49 CFR § 178.45 - Specification 3T seamless steel cylinder.

§ 178.45 Specification 3T seamless steel cylinder.

(a) Type, size, and service pressure. A DOT 3T cylinder is a seamless steel cylinder with a minimum water capacity of 1,000 pounds and a minimum service pressure of 1,800 psig. Each cylinder must have integrally formed heads concave to pressure at both ends. The inside head shape must be hemispherical, ellipsoidal in which the major axis is two times the minor axis, or a dished shape falling within these two limits. Permanent closures formed by spinning are prohibited.

(b) Material, steel. Only open hearth, basic oxygen, or electric furnace process steel of uniform quality is authorized. The steel analysis must conform to the following:

Analysis Tolerances

Element Ladle analysis Check Analysis
Under Over
Carbon 0.35 to 0.50 0.03 0.04
Manganese 0.75 to 1.05 0.04 0.04
Phosphorus (max) 0.035 0.01
Sulphur (max) 0.04 0.01
Silicon 0.15 to 0.35 0.02 0.03
Chromium 0.80 to 1.15 0.05 0.05
Molybdenum 0.15 to 0.25 0.02 0.02

(1) A heat of steel made under the specifications in the table in this paragraph (b), the ladle analysis of which is slightly out of the specified range, is acceptable if satisfactory in all other aspects. However, the check analysis tolerances shown in the table in this paragraph (b) may not be exceeded except as approved by the Department.

(2) Material with seams, cracks, laminations, or other injurious defects is not permitted.

(3) Material used must be identified by any suitable method.

(c) Manufacture. General manufacturing requirements are as follows:

(1) Surface finish must be uniform and reasonably smooth.

(2) Inside surfaces must be clean, dry, and free of loose particles.

(3) No defect of any kind is permitted if it is likely to weaken a finished cylinder.

(4) If the cylinder surface is not originally free from the defects, the surface may be machined or otherwise treated to eliminate these defects provided the minimum wall thickness is maintained.

(5) Welding or brazing on a cylinder is not permitted.

(d) Wall thickness. The minimum wall thickness must be such that the wall stress at the minimum specified test pressure does not exceed 67 percent of the minimum tensile strength of the steel as determined by the physical tests required in paragraphs (j) and (k) of this section. A wall stress of more than 90,500 p.s.i. is not permitted. The minimum wall thickness for any cylinder may not be less than 0.225 inch.

(1) Calculation of the stress for cylinders must be made by the following formula:

S = [P(1.3D 2 + 0.4d 2)] / (D 2 − d 2)
S = Wall stress in psi;
P = Minimum test pressure, at least 5/3 service pressure;
D = Outside diameter in inches;
d = Inside diameter in inches.

(2) Each cylinder must meet the following additional requirement which assumes a cylinder horizontally supported at its two ends and uniformly loaded over its entire length. This load consists of the weight per inch of length of the straight cylindrical portion filled with water compressed to the specified test pressure. The wall thickness must be increased when necessary to meet this additional requirement:

(i) The sum of two times the maximum tensile stress in the bottom fibers due to bending (see paragraph (d)(2)(ii) of this section), plus the maximum tensile stress in the same fibers due to hydrostatic testing (see paragraph (d)(2)(iii) of this section) may not exceed 80 percent of the minimum yield strength of the steel at this maximum stress.

(ii) The following formula must be used to calculate the maximum tensile stress due to bending:

S = Mc / I
S = Tensile stress in psi;
M = Bending moment in inch-pounds (wl 2/8);
I = Moment of inertia—0.04909 (D 4−d 4) in inches fourth;
c = Radius (D/2) of cylinder in inches;
w = Weight per inch of cylinder filled with water;
l = Length of cylinder in inches;
D = Outside diameter in inches;
d = Inside diameter in inches.

(iii) The following formula must be used to calculate the maximum longitudinal tensile stress due to hydrostatic test pressure:

S = A1 P / A2
S = Tensile stress in psi;
A1 = Internal area in cross section of cylinder in square inches;
P = Hydrostatic test pressure-psig;
A2 = Area of metal in cross section of cylinder in square inches.

(e) Heat treatment. Each completed cylinder must be uniformly and properly heat treated prior to testing, as follows:

(1) Each cylinder must be heated and held at the proper temperature for at least one hour per inch of thickness based on the maximum thickness of the cylinder and then quenched in a suitable liquid medium having a cooling rate not in excess of 80 percent of water. The steel temperature on quenching must be that recommended for the steel analysis, but it must never exceed 1750 °F.

(2) After quenching, each cylinder must be reheated to a temperature below the transformation range but not less than 1050 °F., and must be held at this temperature for at least one hour per inch of thickness based on the maximum thickness of the cylinder. Each cylinder must then be cooled under conditions recommended for the steel.

(f) Openings. Openings in cylinders must comply with the following:

(1) Openings are permitted on heads only.

(2) The size of any centered opening in a head may not exceed one half the outside diameter of the cylinder.

(3) Openings in a head must have ligaments between openings of at least three times the average of their hole diameter. No off-center opening may exceed 2.625 inches in diameter.

(4) All openings must be circular.

(5) All openings must be threaded. Threads must be in compliance with the following:

(i) Each thread must be clean cut, even, without any checks, and to gauge.

(ii) Taper threads, when used, must be the American Standard Pipe thread (NPT) type and must be in compliance with the requirements of NBS Handbook H-28 (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter).

(iii) Taper threads conforming to National Gas Taper thread (NGT) standards must be in compliance with the requirements of NBS Handbook H-28.

(iv) Straight threads conforming with National Gas Straight thread (NGS) standards are authorized. These threads must be in compliance with the requirements of NBS Handbook H-28.

(g) Pressure testing. Each cylinder must successfully withstand a pressure test as follows:

(1) The test must be by water-jacket or direct expansion method as prescribed in CGA C-1 (IBR; see § 171.7 of this subchapter). The testing equipment must be calibrated as prescribed in CGA C-1. All testing equipment and pressure indicating devices must be accurate within the parameters defined in CGA C-1.

(2) Each cylinder must be tested to minimum of 5/3 times service pressure.

(3) The minimum test pressure must be maintained at least 30 seconds and sufficiently longer to ensure complete expansion. Any internal pressure applied after heat-treatment and prior to the official test may not exceed 90 percent of the test pressure. If, due to failure of the test apparatus or operator error, the test pressure cannot be maintained, the test may be repeated in accordance with CGA C-1, section 5.7.2.

(4) Permanent volumetric expansion may not exceed 10 percent of total volumetric expansion at test pressure.

(h) Ultrasonic examination. After the hydrostatic test, the cylindrical section of each vessel must be examined in accordance with ASTM E 213 for shear wave and E 114 for straight beam (IBR, Standard see § 171.7 of this subchapter). The equipment used must be calibrated to detect a notch equal to five percent of the design minimum wall thickness. Any discontinuity indication greater than that produced by the five percent notch must be cause for rejection of the cylinder, unless the discontinuity is repaired within the requirements of this specification.

(i) Basic requirements for tension and Charpy impact tests. Cylinders must be subjected to a tension and Charpy impact as follows:

(1) When the cylinders are heat treated in a batch furnace, two tension specimens and three Charpy impact specimens must be tested from one of the cylinders or a test ring from each batch. The lot size represented by these tests may not exceed 200 cylinders.

(2) When the cylinders are heat treated in a continuous furnace, two tension specimens and three Charpy impact specimens must be tested from one of the cylinders or a test ring from each four hours or less of production. However, in no case may a test lot based on this production period exceed 200 cylinders.

(3) Each specimen for the tension and Charpy impact tests must be taken from the side wall of a cylinder or from a ring which has been heat treated with the finished cylinders of which the specimens must be representative. The axis of the specimens must be parallel to the axis of the cylinder. Each cylinder or ring specimen for test must be of the same diameter, thickness, and metal as the finished cylinders they represent. A test ring must be at least 24 inches long with ends covered during the heat treatment process so as to simulate the heat treatment process of the finished cylinders it represents.

(4) A test cylinder or test ring need represent only one of the heats in a furnace batch provided the other heats in the batch have previously been tested and have passed the tests and that such tests do not represent more than 200 cylinders from any one heat.

(5) The test results must conform to the requirements specified in paragraphs (j) and (k) of this section.

(6) When the test results do not conform to the requirements specified, the cylinders represented by the tests may be reheat treated and the tests repeated. Paragraph (i)(5) of this section applies to any retesting.

(j) Basic conditions for acceptable physical testing. The following criteria must be followed to obtain acceptable physical test results:

(1) Each tension specimen must have a gauge length of two inches with a width not exceeding one and one-half inches. Except for the grip ends, the specimen may not be flattened. The grip ends may be flattened to within one inch of each end of the reduced section.

(2) A specimen may not be heated after heat treatment specified in paragraph (d) of this section.

(3) The yield strength in tension must be the stress corresponding to a permanent strain of 0.2 percent of the gage length.

(i) This yield strength must be determined by the “offset” method or the “extension under load” method described in ASTM E 8 (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter).

(ii) For the “extension under load” method, the total strain (or extension under load) corresponding to the stress at which the 0.2 percent permanent strain occurs may be determined with sufficient accuracy by calculating the elastic extension of the gage length under appropriate load and adding thereto 0.2 percent of the gage length. Elastic extension calculations must be based on an elastic modulus of 30,000,000. However, when the degree of accuracy of this method is questionable the entire stress-strain diagram must be plotted and the yield strength determined from the 0.2 percent offset.

(iii) For the purpose of strain measurement, the initial strain must be set with the specimen under a stress of 12,000 p.s.i. and the strain indicator reading set at the calculated corresponding strain.

(iv) The cross-head speed of the testing machine may not exceed 1/8 inch per minute during the determination of yield strength.

(4) Each impact specimen must be Charpy V-notch type size 10 mm × 10 mm taken in accordance with paragraph 11 of ASTM A 333 (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter). When a reduced size specimen is used, it must be the largest size obtainable.

(k) Acceptable physical test results. Results of physical tests must conform to the following:

(1) The tensile strength may not exceed 155,000 p.s.i.

(2) The elongation must be at least 16 percent for a two-inch gage length.

(3) The Charpy V-notch impact properties for the three impact specimens which must be tested at 0 °F may not be less than the values shown as follows:

Size of specimen (mm) Average value
for acceptance
(3 specimens)
Minimum value
(1 specimen only
of the 3)
10.0 × 10.0 25.0 ft. lbs. 20.0 ft. lbs.
10.0 × 7.5 21.0 ft. lbs. 17.0 ft. lbs.
10.0 × 5.0 17.0 ft. lbs. 14.0 ft. lbs.

(4) After the final heat treatment, each vessel must be hardness tested on the cylindrical section. The tensile strength equivalent of the hardness number obtained may not be more than 165,000 p.s.i. (Rc 36). When the result of a hardness test exceeds the maximum permitted, two or more retests may be made; however, the hardness number obtained in each retest may not exceed the maximum permitted.

(l) Rejected cylinders. Reheat treatment is authorized for rejected cylinders. However, each reheat treated cylinder must subsequently pass all the prescribed tests. Repair by welding is not authorized.

(m) Markings. Marking must be done by stamping into the metal of the cylinder. All markings must be legible and located on a shoulder.

(n) Inspector's report. In addition to the requirements of § 178.35, the inspector's report for the physical test report, must indicate the average value for three specimens and the minimum value for one specimen for each lot number.

[Amdt. 178-114, 61 FR 25942, May 23, 1996, as amended at 66 FR 45385, 43588, Aug. 28, 2001; 67 FR 51652, Aug. 8, 2002; 68 FR 48571, Aug. 14, 2003; 68 FR 75748, 75749, Dec. 31, 2003; 85 FR 85421, Dec. 28, 2020]