(a)Cells and batteries. A lithium cell or battery, including a lithium polymer cell or battery and a lithium-ion cell or battery, must conform to all of the following requirements:
(1) Be of a type proven to meet the requirements of each test in the UN Manual of Tests and Criteria (IBR; see § 171.7 of this subchapter). A cell or battery and equipment containing a cell or battery that was first transported prior to January 1, 2006 and is of a type proven to meet the criteria of Class 9 by testing in accordance with the tests in the UN Manual of Tests and Criteria, Third Revised Edition, 1999, need not be retested.
(2) Incorporate a safety venting device or otherwise be designed in a manner that will preclude a violent rupture under conditions normally incident to transportation.
(3) Be equipped with an effective means to prevent dangerous reverse current flow (e.g., diodes, fuses, etc.) if a battery contains cells or series of cells that are connected in parallel.
(4) Be packaged in combination packagings conforming to the requirements of part 178, subparts L and M, of this subchapter at the Packing Group II performance level. The lithium battery or cell must be packed in inner packagings in such a manner as to prevent short circuits, including movement which could lead to short circuits. The inner packaging must be packed within one of the following outer packagings: metal boxes (4A or 4B); wooden boxes (4C1, 4C2, 4D, or 4F); fiberboard boxes (4G); solid plastic boxes (4H2); fiber drums (1G); metal drums (1A2 or 1B2); plywood drums (1D); plastic jerricans (3H2); or metal jerricans (3A2 or 3B2).
(5) Be equipped with an effective means of preventing external short circuits.
(6) Except as provided in paragraph (d) of this section, cells and batteries with a liquid cathode containing sulfur dioxide, sulfuryl chloride or thionyl chloride may not be offered for transportation or transported if any cell has been discharged to the extent that the open circuit voltage is less than two volts or is less than 2/3 of the voltage of the fully charged cell, whichever is less.
(b)Lithium cells or batteries packed with equipment. Lithium cells or batteries packed with equipment may be transported as Class 9 materials if the batteries and cells meet all the requirements of paragraph (a) of this section. The equipment and the packages of cells or batteries must be further packed in a strong outer packaging. The cells or batteries must be packed in such a manner as to prevent short circuits, including movement that could lead to short circuits.
(c)Lithium cells or batteries contained in equipment. Lithium cells or batteries contained in equipment may be transported as Class 9 materials if the cells and batteries meet all the requirements of paragraph (a) of this section, except paragraph (a)(4) of this section, and the equipment is packed in a strong outer packaging that is waterproof or is made waterproof through the use of a liner unless the equipment is made waterproof by nature of its construction. The equipment and cells or batteries must be secured within the outer packaging and be packed so as to prevent movement, short circuits, and accidental operation during transport.
(d)Cells and batteries, for disposal or recycling. A lithium cell or battery offered for transportation or transported by motor vehicle to a permitted storage facility, disposal site or for purposes of recycling is excepted from the specification packaging requirements of paragraph (a)(4) of this section and the requirements of paragraphs (a)(1) and (a)(6) of this section when protected against short circuits and packed in a strong outer packaging conforming to the requirements of §§ 173.24 and 173.24a.
(e)Shipments for testing (prototypes). A lithium cell or battery is excepted from the requirements of (a)(1) of this section when transported by motor vehicle for purposes of testing. The cell or battery must be individually packed in an inner packaging, surrounded by cushioning material that is non-combustible and nonconductive. The cell or battery must be transported as a Class 9 material.
(f) A lithium cell or battery that does not comply with the provisions of this subchapter may be transported only under conditions approved by the Associate Administrator.
(g) Batteries employing a strong, impact-resistant outer casing and exceeding a gross weight of 12 kg (26.5 lbs.), and assemblies of such batteries, may be packed in strong outer packagings, in protective enclosures (for example, in fully enclosed wooden slatted crates) or on pallets. Batteries must be secured to prevent inadvertent movement, and the terminals may not support the weight of other superimposed elements. Batteries packaged in this manner are not permitted for transportation by passenger aircraft, and may be transported by cargo aircraft only if approved by the Associate Administrator prior to transportation.