The Bankruptcy Rules and Forms govern procedure in cases under title 11 of the United States Code. The rules shall be cited as the Federal Rules of Bankruptcy Procedure and the forms as the Official Bankruptcy Forms. These rules shall be construed to secure the just, speedy, and inexpensive determination of every case and proceeding.
(As amended Mar. 30, 1987, eff. Aug. 1, 1987; Apr. 30, 1991, eff. Aug. 1, 1991.)
Notes of Advisory Committee on Rules—1983
Section 247 of Public Law 95–598, 92 Stat. 2549 amended 28 U.S.C. §2075 by omitting the last sentence. The effect of the amendment is to require that procedural rules promulgated pursuant to 28 U.S.C. §2075 be consistent with the bankruptcy statute, both titles 11 and 28 U.S.C. Thus, although Rule 1001 sets forth the scope of the bankruptcy rules and forms, any procedural matters contained in title 11 or 28 U.S.C. with respect to cases filed under 11 U.S.C. would control. See 1 Collier, Bankruptcy 3.04 [c] (15th ed. 1980).
28 U.S.C. §151 establishes a United States Bankruptcy Court in each district as an adjunct to the district court. This provision does not, however, become effective until April 1, 1984. Public Law 95–598, §402(b). From October 1, 1979 through March 31, 1984, the courts of bankruptcy as defined in §1(10) of the Bankruptcy Act, and created in §2a of that Act continue to be the courts of bankruptcy. Public Law 95–598, §404(a). From their effective date these rules and forms are to be applicable in cases filed under chapters 7, 9, 11 and 13 of title 11 regardless of whether the court is established by the Bankruptcy Act or by 28 U.S.C. §151. Rule 9001 contains a broad and general definition of “bankruptcy court,” “court” and “United States Bankruptcy Court” for this purpose.
“Bankruptcy Code” or “Code” as used in these rules means title 11 of the United States Code, the codification of the bankruptcy law. Public Law 95–598, §101. See Rule 9001.
“Bankruptcy Act” as used in the notes to these rules means the Bankruptcy Act of 1898 as amended which was repealed by §401(a) of Public Law 95–598.
These rules apply to all cases filed under the Code except as otherwise specifically stated.
The final sentence of the rule is derived from former Bankruptcy Rule 903. The objective of “expeditious and economical administration” of cases under the Code has frequently been recognized by the courts to be “a chief purpose of the bankruptcy laws.” See Katchen v. Landy, 382 U.S. 323, 328 (1966): Bailey v. Glover, 88 U.S. (21 Wall.) 342, 346–47 (1874): Ex parte Christy, 44 U.S. (3 How.) 292, 312–14, 320–22 (1845). The rule also incorporates the wholesome mandate of the last sentence of Rule 1 of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure. 2 Moore, Federal Practice 1.13 (2d ed. 1980); 4 Wright & Miller, Federal Practice and Procedure-Civil §1029 (1969).
Notes of Advisory Committee on Rules—1987 Amendment
Title I of the Bankruptcy Amendments and Federal Judgeship Act of 1984, Pub. L. No. 98–353, 98 Stat. 333 (hereinafter the 1984 amendments), created a new bankruptcy judicial system in which the role of the district court was substantially increased. 28 U.S.C. §1334 confers on the United States district courts original and exclusive jurisdiction over all cases under title 11 of the United States Code and original but not exclusive jurisdiction over civil proceedings arising under title 11 and civil proceedings arising in or related to a case under title 11.
Pursuant to 28 U.S.C. §157(a) the district court may but need not refer cases and proceedings within the district court's jurisdiction to the bankruptcy judges for the district. Judgments or orders of the bankruptcy judges entered pursuant to 28 U.S.C. §157(b)(1) and (c)(2) are subject to appellate review by the district courts or bankruptcy appellate panels under 28 U.S.C. §158(a).
Rule 81(a)(1) F.R.Civ.P. provides that the civil rules do not apply to proceedings in bankruptcy, except as they may be made applicable by rules promulgated by the Supreme Court, e.g., Part VII of these rules. This amended Bankruptcy Rule 1001 makes the Bankruptcy Rules applicable to cases and proceedings under title 11, whether before the district judges or the bankruptcy judges of the district.
Notes of Advisory Committee on Rules—1991 Amendment
The citation to these rules is amended to conform to the citation form of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure, Federal Rules of Appellate Procedure, and Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure.