(a)General. All packaging design types other than bags must be subjected to a stacking test.
(b)Number of test samples. Three test samples are required for each different packaging. For periodic retesting of packagings constructed of stainless steel, monel, or nickel, only one test sample is required. Exceptions for the number of aluminum and steel sample packagings used in conducting the stacking test are subject to the approval of the Associate Administrator. Notwithstanding the provisions of § 178.602(a) of this subpart, combination packagings may be subjected to the stacking test without their inner packagings, except where this would invalidate the results of the test.
(1)Design qualification testing. The test sample must be subjected to a force applied to the top surface of the test sample equivalent to the total weight of identical packages which might be stacked on it during transport; where the contents of the test sample are non-hazardous liquids with specific gravities different from that of the liquid to be transported, the force must be calculated based on the specific gravity that will be marked on the packaging. The minimum height of the stack, including the test sample, must be 3.0 m (10 feet). The duration of the test must be 24 hours, except that plastic drums, jerricans, and composite packagings 6HH intended for liquids shall be subjected to the stacking test for a period of 28 days at a temperature of not less than 40 °C (104 °F). Alternative test methods which yield equivalent results may be used if approved by the Associate Administrator. In guided load tests, stacking stability must be assessed after completion of the test by placing two filled packagings of the same type on the test sample. The stacked packages must maintain their position for one hour. Plastic packagings must be cooled to ambient temperature before this stacking stability assessment.
(2)Periodic retesting. The test sample must be tested in accordance with:
(i)Section 178.606(c)(1) of this subpart; or
(ii) The packaging may be tested using a dynamic compression testing machine. The test must be conducted at room temperature on an empty, unsealed packaging. The test sample must be centered on the bottom platen of the testing machine. The top platen must be lowered until it comes in contact with the test sample. Compression must be applied end to end. The speed of the compression tester must be one-half inch plus or minus one-fourth inch per minute. An initial preload of 50 pounds must be applied to ensure a definite contact between the test sample and the platens. The distance between the platens at this time must be recorded as zero deformation. The force A to then be applied must be calculated using the formula:
Liquids: A = (n−1) [w (s × v × 8.3 × .98)] × 1.5;
Solids: A = (n−1) (m × 2.2 × 1.5)
A = applied load in pounds
m = the certified maximum gross mass for the container in kilograms.
n = minimum number of containers that, when stacked, reach a height of 3 meters.
s = specific gravity of lading.
w = maximum weight of one empty container in pounds.
v = actual capacity of container (rated capacity outage) in gallons.
8.3 corresponds to the weight in pounds of 1.0 gallon of water.
.98 corresponds to the minimum filling percentage of the maximum capacity for liquids.
1.5 is a compensation factor that converts the static load of the stacking test into a load suitable for dynamic compression testing.
2.2 is the conversion factor for kilograms to pounds.
(d)Criteria for passing the test. No test sample may leak. In composite packagings or combination packagings, there must be no leakage of the filling substance from the inner receptacle, or inner packaging. No test sample may show any deterioration which could adversely affect transportation safety or any distortion likely to reduce its strength, cause instability in stacks of packages, or cause damage to inner packagings likely to reduce safety in transportation. For the dynamic compression test, a container passes the test if, after application of the required load, there is no buckling of the sidewalls sufficient to cause damage to its expected contents; in no case may the maximum deflection exceed one inch.