49 CFR 523.2 - Definitions.

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§ 523.2 Definitions.

Approach angle means the smallest angle, in a plane side view of an automobile, formed by the level surface on which the automobile is standing and a line tangent to the front tire static loaded radius arc and touching the underside of the automobile forward of the front tire.

Axle clearance means the vertical distance from the level surface on which an automobile is standing to the lowest point on the axle differential of the automobile.

Base tire (for passenger automobiles, light trucks, and medium duty passenger vehicles) means the tire size specified as standard equipment by the manufacturer on each unique combination of a vehicle's footprint and model type. Standard equipment is defined in 40 CFR 86.1803-01.

Basic vehicle frontal area is used as defined in 40 CFR 86.1803.

Breakover angle means the supplement of the largest angle, in a plan side view of an automobile, that can be formed by two lines tangent to the front and rear static loaded radii arcs and intersecting at a point on the underside of the automobile.

Cab-complete vehicle means a vehicle that is first sold as an incomplete vehicle that substantially includes the vehicle cab section as defined in 40 CFR 1037.801. For example, vehicles known commercially as chassis-cabs, cab-chassis, box-deletes, bed-deletes, and cut-away vans are considered cab-complete vehicles. A cab includes a steering column and a passenger compartment. Note that a vehicle lacking some components of the cab is a cab-complete vehicle if it substantially includes the cab.

Cargo-carrying volume means the luggage capacity or cargo volume index, as appropriate, and as those terms are defined in 40 CFR 600.315-08, in the case of automobiles to which either of these terms apply. With respect to automobiles to which neither of these terms apply, “cargo-carrying volume” means the total volume in cubic feet, rounded to the nearest 0.1 cubic feet, of either an automobile's enclosed non-seating space that is intended primarily for carrying cargo and is not accessible from the passenger compartment, or the space intended primarily for carrying cargo bounded in the front by a vertical plane that is perpendicular to the longitudinal centerline of the automobile and passes through the rearmost point on the rearmost seat and elsewhere by the automobile's interior surfaces.

Class 2b vehicles are vehicles with a gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR) ranging from 8,501 to 10,000 pounds (lbs).

Class 3 through Class 8 vehicles are vehicles with a GVWR of 10,001 lbs or more, as defined in 49 CFR 565.15.

Commercial medium- and heavy-duty on-highway vehicle means an on-highway vehicle with a GVWR of 10,000 lbs or more, as defined in 49 U.S.C. 32901(a)(7).

Complete vehicle means a vehicle, other than in § 523.7, that requires no further manufacturing operations to perform its intended function and is a functioning vehicle that has the primary load carrying device or container (or equivalent equipment) attached or that is designed to pull a trailer. Examples of equivalent equipment would include fifth wheel trailer hitches, firefighting equipment, and utility booms.

Curb weight is defined the same as vehicle curb weight in 40 CFR 86.1803-01.

Departure angle means the smallest angle, in a plane side view of an automobile, formed by the level surface on which the automobile is standing and a line tangent to the rear tire static loaded radius arc and touching the underside of the automobile rearward of the rear tire.

Final stage manufacturer has the meaning given in 49 CFR 567.3.

Footprint is defined as the product of track width (measured in inches, calculated as the average of front and rear track widths, and rounded to the nearest tenth of an inch) times wheelbase (measured in inches and rounded to the nearest tenth of an inch), divided by 144 and then rounded to the nearest tenth of a square foot. For purposes of this definition, “track width” is the lateral distance between the centerlines of the base tires at ground, including the camber angle. For purposes of this definition, “wheelbase” is the longitudinal distance between front and rear wheel centerlines.

Full-size pickup truck has the meaning given in 40 CFR 86.1803-01.

Gross combination weight rating (GCWR) means the value specified by the manufacturer as the maximum allowable loaded weight of a combination vehicle (e.g., tractor plus trailer).

Gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR) means the value specified by the manufacturer as the maximum design loaded weight of a single vehicle (e.g., vocational vehicle).

Heavy-duty engine means any engine used for (or which the engine manufacturer could reasonably expect to be used for) motive power in a heavy-duty vehicle. For purposes of this definition in this part, the term “engine” includes internal combustion engines and other devices that convert chemical fuel into motive power. For example, a fuel cell and motor used in a heavy-duty vehicle is a heavy-duty engine.

Heavy-duty off-road vehicle means a heavy-duty vocational vehicle or vocational tractor that is intended for off-road use meeting either of the following criteria:

(1) Vehicles with tires installed having a maximum speed rating at or below 55 mph.

(2) Vehicles primarily designed to perform work off-road (such as in oil fields, forests, or construction sites), and meeting at least one of the criteria of paragraph (2)(i) of this definition and at least one of the criteria of paragraph (2)(ii) of this definition.

(i) Vehicles must have affixed components designed to work in an off-road environment (for example, hazardous material equipment or drilling equipment) or be designed to operate at low speeds making them unsuitable for normal highway operation.

(ii) Vehicles must:

(A) Have an axle that has a gross axle weight rating (GAWR), as defined in 49 CFR § 571.3, of 29,000 pounds or more;

(B) Have a speed attainable in 2 miles of not more than 33 mph; or

(C) Have a speed attainable in 2 miles of not more than 45 mph, an unloaded vehicle weight that is not less than 95 percent of its GVWR, and no capacity to carry occupants other than the driver and operating crew.

Heavy-duty vehicle means a vehicle as defined in § 523.6.

Incomplete vehicle means a vehicle, other than in § 523.7, which does not have the primary load carrying device or container attached when it is first sold as a vehicle or any vehicle that does not meet the definition of a complete vehicle. This may include vehicles sold to secondary vehicle manufacturers. Incomplete vehicles include cab-complete vehicles.

Innovative technology means technology certified as such under 40 CFR 1037.610.

Light truck means a non-passenger automobile as defined in § 523.5.

Medium duty passenger vehicle means a vehicle which would satisfy the criteria in § 523.5 (relating to light trucks) but for its gross vehicle weight rating or its curb weight, which is rated at more than 8,500 lbs GVWR or has a vehicle curb weight of more than 6,000 lbs or has a basic vehicle frontal area in excess of 45 square feet, and which is designed primarily to transport passengers, but does not include a vehicle that:

(1) Is an “incomplete vehicle” as defined in this subpart; or

(2) Has a seating capacity of more than 12 persons; or

(3) Is designed for more than 9 persons in seating rearward of the driver's seat; or

(4) Is equipped with an open cargo area (for example, a pick-up truck box or bed) of 72.0 inches in interior length or more. A covered box not readily accessible from the passenger compartment will be considered an open cargo area for purposes of this definition.

Mild hybrid vehicle has the meaning given in in 40 CFR 86.1803-01.

Motor home has the meaning given in 49 CFR 571.3.

Motor vehicle has the meaning given in 40 CFR 85.1703.

Passenger-carrying volume means the sum of the front seat volume and, if any, rear seat volume, as defined in 40 CFR 600.315-08, in the case of automobiles to which that term applies. With respect to automobiles to which that term does not apply, “passenger-carrying volume” means the sum in cubic feet, rounded to the nearest 0.1 cubic feet, of the volume of a vehicle's front seat and seats to the rear of the front seat, as applicable, calculated as follows with the head room, shoulder room, and leg room dimensions determined in accordance with the procedures outlined in Society of Automotive Engineers Recommended Practice J1100a, Motor Vehicle Dimensions (Report of Human Factors Engineering Committee, Society of Automotive Engineers, approved September 1973 and last revised September 1975).

(1) For front seat volume, divide 1,728 into the product of the following SAE dimensions, measured in inches to the nearest 0.1 inches, and round the quotient to the nearest 0.001 cubic feet.

(i) H61-Effective head room - front.

(ii) W3-Shoulder room - front.

(iii) L34-Maximum effective leg room - accelerator.

(2) For the volume of seats to the rear of the front seat, divide 1,728 into the product of the following SAE dimensions, measured in inches to the nearest 0.1 inches, and rounded the quotient to the nearest 0.001 cubic feet.

(i) H63-Effective head room - second.

(ii) W4-Shoulder room - second.

(iii) L51-Minimum effective leg room - second.

Pickup truck means a non-passenger automobile which has a passenger compartment and an open cargo area (bed).

Recreational vehicle or RV means a motor vehicle equipped with living space and amenities found in a motor home.

Running clearance means the distance from the surface on which an automobile is standing to the lowest point on the automobile, excluding unsprung weight.

Static loaded radius arc means a portion of a circle whose center is the center of a standard tire-rim combination of an automobile and whose radius is the distance from that center to the level surface on which the automobile is standing, measured with the automobile at curb weight, the wheel parallel to the vehicle's longitudinal centerline, and the tire inflated to the manufacturer's recommended pressure.

Strong hybrid vehicle has the meaning given in 40 CFR 86.1803-01.

Temporary living quarters means a space in the interior of an automobile in which people may temporarily live and which includes sleeping surfaces, such as beds, and household conveniences, such as a sink, stove, refrigerator, or toilet.

Van means a vehicle with a body that fully encloses the driver and a cargo carrying or work performing compartment. The distance from the leading edge of the windshield to the foremost body section of vans is typically shorter than that of pickup trucks and sport utility vehicles.

Vocational tractor means a tractor that is classified as a vocational vehicle according to 40 CFR 1037.630.

Vocational vehicle means a vehicle that is equipped for a particular industry, trade or occupation such as construction, heavy hauling, mining, logging, oil fields, refuse and includes vehicles such as school buses, motorcoaches and RVs.

Work truck means a vehicle that is rated at more than 8,500 pounds and less than or equal to 10,000 pounds gross vehicle weight, and is not a medium-duty passenger vehicle as defined in 40 CFR 86.1803 effective as of December 20, 2007.

[77 FR 63187, Oct. 15, 2012, as amended at 78 FR 36401, June 17, 2013]

This is a list of United States Code sections, Statutes at Large, Public Laws, and Presidential Documents, which provide rulemaking authority for this CFR Part.

This list is taken from the Parallel Table of Authorities and Rules provided by GPO [Government Printing Office].

It is not guaranteed to be accurate or up-to-date, though we do refresh the database weekly. More limitations on accuracy are described at the GPO site.


United States Code
U.S. Code: Title 49 - TRANSPORTATION