporated community may be defined by one or more adjacent five-digit zip code areas. Satellite communities apply only in areas in which there is no pre-existing cable community, as defined in paragraph (dd) of this section.
(2) For purposes of the market modification rules (see § 76.59), a county.
(hh) Input selector switch. Any device that enables a viewer to select between cable service and off-the-air television signals. Such a device may be more sophisticated than a mere two-sided switch, may utilize other cable interface equipment, and may be built into consumer television receivers.
(ii) A syndicated program is any program sold, licensed, distributed or offered to television station licensees in more than one market within the United States other than as network programming as defined in § 76.5(m).
(jj) Rural area. A community unit with a density of less than 19 households per route kilometer or thirty households per route mile of coaxial and/or fiber optic cable trunk and feeder line.
(kk) Technically integrated. Having 75% or more of the video channels received from a common headend.
(ll) Cable home wiring. The internal wiring contained within the premises of a subscriber which begins at the demarcation point. Cable home wiring includes passive splitters on the subscriber's side of the demarcation point, but does not include any active elements such as amplifiers, converter or decoder boxes, or remote control units.
(mm) Demarcation point.
(1) For new and existing single unit installations, the demarcation point shall be a point at (or about) twelve inches outside of where the cable wire enters the subscriber's premises.
(2) For new and existing multiple dwelling unit installations with non-loop-through wiring configurations, the demarcation point shall be a point at (or about) twelve inches outside of where the cable wire enters the subscriber's dwelling unit, or, where the wire is physically inaccessible at such point, the closest practicable point thereto that does not require access to the individual subscriber's dwelling unit.
(3) For new and existing multiple dwelling unit installations with loop-through wiring configurations, the demarcation points shall be at (or about) twelve inches outside of where the cable wire enters or exits the first and last individual dwelling units on the loop, or, where the wire is physically inaccessible at such point(s), the closest practicable point thereto that does not require access to an individual subscriber's dwelling unit.
(4) As used in this paragraph (mm)(3), the term “physically inaccessible” describes a location that:
(i) Would require significant modification of, or significant damage to, preexisting structural elements, and
(ii) Would add significantly to the physical difficulty and/or cost of accessing the subscriber's home wiring.
For example, wiring embedded in brick, metal conduit, cinder blocks, or sheet rock with limited or without access openings would likely be physically inaccessible; wiring enclosed within hallway molding would not.
(nn) Activated channels. Those channels engineered at the headend of a cable system for the provision of services generally available to residential subscribers of the cable system, regardless of whether such services actually are provided, including any channel designated for public, educational or governmental use.
(oo) Usable activated channels. Those activated channels of a cable system, except those channels whose use for the distribution of broadcast signals would conflict with technical and safety regulations. See part 76, subpart K.
(pp) Principal headend.
(1) The headend, in the case of a cable system with a single headend or,
(2) In the case of a cable system with more than one headend, the principal headend designated by the cable operator, except that such designation shall not undermine or evade the requirements of subpart D of this part. Each cable system must provide information regarding the designation and location of the principal headend to the Commission promptly upon request. Except for good cause, an operator may not change its choice of principal headend. Cable systems may elect voluntarily to provide the location of the principal headend in the Commission's online public inspection file database and may choose whether to make this information accessible only by the Commission or to also make it publicly available. Systems that elect not to provide this information in the online file, or to protect this information in the online file from public view, must make it available to broadcast television stations and local franchisors upon request. If a request is submitted by a television station or franchisor in writing by certified mail, cable systems must respond in writing by certified mail within 15 calendar days. Cable systems may in addition elect to respond to requests from these entities submitted by telephone or email, but must respond in writing by certified mail if requested to do so by the station or franchisor.
(qq) Emergency Alert System (EAS). The EAS is composed of broadcast networks; cable networks and program suppliers; AM, FM and TV broadcast stations; Low Power TV (LPTV) stations; cable systems and wireless cable systems; and other entities and industries operating on an organized basis during emergencies at the National, State, or local levels.
(rr) Channel Slates. A written notice that appears on screen in place of a dropped video feed.