49 CFR 37.3 - Definitions.
As used in this part:
Accessible means, with respect to vehicles and facilities, complying with the accessibility requirements of parts 37 and 38 of this title.
The Act or ADA means the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (Pub. L. 101-336, 104 Stat. 327, 42 U.S.C. 12101- 12213 12101-12213 and 47 U.S.C. 225 and 611), as it may be amended from time to time.
Administrator means Administrator of the Federal Transit Administration, or his or her designee.
Alteration means a change to an existing facility, including, but not limited to, remodeling, renovation, rehabilitation, reconstruction, historic restoration, changes or rearrangement in structural parts or elements, and changes or rearrangement in the plan configuration of walls and full-height partitions. Normal maintenance, reroofing, painting or wallpapering, asbestos removal, or changes to mechanical or electrical systems are not alterations unless they affect the usability of the building or facility.
Automated guideway transit system or AGT means a fixed-guideway transit system which operates with automated (driverless) individual vehicles or multi-car trains. Service may be on a fixed schedule or in response to a passenger-activated call button.
Auxiliary aids and services includes:
(1) Qualified interpreters, notetakers, transcription services, written materials, telephone headset amplifiers, assistive listening devices, assistive listening systems, telephones compatible with hearing aids, closed caption decoders, closed and open captioning, text telephones (also known as telephone devices for the deaf, or TDDs), videotext displays, or other effective methods of making aurally delivered materials available to individuals with hearing impairments;
(2) Qualified readers, taped texts, audio recordings, Brailled materials, large print materials, or other effective methods of making visually delivered materials available to individuals with visual impairments;
(3) Acquisition or modification of equipment or devices; or
(4) Other similar services or actions.
Bus means any of several types of self-propelled vehicles, generally rubber-tired, intended for use on city streets, highways, and busways, including but not limited to minibuses, forty- and thirty-foot buses, articulated buses, double-deck buses, and electrically powered trolley buses, used by public entities to provide designated public transportation service and by private entities to provide transportation service including, but not limited to, specified public transportation services. Self-propelled, rubber-tired vehicles designed to look like antique or vintage trolleys are considered buses.
Commerce means travel, trade, transportation, or communication among the several states, between any foreign country or any territory or possession and any state, or between points in the same state but through another state or foreign country.
Commuter authority means any state, local, regional authority, corporation, or other entity established for purposes of providing commuter rail transportation (including, but not necessarily limited to, the New York Metropolitan Transportation Authority, the Connecticut Department of Transportation, the Maryland Department of Transportation, the Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation Authority, the New Jersey Transit Corporation, the Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority, the Port Authority Trans-Hudson Corporation, and any successor agencies) and any entity created by one or more such agencies for the purposes of operating, or contracting for the operation of, commuter rail transportation.
Commuter bus service means fixed route bus service, characterized by service predominantly in one direction during peak periods, limited stops, use of multi-ride tickets, and routes of extended length, usually between the central business district and outlying suburbs. Commuter bus service may also include other service, characterized by a limited route structure, limited stops, and a coordinated relationship to another mode of transportation.
Commuter rail transportation means short-haul rail passenger service operating in metropolitan and suburban areas, whether within or across the geographical boundaries of a state, usually characterized by reduced fare, multiple ride, and commutation tickets and by morning and evening peak period operations. This term does not include light or rapid rail transportation.
Demand responsive system means any system of transporting individuals, including the provision of designated public transportation service by public entities and the provision of transportation service by private entities, including but not limited to specified public transportation service, which is not a fixed route system.
Designated public transportation means transportation provided by a public entity (other than public school transportation) by bus, rail, or other conveyance (other than transportation by aircraft or intercity or commuter rail transportation) that provides the general public with general or special service, including charter service, on a regular and continuing basis.
Direct threat means a significant risk to the health or safety of others that cannot be eliminated by a modification of policies, practices, procedures, or by the provision of auxiliary aids or services.
Disability means, with respect to an individual, a physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more of the major life activities of such individual; a record of such an impairment; or being regarded as having such an impairment.
(1) The phrase physical or mental impairment means -
(i) Any physiological disorder or condition, cosmetic disfigurement, or anatomical loss affecting one or more of the following body systems: neurological, musculoskeletal, special sense organs, respiratory including speech organs, cardiovascular, reproductive, digestive, genito-urinary, hemic and lymphatic, skin, and endocrine;
(ii) Any mental or psychological disorder, such as mental retardation, organic brain syndrome, emotional or mental illness, and specific learning disabilities;
(iii) The term physical or mental impairment includes, but is not limited to, such contagious or noncontagious diseases and conditions as orthopedic, visual, speech, and hearing impairments; cerebral palsy, epilepsy, muscular dystrophy, multiple sclerosis, cancer, heart disease, diabetes, mental retardation, emotional illness, specific learning disabilities, HIV disease, tuberculosis, drug addiction and alcoholism;
(iv) The phrase physical or mental impairment does not include homosexuality or bisexuality.
(2) The phrase major life activities means functions such as caring for one's self, performing manual tasks, walking, seeing, hearing, speaking, breathing, learning, and work.
(3) The phrase has a record of such an impairment means has a history of, or has been misclassified as having, a mental or physical impairment that substantially limits one or more major life activities.
(4) The phrase is regarded as having such an impairment means -
(ii) Has a physical or mental impairment that substantially limits a major life activity only as a result of the attitudes of others toward such an impairment; or
(iii) Has none of the impairments defined in paragraph (1) of this definition but is treated by a public or private entity as having such an impairment.
(5) The term disability does not include -
(i) Transvestism, transsexualism, pedophilia, exhibitionism, voyeurism, gender identity disorders not resulting from physical impairments, or other sexual behavior disorders;
(ii) Compulsive gambling, kleptomania, or pyromania;
(iii) Psychoactive substance abuse disorders resulting from the current illegal use of drugs.
Facility means all or any portion of buildings, structures, sites, complexes, equipment, roads, walks, passageways, parking lots, or other real or personal property, including the site where the building, property, structure, or equipment is located.
Fixed route system means a system of transporting individuals (other than by aircraft), including the provision of designated public transportation service by public entities and the provision of transportation service by private entities, including, but not limited to, specified public transportation service, on which a vehicle is operated along a prescribed route according to a fixed schedule.
FT Act means the Federal Transit Act of 1964, as amended (49 U.S.C. App. 1601 et seq.).
High speed rail means a rail service having the characteristics of intercity rail service which operates primarily on a dedicated guideway or track not used, for the most part, by freight, including, but not limited to, trains on welded rail, magnetically levitated (maglev) vehicles on a special guideway, or other advanced technology vehicles, designed to travel at speeds in excess of those possible on other types of railroads.
Individual with a disability means a person who has a disability, but does not include an individual who is currently engaging in the illegal use of drugs, when a public or private entity acts on the basis of such use.
Intercity rail passenger car means a rail car, intended for use by revenue passengers, obtained by the National Railroad Passenger Corporation (Amtrak) for use in intercity rail transportation.
Intercity rail transportation means transportation provided by Amtrak.
New vehicle means a vehicle which is offered for sale or lease after manufacture without any prior use.
Operates includes, with respect to a fixed route or demand responsive system, the provision of transportation service by a public or private entity itself or by a person under a contractual or other arrangement or relationship with the entity.
Origin-to-destination service means providing service from a passenger's origin to the passenger's destination. A provider may provide ADA complementary paratransit in a curb-to-curb or door-to-door mode. When an ADA paratransit operator chooses curb-to-curb as its primary means of providing service, it must provide assistance to those passengers who need assistance beyond the curb in order to use the service unless such assistance would result in in a fundamental alteration or direct threat.
Over-the-road bus means a bus characterized by an elevated passenger deck located over a baggage compartment.
Paratransit means comparable transportation service required by the ADA for individuals with disabilities who are unable to use fixed route transportation systems.
Private entity means any entity other than a public entity.
Public entity means:
(1) Any state or local government;
(2) Any department, agency, special purpose district, or other instrumentality of one or more state or local governments; and
(3) The National Railroad Passenger Corporation (Amtrak) and any commuter authority.
Purchase or lease, with respect to vehicles, means the time at which an entity is legally obligated to obtain the vehicles, such as the time of contract execution.
Public school transportation means transportation by schoolbus vehicles of schoolchildren, personnel, and equipment to and from a public elementary or secondary school and school-related activities.
Rapid rail means a subway-type transit vehicle railway operated on exclusive private rights of way with high level platform stations. Rapid rail also may operate on elevated or at grade level track separated from other traffic.
Remanufactured vehicle means a vehicle which has been structurally restored and has had new or rebuilt major components installed to extend its service life.
Secretary means the Secretary of Transportation or his/her designee.
Service animal means any guide dog, signal dog, or other animal individually trained to work or perform tasks for an individual with a disability, including, but not limited to, guiding individuals with impaired vision, alerting individuals with impaired hearing to intruders or sounds, providing minimal protection or rescue work, pulling a wheelchair, or fetching dropped items.
Small operator means, in the context of over-the-road buses (OTRBs), a private entity primarily in the business of transporting people that is not a Class I motor carrier. To determine whether an operator has sufficient average annual gross transportation operating revenues to be a Class I motor carrier, its revenues are combined with those of any other OTRB operator with which it is affiliated.
Solicitation means the closing date for the submission of bids or offers in a procurement.
Specified public transportation means transportation by bus, rail, or any other conveyance (other than aircraft) provided by a private entity to the general public, with general or special service (including charter service) on a regular and continuing basis.
Station means, with respect to intercity and commuter rail transportation, the portion of a property located appurtenant to a right of way on which intercity or commuter rail transportation is operated, where such portion is used by the general public and is related to the provision of such transportation, including passenger platforms, designated waiting areas, restrooms, and, where a public entity providing rail transportation owns the property, concession areas, to the extent that such public entity exercises control over the selection, design, construction, or alteration of the property, but this term does not include flag stops (i.e., stations which are not regularly scheduled stops but at which trains will stop to board or detrain passengers only on signal or advance notice).
Used vehicle means a vehicle with prior use.
Vanpool means a voluntary commuter ridesharing arrangement, using vans with a seating capacity greater than 7 persons (including the driver) or buses, which provides transportation to a group of individuals traveling directly from their homes to their regular places of work within the same geographical area, and in which the commuter/driver does not receive compensation beyond reimbursement for his or her costs of providing the service.
Vehicle, as the term is applied to private entities, does not include a rail passenger car, railroad locomotive, railroad freight car, or railroad caboose, or other rail rolling stock described in section 242 of title III of the Act.
Wheelchair means a mobility aid belonging to any class of three- or more-wheeled devices, usable indoors, designed or modified for and used by individuals with mobility impairments, whether operated manually or powered.