49 CFR 178.68 - Specification 4E welded aluminum cylinders.
(a)Type, size and service pressure. A DOT 4E cylinder is a welded aluminum cylinder with a water capacity (nominal) of not over 1,000 pounds and a service pressure of at least 225 to not over 500 psig. The cylinder must be constructed of not more than two seamless drawn shells with no more than one circumferential weld. The circumferential weld may not be closer to the point of tangency of the cylindrical portion with the shoulder than 20 times the cylinder wall thickness. Cylinders or shells closed in by spinning process and cylinders with longitudinal seams are not authorized.
(b)Authorized material. The cylinder must be constructed of aluminum of uniform quality. The following chemical analyses are authorized:
Table 1 - Authorized Materials
|Designation||Chemical analysis - limits in percent 5154 1|
|Iron plus silicon||0.45 maximum.|
|Others, each||0.05 maximum.|
|Others, total||0.15 maximum.|
1 Analysis must regularly be made only for the elements specifically mentioned in this table. If, however, the presence of other elements is indicated in the course of routine analysis, further analysis should be made to determine conformance with the limits specified for other elements.
(c)Identification. Material must be identified by any suitable method that will identify the alloy and manufacturer's lot number.
(d)Manufacture. Cylinders must be manufactured using equipment and processes adequate to ensure that each cylinder produced conforms to the requirements of this subpart. No defect is permitted that is likely to weaken the finished cylinder appreciably. A reasonably smooth and uniform surface finish is required. All welding must be by the gas shielded arc process.
(e)Welding. The attachment to the tops and bottoms only of cylinders by welding of neckrings or flanges, footrings, handles, bosses and pads and valve protection rings is authorized. However, such attachments and the portion of the cylinder to which it is attached must be made of weldable aluminum alloys.
(f)Wall thickness. The wall thickness of the cylinder must conform to the following:
(1) The minimum wall thickness of the cylinder must be 0.140 inch. In any case, the minimum wall thickness must be such that calculated wall stress at twice service pressure may not exceed the lesser value of either of the following:
(i) 20,000 psi.
(ii) One-half of the minimum tensile strength of the material as required in paragraph (j) of this section.
(2) Calculation must be made by the following formula:
(3) Minimum thickness of heads and bottoms may not be less than the minimum required thickness of the side wall.
(g)Opening in cylinder. Openings in cylinders must conform to the following:
(1) All openings must be in the heads or bases.
(2) Each opening in cylinders, except those for safety devices, must be provided with a fitting, boss, or pad, securely attached to cylinder by welding by inert gas shielded arc process or by threads. If threads are used, they must comply with the following:
(i) Threads must be clean-cut, even, without checks and cut to gauge.
(ii) Taper threads to be of length not less than as specified for American Standard taper pipe threads.
(iii) Straight threads, having at least 4 engaged threads, to have tight fit and calculated shear strength at least 10 times the test pressure of the cylinder; gaskets required, adequate to prevent leakage.
(3) Closure of a fitting, boss, or pad must be adequate to prevent leakage.
(h)Hydrostatic test. Each cylinder must successfully withstand a hydrostatic test, as follows:
(1) The test must be by water jacket, or other suitable method, operated so as to obtain accurate data. The pressure gauge must permit reading to an accuracy of 1 percent. The expansion gauge must permit a reading of the total expansion to an accuracy either of 1 percent or 0.1 cubic centimeter.
(2) Pressure of 2 times service pressure must be maintained for at least 30 seconds and sufficiently longer to insure complete expansion. Any internal pressure applied previous to the official test may not exceed 90 percent of the test pressure. If, due to failure of the test apparatus, the test pressure cannot be maintained, the test may be repeated at a pressure increased by 10 percent over the pressure otherwise specified.
(3) Permanent volumetric expansion may not exceed 12 percent of total volumetric expansion at test pressure.
(4) Cylinders having a calculated wall stress of 18,000 psi or less at test pressure may be tested as follows:
(i) At least one cylinder selected at random out of each lot of 200 or less must be tested in accordance with paragraphs (h)(1), (h)(2), and (h)(3) of this section.
(5) One finished cylinder selected at random out of each lot of 1,000 or less must be hydrostatically tested to 4 times the service pressure without bursting. Inability to meet this requirement must result in rejection of the lot.
(i)Flattening test. After hydrostatic testing, a flattening test is required on one section of a cylinder, taken at random out of each lot of 200 or less as follows:
(1) If the weld is not at midlength of the cylinder, the test section must be no less in width than 30 times the cylinder wall thickness. The weld must be in the center of the section. Weld reinforcement must be removed by machining or grinding so that the weld is flush with the exterior of the parent metal. There must be no evidence of cracking in the sample when it is flattened between flat plates to no more than 6 times the wall thickness.
(2) If the weld is at midlength of the cylinder, the test may be made as specified in paragraph (i)(1) of this section or must be made between wedge shaped knife edges (60° angle) rounded to a 1/2 inch radius. There must be no evidence of cracking in the sample when it is flattened to no more than 6 times the wall thickness.
(j)Physical test. A physical test must be conducted to determine yield strength, tensile strength, elongation, and reduction of area of material as follows:
(1) The test is required on 2 specimens cut from one cylinder or part thereof taken at random out of each lot of 200 or less.
(2) Specimens must conform to the following:
(i) A gauge length of 8 inches with a width not over 1 1/2 inches, a gauge length of 2 inches with a width not over 1 1/2 inches.
(ii) The specimen, exclusive of grip ends, may not be flattened. Grip ends may be flattened to within 1 inch of each end of the reduced section.
(iii) When size of cylinder does not permit securing straight specimens, the specimens may be taken in any location or direction and may be straightened or flattened cold, by pressure only, not by blows; when specimens are so taken and prepared, the inspector's report must show in connection with record of physical test detailed information in regard to such specimens.
(iv) Heating of a specimen for any purpose is not authorized.
(3) The yield strength in tension must be the stress corresponding to a permanent strain of 0.2 percent of the gauge length. The following conditions apply:
(i) The yield strength must be determined by the “offset” method as prescribed in ASTM E 8 (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter).
(ii) Cross-head speed of the testing machine may not exceed 1/8 inch per minute during yield strength determination.
(k)Acceptable results for physical tests. An acceptable result of the physical test requires an elongation to at least 7 percent and yield strength not over 80 percent of tensile strength.
(l)Weld tests. Welds of the cylinder are required to successfully pass the following tests:
(1)Reduced section tensile test. A specimen must be cut from the cylinder used for the physical tests specified in paragraph (j) of this section. The specimen must be taken from across the seam, edges must be parallel for a distance of approximately 2 inches on either side of the weld. The specimen must be fractured in tension. The apparent breaking stress calculated on the minimum wall thickness must be at least equal to 2 times the stress calculated under paragraph (f)(2) of this section, and in addition must have an actual breaking stress of at least 30,000 psi. Should this specimen fail to meet the requirements, specimens may be taken from 2 additional cylinders from the same lot and tested. If either of the latter specimens fails to meet requirements, the entire lot represented must be rejected.
(2)Guided bend test. A bend test specimen must be cut from the cylinder used for the physical test specified in paragraph (j) of this section. Specimen must be taken across the seam, must be a minimum of 1 1/2 inches wide, edges must be parallel and rounded with a file, and back-up strip, if used, must be removed by machining. The specimen shall be tested as follows:
(i) The specimen must be bent to refusal in the guided bend test jig as illustrated in paragraph 6.10 of CGA C-3 (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter). The root of the weld (inside surface of the cylinder) must be located away from the ram of the jig. The specimen must not show a crack or other open defect exceeding 1/8 inch in any direction upon completion of the test. Should this specimen fail to meet the requirements, specimens may be taken from each of 2 additional cylinders from the same lot and tested. If either of the latter specimens fails to meet requirements, the entire lot represented must be rejected.
(ii) Alternatively, the specimen may be tested in a guided bend test jig as illustrated in Figure 12.1 of The Aluminum Association's 2002 publication, “Welding Aluminum: Theory and Practice.” The root of the weld (inside surface of the cylinder) must be located away from the mandrel of the jig. No specimen must show a crack or other open defect exceeding 1/8 inch in any direction upon completion of the test. Should this specimen fail to meet the requirements, specimens may be taken from each of 2 additional cylinders from the same lot and tested. If either of the latter specimens fails to meet requirements, the entire lot represented must be rejected.
(m)Rejected cylinders. Repair of welded seams is authorized. Acceptable cylinders must pass all prescribed tests.
(n)Inspector's report. In addition to the information required by § 178.35, the record of chemical analyses must also include applicable information on iron, titanium, zinc, and magnesium used in the construction of the cylinder.