Utah Admin. Code R309-210-8 - Disinfection Byproducts - Stage 1 Requirements

(1) General requirements. The requirements in this subsection establish criteria under which community and non-transient non-community water systems that add a chemical disinfectant to the water in any part of the drinking water treatment process, shall modify their practices to meet MCLs and MRDLs in R309-200-5(3)(c) and meet treatment technique requirements in R309-215-12 and 13. The requirements of this sub-section also establish criteria under which transient non-community water systems that use chlorine dioxide shall modify their practices to meet MRDLs for chlorine dioxide in R309-200-5(3)(c).
(a) Compliance dates.
(i) Community and Non-transient non-community water systems. Surface water systems serving 10,000 or more persons must comply with this section beginning January 1, 2002. Surface water systems serving fewer than 10,000 persons and systems using only ground water not under the direct influence of surface water must comply with this section beginning January 1, 2004.
(ii) Transient non-community water systems. Surface water systems serving 10,000 or more persons and using chlorine dioxide as a disinfectant or oxidant must comply with any requirements for chlorine dioxide in this section beginning January 1, 2002. Surface water systems serving fewer than 10,000 persons and using chlorine dioxide as a disinfectant or oxidant and systems using only ground water not under the direct influence of surface water and using chlorine dioxide as a disinfectant or oxidant must comply with any requirements for chlorine dioxide in this section beginning January 1, 2004.
(b) Systems must take all samples during normal operating conditions.
(c) Systems may consider multiple wells drawing water from a single aquifer as one treatment plant for determining the minimum number of TTHM and HAA5 samples required, with approval from the Director.
(d) Failure to monitor in accordance with the monitoring plan required under paragraph (5) of this section is a monitoring violation.
(e) Failure to monitor will be treated as a violation for the entire period covered by the annual average where compliance is based on a running annual average of monthly or quarterly samples or averages and the system's failure to monitor makes it impossible to determine compliance with MCLs or MRDLs.
(f) Systems may use only data collected under the provisions of this section or the federal Information Collection Rule, (40 CFR, Part 141, Subpart M) to qualify for reduced monitoring.
(2) Monitoring requirements for disinfection byproducts.
(a) TTHMs and HAA5s
(i) Routine monitoring. Systems must monitor at the frequency indicated in the following:
(A) If a system elects to sample more frequently than the minimum required, at least 25 percent of all samples collected each quarter (including those taken in excess of the required frequency) must be taken at locations that represent the maximum residence time of the water in the distribution system. The remaining samples must be taken at locations representative of at least average residence time in the distribution system.
(B) Surface water systems serving at least 10,000 persons shall take four water samples per quarter per treatment plant. At least 25 percent of all samples collected each quarter shall be at locations representing maximum residence time. The remaining samples taken at locations representative of at least average residence time in the distribution system and representing the entire distribution system, taking into account number of persons served, different sources of water, and different treatment methods.
(C) Surface water systems serving from 500 to 9,999 persons shall take one water sample per quarter per treatment plant at a locations representing maximum residence time.
(D) Surface water systems serving fewer than 500 persons shall take one sample per year per treatment plant during month of warmest water temperature at a location representing maximum residence time. If the sample (or average of annual samples, if more than one sample is taken) exceeds the MCL, the system must increase monitoring to one sample per treatment plant per quarter, taken at a point reflecting the maximum residence time in the distribution system, until the system meets reduced monitoring criteria in paragraph (2)(a)(v) of this section.
(E) Systems using only ground water not under direct influence of surface water using chemical disinfectant and serving at least 10,000 persons shall take one water sample per quarter per treatment plant at a locations representing maximum residence time.
(F) Systems using only ground water not under direct influence of surface water using chemical disinfectant and serving fewer than 10,000 persons shall take one sample per year per treatment plant during month of warmest water temperature at a location representing maximum residence time. If the sample (or average of annual samples, if more than one sample is taken) exceeds the MCL, the system must increase monitoring to one sample per treatment plant per quarter, taken at a point reflecting the maximum residence time in the distribution system, until the system meets criteria in paragraph (2) (a)(v) of this section for reduced monitoring.
(ii) Systems may reduce monitoring, except as otherwise provided, if the system has monitored for at least one year and is in accordance with the following paragraphs. Any Surface water system serving fewer than 500 persons may not reduce its monitoring to less than one sample per treatment plant per year.
(A) A surface water system serving at least 10,000 persons which has a source water annual average TOC level, before any treatment, of less than or equal to 4.0 mg/L and has a TTHM annual average of less than or equal to 0.040 mg/L and has a HAA5 annual average of less than or equal to 0.030 mg/L may reduce monitoring to one sample per treatment plant per quarter at a distribution system location reflecting maximum residence time.
(B) A surface water system serving from 500 to 9,999 persons which has a source water annual average TOC level, before any treatment, of less than or equal to 4.0 mg/L and has a TTHM annual average of less than or equal to 0.040 mg/L and has a HAA5 annual average of less than or equal to 0.030 mg/L may reduce monitoring to one sample per treatment plant per year at a distribution system location reflecting maximum residence time during the month of warmest water temperature.
(C) A system using only ground water not under direct influence of surface water using chemical disinfectant and serving at least 10,000 persons that has a TTHM annual average of less than or equal to 0.040 mg/L and has a HAA5 annual average of less than or equal to 0.030 mg/L may reduce monitoring to one sample per treatment plant per year at a distribution system location reflecting maximum residence time during the month of warmest water temperature.
(D) A system using only ground water not under direct influence of surface water using chemical disinfectant and serving fewer than 10,000 persons that has a TTHM annual average of less than or equal to 0.040 mg/L and has a HAA5 annual average of less than or equal to 0.030 mg/L for two consecutive years or has a TTHM annual average of less than or equal to 0.020 mg/L and has a HAA5 annual average of less than or equal to 0.015mg/L for one year may reduce monitoring to one sample per treatment plant per three year monitoring cycle at a distribution system location reflecting maximum residence time during the month of warmest water temperature, with the three-year cycle beginning on January 1 following the quarter in which the system qualifies for reduced monitoring.
(iii) Monitoring requirements for source water TOC in order to qualify for reduced monitoring for TTHM and HAA5 under paragraph (2)(a)(ii) of this section, surface water systems not monitoring under the provisions of paragraph (d) of this section must take monthly TOC samples every 30 days at a location prior to any treatment, beginning April 1, 2008 or earlier, if specified by the Director. In addition to meeting other criteria for reduced monitoring in paragraph (2)(a)(ii) of this section, the source water TOC running annual average must be equal to or less than 4.0 mg/L (based on the most recent four quarters of monitoring) on a continuing basis at each treatment plant to reduce or remain on reduced monitoring for TTHM and HAA5. Once qualified for reduced monitoring for TTHM and HAA5 under paragraph (2)(a)(ii) of this section, a system may reduce source water TOC monitoring to quarterly TOC samples taken every 90 days at a location prior to any treatment.
(iv) Systems on a reduced monitoring schedule may remain on that reduced schedule as long as the average of all samples taken in the year (for systems which must monitor quarterly) or the result of the sample (for systems which must monitor no more frequently than annually) is no more than 0.060 mg/L and 0.045 mg/L for TTHMs and HAA5, respectively. Systems that do not meet these levels must resume monitoring at the frequency identified in paragraph (2)(a)(i) of this section in the quarter immediately following the monitoring period in which the system exceeds 0.060 mg/L or 0.045 mg/L for TTHM or HAA5, respectively. For systems using only ground water not under the direct influence of surface water and serving fewer than 10,000 persons, if either the TTHM annual average is greater than 0.080 mg/L or the HAA5 annual average is greater than 0.060 mg/L, the system must go to the increased monitoring identified in paragraph (2)(a)(i) of this section in the quarter immediately following the monitoring period in which the system exceeds 0.080 mg/L or 0.060 mg/L for TTHMs or HAA5 respectively.
(v) Systems on increased monitoring may return to routine monitoring if, after at least one year of monitoring their TTHM annual average is less than or equal to 0.060 mg/L and their HAA5 annual average is less than or equal to 0.045 mg/L.
(vi) The Director may return a system to routine monitoring when appropriate to protect public health.
(b) Chlorite. Community and non-transient non-community water systems using chlorine dioxide, for disinfection or oxidation, must conduct monitoring for chlorite.
(i) Routine monitoring.
(A) Daily monitoring. Systems must take daily samples at the entrance to the distribution system. For any daily sample that exceeds the chlorite MCL, the system must take additional samples in the distribution system the following day at the locations required by paragraph (2)(b)(ii) of this section, in addition to the sample required at the entrance to the distribution system.
(B) Monthly monitoring. Systems must take a three-sample set each month in the distribution system. The system must take one sample at each of the following locations: near the first customer, at a location representative of average residence time, and at a location reflecting maximum residence time in the distribution system. Any additional routine sampling must be conducted in the same manner (as three-sample sets, at the specified locations). The system may use the results of additional monitoring conducted under paragraph (2)(b)(ii) of this section to meet the requirement for monitoring in this paragraph.
(ii) Additional monitoring. On each day following a routine sample monitoring result that exceeds the chlorite MCL at the entrance to the distribution system, the system is required to take three chlorite distribution system samples at the following locations: as close to the first customer as possible, in a location representative of average residence time, and as close to the end of the distribution system as possible (reflecting maximum residence time in the distribution system).
(iii) Reduced monitoring.
(A) Chlorite monitoring at the entrance to the distribution system required by paragraph (2)(b)(i)(A) of this section may not be reduced.
(B) Chlorite monitoring in the distribution system required by paragraph (2)(b)(i)(B) of this section may be reduced to one three-sample set per quarter after one year of monitoring where no individual chlorite sample taken in the distribution system under paragraph (2)(b)(i)(B) of this section has exceeded the chlorite MCL and the system has not been required to conduct monitoring under paragraph (2)(b)(ii) of this section. The system may remain on the reduced monitoring schedule until either any of the three individual chlorite samples taken monthly in the distribution system under paragraph (2)(b)(i)(B) of this section exceeds the chlorite MCL or the system is required to conduct monitoring under paragraph (2)(b)(ii) of this section, at which time the system must revert to routine monitoring.
(c) Bromate.
(i) Routine monitoring. Community and nontransient noncommunity systems using ozone, for disinfection or oxidation, must take one sample per month for each treatment plant in the system using ozone. Systems must take samples monthly at the entrance to the distribution system while the ozonation system is operating under normal conditions.
(ii) Reduced monitoring.
(A) Until March 31, 2009, systems required to analyze for bromate may reduce monitoring from monthly to once per quarter, if the system demonstrates that the average source water bromide concentration is less than 0.05 mg/L based upon representative monthly bromide measurements for one year. The system may remain on reduced bromate monitoring until the running annual average source water bromide concentration, computed quarterly, is equal to or greater than 0.05 mg/L based upon representative monthly measurements. If the running annual average source water bromide concentration is greater than or equal to 0.05 mg/L, the system must resume routine monitoring required by paragraph (2)(c)(i) of this section in the following month.
(B) Beginning April 1, 2009, systems may no longer use the provisions of paragraph (2)(c)(ii)(A) of this section to qualify for reduced monitoring. A system required to analyze for bromate may reduce monitoring from monthly to quarterly, if the system's running annual average bromate concentration is equal to or less than 0.0025 mg/L based on monthly bromate measurements under paragraph (2)(c) (i) of this section for the most recent four quarters, with samples analyzed using Method 317.0 Revision 2.0, 326.0 or 321.8. If a system has qualified for reduced bromate monitoring under paragraph (2)(c)(ii)(A) of this section, that system may remain on reduced monitoring as long as the running annual average of quarterly bromate samples is less than or equal to 0.0025 mg/L based on samples analyzed using Method 317.0 Revision 2.0, 326.0 or 321.8. If the running annual average bromate concentration is greater than 0.0025 mg/L, the system must resume routine monitoring required by (2)(c)(i) of this section.
(3) Monitoring requirements for disinfectant residuals.
(a) Chlorine and chloramines.
(i) Routine monitoring. Community and non-transient non-community water systems that use chlorine or chloramines must measure the residual disinfectant level in the distribution system at the same point in the distribution system and at the same time as total coliforms are sampled, as specified in R309-211. Systems that use surface water may use the results of residual disinfectant concentration sampling conducted in R309-215-10(4), in lieu of taking separate samples.
(ii) In addition, ground water systems shall take the following readings at each facility a minimum of three times a week: the total volume of water treated; the type and amount of disinfectant used in treating the water (clearly indicating the weight if gas feeders are used, or the percent solution and volume fed if liquid feeders are used); and the setting of the rotometer valve or injector pump. Surface water systems may use the results of residual disinfectant concentration sampling conducted under R309-215-10(3) for systems which filter, in lieu of taking separate samples.
(iii) Reduced monitoring. Monitoring may not be reduced.
(b) Chlorine Dioxide.
(i) Routine monitoring. Community, nontransient noncommunity, and transient noncommunity water systems that use chlorine dioxide for disinfection or oxidation must take daily samples at the entrance to the distribution system. For any daily sample that exceeds the MRDL, the system must take samples in the distribution system the following day at the locations required by paragraph (3)(b) (ii) of this section, in addition to the sample required at the entrance to the distribution system.
(ii) Additional monitoring. On each day following a routine sample monitoring result that exceeds the MRDL, the system is required to take three chlorine dioxide distribution system samples. If chlorine dioxide or chloramines are used to maintain a disinfectant residual in the distribution system, or if chlorine is used to maintain a disinfectant residual in the distribution system and there are no disinfection addition points after the entrance to the distribution system (i.e., no booster chlorination), the system must take three samples as close to the first customer as possible, at intervals of at least six hours. If chlorine is used to maintain a disinfectant residual in the distribution system and there are one or more disinfection addition points after the entrance to the distribution system (i.e., booster chlorination), the system must take one sample at each of the following locations: as close to the first customer as possible, in a location representative of average residence time, and as close to the end of the distribution system as possible (reflecting maximum residence time in the distribution system).
(iii) Reduced monitoring. Chlorine dioxide monitoring may not be reduced.
(4) Bromide. Systems required to analyze for bromate may reduce bromate monitoring from monthly to once per quarter, if the system demonstrates that the average source water bromide concentration is less than 0.05 mg/L based upon representative monthly measurements for one year. The system must continue bromide monitoring to remain on reduced bromate monitoring.
(5) Monitoring plans. Each system required to monitor under this section must develop and implement a monitoring plan. The system must maintain the plan and make it available for inspection by the Director and the general public no later than 30 days following the applicable compliance dates in R309-210-8(1)(a). All Surface water systems serving more than 3300 people must submit a copy of the monitoring plan to the Director no later than the date of the first report required under R309-105-16(2). The Director may also require the plan to be submitted by any other system. After review, the Director may require changes in any plan elements. The plan must include at least the following elements.
(a) Specific locations and schedules for collecting samples for any parameters included in this subpart.
(b) How the system will calculate compliance with MCLs, MRDLs, and treatment techniques.
(c) If approved for monitoring as a consecutive system, or if providing water to a consecutive system, the Director may modify the monitoring requirements treating the systems as a single distribution system, however, the sampling plan shall reflect the entire distribution system of all interconnected systems.
(6) Compliance requirements.
(a) General requirements.
(i) Where compliance is based on a running annual average of monthly or quarterly samples or averages and the system fails to monitor for TTHM, HAA5, or bromate, this failure to monitor will be treated as a monitoring violation for the entire period covered by the annual average. Where compliance is based on a running annual average of monthly or quarterly samples or averages and the system's failure to monitor makes it impossible to determine compliance with MRDLs for chlorine and chloramines, this failure to monitor will be treated as a monitoring violation for the entire period covered by the annual average.
(ii) All samples taken and analyzed under the provisions of this section shall be included in determining compliance, even if that number is greater than the minimum required.
(iii) If, during the first year of monitoring under R309-210-8, any individual quarter's average will cause the running annual average of that system to exceed the MCL, the system is out of compliance at the end of that quarter.
(b) Disinfection byproducts.
(i) TTHMs and HAA5.
(A) For systems monitoring quarterly, compliance with MCLs in R309-200-5(3)(c) shall be based on a running annual arithmetic average, computed quarterly, of quarterly arithmetic averages of all samples collected by the system as prescribed by R309-210-8(2)(a).
(B) For systems monitoring less frequently than quarterly, systems demonstrate MCL compliance if the average of samples taken that year under the provisions of R309-210-8(2)(a) does not exceed the MCLs in R309-200-5(3)(c). If the average of these samples exceeds the MCL, the system shall increase monitoring to once per quarter per treatment plant and such a system is not in violation of the MCL until it has completed one year of quarterly monitoring, unless the result of fewer than four quarters of monitoring will cause the running annual average to exceed the MCL, in which case the system is in violation at the end of that quarter. Systems required to increase monitoring frequency to quarterly monitoring shall calculate compliance by including the sample which triggered the increased monitoring plus the following three quarters of monitoring.
(C) If the running annual arithmetic average of quarterly averages covering any consecutive four-quarter period exceeds the MCL, the system is in violation of the MCL and shall notify the public pursuant to R309-220, in addition to reporting to the Director pursuant to R309-105-16.
(D) If a PWS fails to complete four consecutive quarters of monitoring, compliance with the MCL for the last four-quarter compliance period shall be based on an average of the available data.
(ii) Chlorite. Compliance shall be based on an arithmetic average of each three sample set taken in the distribution system as prescribed by R309-210-8(2)(b)(i)(B) and (2)(b)(ii). If the arithmetic average of any three sample sets exceeds the MCL, the system is in violation of the MCL and shall notify the public pursuant to R309-220, in addition to reporting to the Director pursuant to R309-105-16.
(iii) Bromate. Compliance shall be based on a running annual arithmetic average, computed quarterly, of monthly samples (or, for months in which the system takes more than one sample, the average of all samples taken during the month) collected by the system as prescribed by R309-210-8(2)(c). If the average of samples covering any consecutive four-quarter period exceeds the MCL, the system is in violation of the MCL and shall notify the public pursuant to R309-220, in addition to reporting to the Director pursuant to R309-105-16. If a PWS fails to complete 12 consecutive months' monitoring, compliance with the MCL for the last four-quarter compliance period shall be based on an average of the available data.
(c) Disinfectant residuals.
(i) Chlorine and chloramines.
(A) Compliance shall be based on a running annual arithmetic average, computed quarterly, of monthly averages of all samples collected by the system under R309-210-8(3)(a). If the average covering any consecutive four-quarter period exceeds the MRDL, the system is in violation of the MRDL and shall notify the public pursuant to R309-220, in addition to reporting to the Director pursuant to R309-105-16.
(B) In cases where systems switch between the use of chlorine and chloramines for residual disinfection during the year, compliance shall be determined by including together all monitoring results of both chlorine and chloramines in calculating compliance. Reports submitted pursuant to R309-105-16 shall clearly indicate which residual disinfectant was analyzed for each sample.
(ii) Chlorine dioxide.
(A) Acute violations. Compliance shall be based on consecutive daily samples collected by the system under R309-210-8(3)(b). If any daily sample taken at the entrance to the distribution system exceeds the MRDL, and on the following day one (or more) of the three samples taken in the distribution system exceed the MRDL, the system is in violation of the MRDL and shall take immediate corrective action to lower the level of chlorine dioxide below the MRDL and shall notify the public pursuant to the procedures for acute health risks in R309-220-5. Failure to take samples in the distribution system the day following an exceedance of the chlorine dioxide MRDL at the entrance to the distribution system will also be considered an MRDL violation and the system shall notify the public of the violation in accordance with the provisions for acute violations under R309-220-5 in addition to reporting the Director pursuant to R309-105-16.
(B) Nonacute violations. Compliance shall be based on consecutive daily samples collected by the system under R309-210-8(3)(b). If any two consecutive daily samples taken at the entrance to the distribution system exceed the MRDL and all distribution system samples taken are below the MRDL, the system is in violation of the MRDL and shall take corrective action to lower the level of chlorine dioxide below the MRDL at the point of sampling and will notify the public pursuant to the procedures for nonacute health risks in R309-220-6 in addition to reporting to the Director pursuant to R309-105-16. Failure to monitor at the entrance to the distribution system the day following an exceedance of the chlorine dioxide MRDL at the entrance to the distribution system is also an MRDL violation and the system shall notify the public of the violation in accordance with the provisions for nonacute violations under R309-220-6 in addition to reporting to the Director pursuant to R309-105-16.

Notes

Utah Admin. Code R309-210-8
Amended by Utah State Bulletin Number 2016-10, effective 5/1/2016 Amended by Utah State Bulletin Number 2019-3, effective 1/15/2019

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