49 CFR 231.0 - Applicability and penalties.
(a) Except as provided in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, this part applies to all standard gage railroads.
(b) This part does not apply to:
(1) A railroad that operates only on track inside an installation which is not part of the general railroad system of transportation; or
(2) Rapid transit operations in an urban area that are not connected with the general railroad system of transportation.
(3) Freight and other non-passenger trains of four-wheel coal cars.
(4) Freight and other non-passenger trains of eight-wheel standard logging cars if the height of each car from the top of the rail to the center of the coupling is not more than 25 inches.
(5) A locomotive used in hauling a train referred to in paragraph (b)(4) of this section when the locomotive and cars of the train are used only to transport logs.
(c) Except for the provisions governing uncoupling devices, this part does not apply to Tier II passenger equipment as defined in § 238.5 of this chapter (i.e., passenger equipment operating at speeds exceeding 125 mph but not exceeding 150 mph).
(d) As used in this part, carrier means “railroad,” as that term is defined below.
(e) Railroad means all forms of non-highway ground transportation that run on rails or electromagnetic guideways, including (1) commuter or other short-haul rail passenger service in a metropolitan or suburban area, and (2) high speed ground transportation systems that connect metropolitan areas, without regard to whether they use new technologies not associated with traditional railroads. Such term does not include rapid transit operations within an urban area that are not connected to the general railroad system of transportation.
(f) Any person (an entity of any type covered under 1 U.S.C. 1, including but not limited to the following: a railroad; a manager, supervisor, official, or other employee or agent of a railroad; any owner, manufacturer, lessor, or lessee of railroad equipment, track, or facilities; any independent contractor providing goods or services to a railroad; and any employee of such owner, manufacturer, lessor, lessee, or independent contractor) who violates any requirement of this part or causes the violation of any such requirement is subject to a civil penalty of at least $650 and not more than $25,000 per violation, except that: Penalties may be assessed against individuals only for willful violations, and, where a grossly negligent violation or a pattern of repeated violations has created an imminent hazard of death or injury to persons, or has caused death or injury, a penalty not to exceed $105,000 per violation may be assessed. Each day a violation continues shall constitute a separate offense. See appendix A to this part for a statement of agency civil penalty policy.
(g) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, § 231.31 also applies to an operation on a 24-inch, 36-inch, or other narrow gage railroad.