49 CFR 523.2 - Definitions.

§ 523.2 Definitions.

As used in this part:

Ambulance has the meaning given in 40 CFR 86.1803.

Approach angle means the smallest angle, in a plane side view of an automobile, formed by the level surface on which the automobile is standing and a line tangent to the front tire static loaded radius arc and touching the underside of the automobile forward of the front tire.

Axle clearance means the vertical distance from the level surface on which an automobile is standing to the lowest point on the axle differential of the automobile.

Base tire (for passenger automobiles, light trucks, and medium duty passenger vehicles) means the tire size specified as standard equipment by the manufacturer on each unique combination of a vehicle's footprint and model type. Standard equipment is defined in 40 CFR 86.1803.

Basic vehicle frontal area is used as defined in 40 CFR 86.1803 for passenger automobiles, light trucks, medium duty passenger vehicles and Class 2b through 3 pickup trucks and vans. For heavy-duty tracts and vocational vehicles, it has the meaning given in 40 CFR 1037.801.

Breakover angle means the supplement of the largest angle, in the plan side view of an automobile that can be formed by two lines tangent to the front and rear static loaded radii arcs and intersecting at a point on the underside of the automobile.

Bus has the meaning given in 49 CFR 571.3.

Cab-complete vehicle means a vehicle that is first sold as an incomplete vehicle that substantially includes the vehicle cab section as defined in 40 CFR 1037.801. For example, vehicles known commercially as chassis-cabs, cab-chassis, box-deletes, bed-deletes, and cut-away vans are considered cab-complete vehicles. A cab includes a steering column and a passenger compartment. Note that a vehicle lacking some components of the cab is a cab-complete vehicle if it substantially includes the cab.

Cargo-carrying volume means the luggage capacity or cargo volume index, as appropriate, and as those terms are defined in 40 CFR 600.315-08, in the case of automobiles to which either of these terms apply. With respect to automobiles to which neither of these terms apply, “cargo-carrying volume” means the total volume in cubic feet, rounded to the nearest 0.1 cubic feet, of either an automobile's enclosed nonseating space that is intended primarily for carrying cargo and is not accessible from the passenger compartment, or the space intended primarily for carrying cargo bounded in the front by a vertical plane that is perpendicular to the longitudinal centerline of the automobile and passes through the rearmost point on the rearmost seat and elsewhere by the automobile's interior surfaces.

Class 2b vehicles are vehicles with a gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR) ranging from 8,501 to 10,000 pounds.

Class 3 through Class 8 vehicles are vehicles with a gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR) of 10,001 pounds or more as defined in 49 CFR 565.15.

Coach bus has the meaning given in 40 CFR 1037.801.

Commercial medium- and heavy-duty on-highway vehicle means an on-highway vehicle with a gross vehicle weight rating of 10,000 pounds or more as defined in 49 U.S.C. 32901(a)(7).

Complete vehicle has the meaning given to completed vehicle as defined in 49 CFR 567.3.

Concrete mixer has the meaning given in 40 CFR 1037.801.

Curb weight has the meaning given in 49 CFR 571.3.

Dedicated vehicle has the same meaning as dedicated automobile as defined in 49 U.S.C. 32901(a)(8).

Departure angle means the smallest angle, in a plane side view of an automobile, formed by the level surface on which the automobile is standing and a line tangent to the rear tire static loaded radius arc and touching the underside of the automobile rearward of the rear tire.

Dual-fueled vehicle (multi-fuel, or flexible-fuel vehicle) has the same meaning as dual fueled automobile as defined in 49 U.S.C. 32901(a)(9).

Electric vehicle means a vehicle that does not include an engine, and is powered solely by an external source of electricity and/or solar power. Note that this does not include electric hybrid or fuel-cell vehicles that use a chemical fuel such as gasoline, diesel fuel, or hydrogen. Electric vehicles may also be referred to as all- electric vehicles to distinguish them from hybrid vehicles.

Emergency vehicle means one of the following:

(1) For passenger cars, light trucks and medium duty passenger vehicles, emergency vehicle has the meaning given in 49 U.S.C. 32902(e).

(2) For heavy-duty vehicles, emergency vehicle has the meaning given in 40 CFR 1037.801.

Engine code has the meaning given in 40 CFR 86.1803.

Final stage manufacturer has the meaning given in 49 CFR 567.3.

Fire truck has the meaning given in 40 CFR 86.1803.

Footprint is defined as the product of track width (measured in inches, calculated as the average of front and rear track widths, and rounded to the nearest tenth of an inch) times wheelbase (measured in inches and rounded to the nearest tenth of an inch), divided by 144 and then rounded to the nearest tenth of a square foot. For purposes of this definition, track width is the lateral distance between the centerlines of the base tires at ground, including the camber angle. For purposes of this definition, wheelbase is the longitudinal distance between front and rear wheel centerlines.

Full-size pickup truck means a light truck or medium duty passenger vehicle that meets the requirements specified in 40 CFR 86.1866-12(e).

Gross axle weight rating (GAWR) has the meaning given in 49 CFR 571.3.

Gross combination weight rating (GCWR) has the meaning given in 49 CFR 571.3.

Gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR) has the meaning given in 49 CFR 571.3.

Heavy-duty engine means any engine used for (or for which the engine manufacturer could reasonably expect to be used for) motive power in a heavy-duty vehicle. For purposes of this definition in this part, the term “engine” includes internal combustion engines and other devices that convert chemical fuel into motive power. For example, a fuel cell and motor used in a heavy-duty vehicle is a heavy-duty engine. Heavy duty-engines include those engines subject to the standards in 49 CFR part 535.

Heavy-duty vehicle means a vehicle as defined in § 523.6.

Hitch means a device attached to the chassis of a vehicle for towing.

Incomplete vehicle has the meaning given in 49 CFR 567.3.

Light truck means a non-passenger automobile meeting the criteria in § 523.5.

Manufacturer has the meaning given in 49 U.S.C. 32901(a)(14).

Medium duty passenger vehicle means a vehicle which would satisfy the criteria in § 523.5 (relating to light trucks) but for its gross vehicle weight rating or its curb weight, which is rated at more than 8,500 lbs GVWR or has a vehicle curb weight of more than 6,000 pounds or has a basic vehicle frontal area in excess of 45 square feet, and which is designed primarily to transport passengers, but does not include a vehicle that -

(1) Is an “incomplete vehicle” ' as defined in this subpart; or

(2) Has a seating capacity of more than 12 persons; or

(3) Is designed for more than 9 persons in seating rearward of the driver's seat; or

(4) Is equipped with an open cargo area (for example, a pick-up truck box or bed) of 72.0 inches in interior length or more. A covered box not readily accessible from the passenger compartment will be considered an open cargo area for purposes of this definition.

Mild hybrid gasoline-electric vehicle means a vehicle as defined by EPA in 40 CFR 86.1866-12(e).

Motor home has the meaning given in 49 CFR 571.3.

Motor vehicle has the meaning given in 49 U.S.C. 30102.

Passenger-carrying volume means the sum of the front seat volume and, if any, rear seat volume, as defined in 40 CFR 600.315-08, in the case of automobiles to which that term applies. With respect to automobiles to which that term does not apply, “passenger-carrying volume” means the sum in cubic feet, rounded to the nearest 0.1 cubic feet, of the volume of a vehicle's front seat and seats to the rear of the front seat, as applicable, calculated as follows with the head room, shoulder room, and leg room dimensions determined in accordance with the procedures outlined in Society of Automotive Engineers Recommended Practice J1100, Motor Vehicle Dimensions (Report of Human Factors Engineering Committee, Society of Automotive Engineers, approved November 2009).

(1) For front seat volume, divide 1,728 into the product of the following SAE dimensions, measured in inches to the nearest 0.1 inches, and round the quotient to the nearest 0.001 cubic feet.

(i) H61-Effective head room - front.

(ii) W3-Shoulder room - front.

(iii) L34-Maximum effective leg room-accelerator.

(2) For the volume of seats to the rear of the front seat, divide 1,728 into the product of the following SAE dimensions, measured in inches to the nearest 0.1 inches, and rounded the quotient to the nearest 0.001 cubic feet.

(i) H63-Effective head room - second.

(ii) W4-Shoulder room - second.

(iii) L51-Minimum effective leg room - second.

Pickup truck means a non-passenger automobile which has a passenger compartment and an open cargo area (bed).

Pintle hooks means a type of towing hitch that uses a tow ring configuration to secure to a hook or a ball combination for the purpose of towing.

Recreational vehicle or RV means a motor vehicle equipped with living space and amenities found in a motor home.

Refuse hauler has the meaning given in 40 CFR 1037.801.

Running clearance means the distance from the surface on which an automobile is standing to the lowest point on the automobile, excluding unsprung weight.

School bus has the meaning given in 49 CFR 571.3.

Static loaded radius arc means a portion of a circle whose center is the center of a standard tire-rim combination of an automobile and whose radius is the distance from that center to the level surface on which the automobile is standing, measured with the automobile at curb weight, the wheel parallel to the vehicle's longitudinal centerline, and the tire inflated to the manufacturer's recommended pressure.

Strong hybrid gasoline-electric vehicle means a vehicle as defined by EPA in 40 CFR 86.1866-12(e).

Temporary living quarters means a space in the interior of an automobile in which people may temporarily live and which includes sleeping surfaces, such as beds, and household conveniences, such as a sink, stove, refrigerator, or toilet.

Transmission class has the meaning given in 40 CFR 600.002.

Tranmission configuration has the meaning given in 40 CFR 600.002.

Transmission type has the meaning given in 40 CFR 86.1803.

Truck tractor has the meaning given in 49 CFR 571.3 and 49 CFR 535.5(c). This includes most heavy-duty vehicles specifically designed for the primary purpose of pulling trailers, but does not include vehicles designed to carry other loads. For purposes of this definition “other loads” would not include loads carried in the cab, sleeper compartment, or toolboxes. Examples of vehicles that are similar to tractors but that are not tractors under this part include dromedary tractors, automobile haulers, straight trucks with trailers hitches, and tow trucks.

Van means a vehicle with a body that fully encloses the driver and a cargo carrying or work performing compartment. The distance from the leading edge of the windshield to the foremost body section of vans is typically shorter than that of pickup trucks and sport utility vehicles.

Vocational tractor means a tractor that is classified as a vocational vehicle according to 40 CFR 1037.630

Vocational vehicle (or heavy-duty vocational vehicle) has the meaning given in § 523.8 and 49 CFR 535.5(b). This includes any vehicle that is equipped for a particular industry, trade or occupation such as construction, heavy hauling, mining, logging, oil fields, refuse and includes vehicles such as school buses, motorcoaches and RVs.

Work truck means a vehicle that is rated at more than 8,500 pounds and less than or equal to 10,000 pounds gross vehicle weight, and is not a medium-duty passenger vehicle as defined in 49 U.S.C. 32901(a)(19).

[ 81 FR 74235, Oct. 25, 2016]

This is a list of United States Code sections, Statutes at Large, Public Laws, and Presidential Documents, which provide rulemaking authority for this CFR Part.

This list is taken from the Parallel Table of Authorities and Rules provided by GPO [Government Printing Office].

It is not guaranteed to be accurate or up-to-date, though we do refresh the database weekly. More limitations on accuracy are described at the GPO site.


United States Code
U.S. Code: Title 49 - TRANSPORTATION

Title 49 published on 09-May-2017 04:41

The following are ALL rules, proposed rules, and notices (chronologically) published in the Federal Register relating to 49 CFR Part 523 after this date.

  • 2017-03-22; vol. 82 # 54 - Wednesday, March 22, 2017
    1. 82 FR 14671 - Notice of Intention To Reconsider the Final Determination of the Mid-Term Evaluation of Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards for Model Year 2022-2025 Light Duty Vehicles
      GPO FDSys XML | Text
      DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION, ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration
      Notice of intent.
      March 22, 2017.
      49 CFR Parts 523, 531, 533, 536 and 537
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