49 CFR 178.276 - Requirements for the design, construction, inspection and testing of portable tanks intended for the transportation of non-refrigerated liquefied compressed gases.
(a) In addition to the requirements of § 178.274 applicable to UN portable tanks, the following requirements apply to UN portable tanks used for non-refrigerated liquefied compressed gases. In addition to the definitions in § 178.274, the following definitions apply:
(1)Design pressure means the pressure to be used in calculations required by the ASME Code, Section VIII (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter). The design pressure must be not less than the highest of the following pressures:
(i) The maximum effective gauge pressure allowed in the shell during filling or discharge; or
(ii) The sum of:
(A) The maximum effective gauge pressure to which the shell is designed as defined in this paragraph under “MAWP”; and
(B) A head pressure determined on the basis of the dynamic forces specified in paragraph (h) of this section, but not less than 0.35 bar (35 kPa).
(2)Design reference temperature means the temperature at which the vapor pressure of the contents is determined for the purpose of calculating the MAWP. The value for each portable tank type is as follows:
(i) Shell with a diameter of 1.5 meters (4.9 ft.) or less: 65 °C (149 °F); or
(ii) Shell with a diameter of more than 1.5 meters (4.9 ft.):
(A) Without insulation or sun shield: 60 °C (140 °F);
(B) With sun shield: 55 °C (131 °F); and
(C) With insulation: 50 °C (122 °F).
(3)Filling density means the average mass of liquefied compressed gas per liter of shell capacity (kg/l).
(4)Maximum allowable working pressure (MAWP) means a pressure that must be not less than the highest of the following pressures measured at the top of the shell while in operating position, but in no case less than 7 bar (700 kPa):
(i) The maximum effective gauge pressure allowed in the shell during filling or discharge; or
(ii) The maximum effective gauge pressure to which the shell is designed, which must be:
(B) Not less than the sum of:
(1) The absolute vapor pressure (in bar) of the liquefied compressed gas at the design reference temperature minus 1 bar; and
(2) The partial pressure (in bar) of air or other gases in the ullage space which is determined by the design reference temperature and the liquid phase expansion due to the increase of the mean bulk temperature of tr−tf (tf = filling temperature, usually 15 °C, tr = 50 °C maximum mean bulk temperature).
(b)General design and construction requirements.
(1) Shells must be of seamless or welded steel construction, or combination of both, and have a water capacity greater than 450 liters (118.9 gallons). Shells must be designed, constructed, certified and stamped in accordance with the ASME Code, Section VIII.
(2) Portable tanks must be postweld heat-treated and radiographed as prescribed in Section VIII of the ASME Code, except that each portable tank constructed in accordance with part UHT of the ASME Code must be postweld heat-treated. Where postweld heat treatment is required, the portable tank must be treated as a unit after completion of all the welds in and/or to the shell and heads. The method must be as prescribed in the ASME Code. Welded attachments to pads may be made after postweld heat treatment is made. A portable tank used for anhydrous ammonia must be postweld heat-treated. The postweld heat treatment must be as prescribed in the ASME Code, but in no event at less than 1050 °F tank metal temperature. Additionally, portable tanks constructed in accordance with part UHT of the ASME Code must conform to the following requirements:
(i) Welding procedure and welder performance tests must be made annually in accordance with Section IX of the ASME Code. In addition to the essential variables named therein, the following must be considered to be essential variables: number of passes, thickness of plate, heat input per pass, and manufacturer's identification of rod and flux. The number of passes, thickness of plate and heat input per pass may not vary more than 25 percent from the qualified procedure. Records of the qualification must be retained for at least 5 years by the portable tank manufacturer or his designated agent and, upon request, made available to a representative of the Department of Transportation or the owner of the tank.
(ii) Impact tests must be made on a lot basis. A lot is defined as 100 tons or less of the same heat and having a thickness variation no greater than plus or minus 25 percent. The minimum impact required for full-sized specimens shall be 20 foot-pounds (or 10 foot-pounds for half-sized specimens) at 0 °F (−17.8 °F) Charpy V-Notch in both the longitudinal and transverse direction. If the lot test does not pass this requirement, individual plates may be accepted if they individually meet this impact requirement.
(3) When the shells intended for the transportation of non-refrigerated liquefied compressed gases are equipped with thermal insulation, a device must be provided to prevent any dangerous pressure from developing in the insulating layer in the event of a leak, when the protective covering is closed it must be gas tight. The thermal insulation must not inhibit access to the fittings and discharge devices. In addition, the thermal insulation systems must satisfy the following requirements:
(i) consist of a shield covering not less than the upper third, but not more than the upper half of the surface of the shell, and separated from the shell by an air space of approximately 40 mm (1.7 inches) across; or
(ii) consist of a complete cladding of insulating materials. The insulation must be of adequate thickness and constructed to prevent the ingress of moisture and damage to the insulation. The insulation and cladding must have a thermal conductance of not more than 0.67 (W·m−2·K−1) under normal conditions of transportation.
(1) Each opening with a diameter of more than 1.5 mm (0.1 inch) in the shell of a portable tank, except openings for pressure-relief devices, inspection openings and closed bleed holes, must be fitted with at least three mutually independent shut-off devices in series: the first being an internal stop-valve, excess flow valve, integral excess flow valve, or excess flow feature (see § 178. 337-1(g)), the second being an external stop-valve and the third being a blank flange, thread cap, plug or equivalent tight liquid closure device.
(2) When a portable tank is fitted with an excess flow valve, the excess flow valve must be so fitted that its seating is inside the shell or inside a welded flange or, when fitted externally, its mountings must be designed so that in the event of impact it maintains its effectiveness. The excess flow valves must be selected and fitted so as to close automatically when the rated flow, specified by the manufacturer, is reached. Connections and accessories leading to or from such a valve must have a capacity for a flow more than the excess flow valve's rated flow.
(3) For filling and discharge openings that are located below the liquid level, the first shut-off device must be an internal stop-valve and the second must be a stop-valve placed in an accessible position on each discharge and filling pipe.
(4) For filling and discharge openings located below the liquid level of portable tanks intended for the transportation of flammable and/or toxic liquefied compressed gases, the internal stop-valve must be a self-closing safety device that fully closes automatically during filling or discharge in the event of fire engulfment. The device shall fully close within 30 seconds of actuation and the thermal means of closure must actuate at a temperature of not more than 121 °C (250 °F). Except for portable tanks having a capacity less than 1,000 liters (264.2 gallons), this device must be operable by remote control.
(5) In addition to filling, discharge and gas pressure equalizing orifices, shells may have openings in which gauges, thermometers and manometers can be fitted. Connections for such instruments must be made by suitable welded nozzles or pockets and may not be connected by screwed connections through the shell.
(6) All portable tanks must be fitted with manholes or other inspection openings of suitable size to allow for internal inspection and adequate access for maintenance and repair of the interior.
(7)Inlets and discharge outlets on chlorine portable tanks. The inlet and discharge outlets on portable tanks used to transport chlorine must meet the requirements of § 178. 337-1(c)(2) and must be fitted with an internal excess flow valve. In addition to the internal excess flow valve, the inlet and discharge outlets must be equipped with an external stop valve (angle valve). Excess flow valves must conform to the standards of The Chlorine Institute, Inc. (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter) as follows:
(i) A valve conforming to Drawing 101-7, dated July 1993, must be installed under each liquid angle valve.
(8) External fittings must be grouped together as close as reasonably practicable. The following openings may be installed at locations other than on the top or end of the tank:
(i) The openings for liquid level gauging devices, pressure gauges, or for safety devices, may be installed separately at the other location or in the side of the shell;
(ii) One plugged opening of 2-inch National Pipe Thread or less provided for maintenance purposes may be located elsewhere;
(iii) An opening of 3-inch National Pipe Size or less may be provided at another location, when necessary, to facilitate installation of condensing coils.
(9) Filling and discharge connections are not required to be grouped and may be installed below the normal liquid level of the tank if:
(i) The portable tank is permanently mounted in a full framework for containerized transport;
(ii) For each portable tank design, a prototype portable tank, meets the requirements of parts 450 through 453 of this title for compliance with the requirements of Annex II of the International Convention for Safe Containers; and
(d)Bottom openings. Bottom openings are prohibited on portable tanks when the UN Portable Tank Table for Liquefied Compressed Gases in § 173.313 of this subchapter indicates that bottom openings are not allowed. In this case, there may be no openings located below the liquid level of the shell when it is filled to its maximum permissible filling limit.
(e)Pressure relief devices.
(1) Portable tanks must be provided with one or more reclosing pressure relief devices. The pressure relief devices must open automatically at a pressure not less than the MAWP and be fully open at a pressure equal to 110% of the MAWP. These devices must, after discharge, close at a pressure not less than 10% below the pressure at which discharge starts and must remain closed at all lower pressures. The pressure relief devices must be of a type that will resist dynamic forces including liquid surge. A frangible disc may only be used in series with a reclosing pressure relief device.
(2) Pressure relief devices must be designed to prevent the entry of foreign matter, the leakage of gas and the development of any dangerous excess pressure.
(3) A portable tank intended for the transportation of certain liquefied compressed gases identified in the UN Portable Tank Table for Liquefied Compressed Gases in § 173.313 of this subchapter must have a pressure relief device which conforms to the requirements of this subchapter. Unless a portable tank, in dedicated service, is fitted with a relief device constructed of materials compatible with the hazardous material, the relief device must be comprised of a frangible disc preceded by a reclosing device. The space between the frangible disc and the device must be provided with a pressure gauge or a suitable tell-tale indicator. This arrangement must facilitate the detection of disc rupture, pinholing or leakage which could cause a malfunction of the pressure relief device. The frangible disc must rupture at a nominal pressure 10% above the start-to-discharge pressure of the relief device.
(4) In the case of portable tanks used for more than one gas, the pressure relief devices must open at a pressure indicated in paragraph (e)(1) of this section for the gas having the highest maximum allowable pressure of the gases allowed to be transported in the portable tank.
(f)Capacity of relief devices. The combined delivery capacity of the relief devices must be sufficient so that, in the event of total fire engulfment, the pressure inside the shell cannot exceed 120% of the MAWP. Reclosing relief devices must be used to achieve the full relief capacity prescribed. In the case of portable tanks used for more than gas, the combined delivery capacity of the pressure relief devices must be taken for the liquefied compressed gas which requires the highest delivery capacity of the liquefied compressed gases allowed to be transported in the portable tank. The total required capacity of the relief devices must be determined according to the requirements in § 178.275(i). These requirements apply only to liquefied compressed gases which have critical temperatures well above the temperature at the accumulating condition. For gases that have critical temperatures near or below the temperature at the accumulating condition, the calculation of the pressure relief device delivery capacity must consider the additional thermodynamic properties of the gas, for example see CGA S-1.2 (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter).