49 CFR 176.76 - Transport vehicles, freight containers, and portable tanks containing hazardous materials.
(a) Except as provided in paragraphs (b) through (f) of this section, hazardous materials authorized to be transported by vessel may be carried on board a vessel in a transport vehicle or freight container, subject to the following conditions (see additional requirements concerning the transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials in §§ 176.168 through 176.172 of this subchapter):
(1) The material must be in proper condition for transportation according to the requirements of this subchapter;
(2) All packages in the transport vehicle or freight container must be secured to prevent shifting in any direction. Vertical restraint is not required if the shape of the packages, loading pattern, and horizontal restraint preclude vertical shifting of the load within the freight container or transport vehicle;
(4) Dunnage must be secured to the floor when the cargo consists of dense materials or heavy packages;
(7) The weight in a container must be distributed throughout as evenly as possible and the maximum permissible weight must not be exceeded;
(8) Adjacent levels of baggaged and baled cargo must be stowed in alternate directions so that each tier binds the tier above and below it;
(9) When security devices, beacons or other tracking or monitoring equipment are used, they must be securely installed and must be of a certified safe type for the hazardous materials that will be carried within the freight container or transport vehicle in which such as device or equipment is installed.
(10) The lading must be contained entirely within the freight container or vehicle body without overhang or projection except that oversized machinery such as tractors or vehicles with batteries attached may overhang or project outside the intermodal container provided all of that portion of the lading that consists of hazardous materials is contained entirely within the freight container. No open-bed container or vehicle is permitted to carry hazardous materials unless it is equipped with a means of properly securing the lading.
(11) When packages are secured with banding or straps, these restraints must not be over-tightened to cause damage or deformation of the packages or the securing points (such as D-rings) within the freight container or transport vehicle.
(d) A transport vehicle or freight container equipped with heating or refrigeration equipment may be operated on board a vessel. However, the equipment may not be operated in any hold or compartment in which any flammable liquid or gas is stowed. Any heating or air conditioning equipment having a fuel tank containing a flammable liquid or gas may be stowed only “on deck”. Equipment electrically powered and designed to operate within an environment containing flammable vapors may be operated below deck in a hold or compartment containing a flammable liquid or gas.
(e) A transport vehicle, loaded with any hazardous material which is required to be stowed “on deck” by § 172.101 of this subchapter, may be stowed one deck below the weather deck when transported on a trainship or trailership which is unable to provide “on deck” stowage because of the vessel's design. Otherwise, the transport vehicle or container must be transported “on deck.”
(1) Small passenger vessels of 100 gross tons, or less, may carry a hazardous material in a portable tank only when 16 or less passengers are on board and only when specifically authorized by the Officer-in-Charge, Marine Inspection, by endorsement of the vessel's Certificate of Inspection.
(2) Portable tanks containing flammable liquids or gases, combustible liquids with flashpoints below 60 °C (140 °F). that are insoluble in water, or organic peroxides, spontaneously combustible materials, or water reactive materials must be stowed on deck irrespective of the stowage authorized in § 172.101 of this subchapter. Portable tanks containing hazardous materials not restricted to on deck stowage by the previous sentence must be stowed in accordance with the requirements specified in § 172.101 of this subchapter.
(1) Any cryogenic liquid being transported in a cargo tank, regardless of the pressure in the package, must be contained in a steel jacketed Specification MC-338 ( § 178.338 of this subchapter) insulated cargo tank.
(2) Any valve or fitting with moving or abrading parts that may come in contact with any cryogenic liquid may not be made of aluminum.
(3) For a flammable cryogenic liquid being transported in a cargo tank, the elapsed time between the loading of the cargo tank and the subsequent unloading of the cargo tank at its final destination may not exceed the marked rated holding time (MRHT) of the cargo tank for the cryogenic liquid being transported, which must be displayed on or adjacent to the specification plate.
(4) Portable tanks, cargo tanks, and tank cars containing cryogenic liquids must be stowed “on deck” regardless of the stowage authorized in § 172.101 of this subchapter. Cargo tanks or tank cars containing cryogenic liquids may be stowed one deck below the weather deck when transported on a trailership or trainship that is unable to provide “on deck” stowage because of the vessel's design. Tank cars must be Class DOT-113 or AAR-204W tank cars.
(h) A fumigated cargo transport unit may only be transported on board a vessel subject to the following conditions and limitations:
(1) The fumigated cargo transport unit may be placed on board a vessel only if at least 24 hours have elapsed since the unit was last fumigated;
(2) The fumigated cargo transport unit is accompanied by a document showing the date of fumigation and the type and amount of fumigant used;
(3) Prior to loading, the master is informed of the intended placement of the fumigated cargo transport unit on board the vessel and the information provided on the accompanying document;
(4) Equipment that is capable of detecting the fumigant and instructions for the equipment's use is provided on the vessel;
(5) The fumigated cargo transport unit must be stowed at least 5 m from any opening to accommodation spaces;
(6) Fumigated cargo transport units may only be transported on deck on vessels carrying more than 25 passengers; and
(7) Fumigants may not be added to cargo transport units while on board a vessel.
(i) A cargo transport unit packed or loaded with flammable gas or flammable liquid having a flashpoint below 23 °C transported on deck must be stowed “away from” possible sources of ignition. In the case of container ships, a distance equivalent to one container space athwartships away from possible sources of ignition applied in any direction will satisfy this requirement.