12 U.S. Code § 3102 - Establishment of Federal branches and agencies by foreign bank
Except as provided in section 3103 of this title, a foreign bank which engages directly in a banking business outside the United States may, with the approval of the Comptroller, establish one or more Federal branches or agencies in any State in which (1) it is not operating a branch or agency pursuant to State law and (2) the establishment of a branch or agency, as the case may be, by a foreign bank is not prohibited by State law.
In considering any application for approval under this subsection, the Comptroller of the Currency shall include any condition imposed by the Board under section 3105(d)(5) of this title as a condition for the approval of such application by the agency.
In establishing and operating a Federal branch or agency, a foreign bank shall be subject to such rules, regulations, and orders as the Comptroller considers appropriate to carry out this section, which shall include provisions for service of process and maintenance of branch and agency accounts separate from those of the parent bank. Except as otherwise specifically provided in this chapter or in rules, regulations, or orders adopted by the Comptroller under this section, operations of a foreign bank at a Federal branch or agency shall be conducted with the same rights and privileges as a national bank at the same location and shall be subject to all the same duties, restrictions, penalties, liabilities, conditions, and limitations that would apply under the National Bank Act to a national bank doing business at the same location, except that (1) any limitation or restriction based on the capital stock and surplus of a national bank shall be deemed to refer, as applied to a Federal branch or agency, to the dollar equivalent of the capital stock and surplus of the foreign bank, and if the foreign bank has more than one Federal branch or agency the business transacted by all such branches and agencies shall be aggregated in determining compliance with the limitation; (2) a Federal branch or agency shall not be required to become a member bank, as that term is defined in section 221 of this title; and (3) a Federal agency shall not be required to become an insured bank as that term is defined in section 1813(h) of this title. The Comptroller of the Currency shall coordinate examinations of Federal branches and agencies of foreign banks with examinations conducted by the Board under section 3105(c)(1) of this title and, to the extent possible, shall participate in any simultaneous examinations of the United States operations of a foreign bank requested by the Board under such section.
In acting on any application to establish a Federal branch or agency, the Comptroller shall take into account the effects of the proposal on competition in the domestic and foreign commerce of the United States, the financial and managerial resources and future prospects of the applicant foreign bank and the branch or agency, and the convenience and needs of the community to be served.
Notwithstanding any other provision of this section, a foreign bank shall not receive deposits or exercise fiduciary powers at any Federal agency. A foreign bank may, however, maintain at a Federal agency for the account of others credit balances incidental to, or arising out of, the exercise of its lawful powers.
No foreign bank may maintain both a Federal branch and a Federal agency in the same State.
Any branch or agency operated by a foreign bank in a State pursuant to State law and any commercial lending company controlled by a foreign bank may be converted into a Federal branch or agency with the approval of the Comptroller. In the event of any conversion pursuant to this subsection, all of the liabilities of such foreign bank previously payable at the State branch or agency, or all of the liabilities of the commercial lending company, shall thereafter be payable by such foreign bank at the branch or agency established under this subsection.
A foreign bank with a Federal branch or agency operating in any State may (A) with the prior approval of the Comptroller establish and operate additional branches or agencies in the State in which such branch or agency is located on the same terms and conditions and subject to the same limitations and restrictions as are applicable to the establishment of branches by a national bank if the principal office of such national bank were located at the same place as the initial branch or agency in such State of such foreign bank and (B) change the designation of its initial branch or agency to any other branch or agency subject to the same limitations and restrictions as are applicable to a change in the designation of the principal office of a national bank if such principal office were located at the same place as such initial branch or agency.
Authority to operate a Federal branch or agency shall terminate when the parent foreign bank voluntarily relinquishes it or when such parent foreign bank is dissolved or its authority or existence is otherwise terminated or canceled in the country of its organization. If (1) at any time the Comptroller is of the opinion or has reasonable cause to believe that such foreign bank has violated or failed to comply with any of the provisions of this section or any of the rules, regulations, or orders of the Comptroller made pursuant to this section, or (2) a conservator is appointed for such foreign bank or a similar proceeding is initiated in the foreign bank’s country of organization, the Comptroller shall have the power, after opportunity for hearing, to revoke the foreign bank’s authority to operate a Federal branch or agency. The Comptroller may, in his discretion, deny such opportunity for hearing if he determines such denial to be in the public interest. The Comptroller may restore any such authority upon due proof of compliance with the provisions of this section and the rules, regulations, or orders of the Comptroller made pursuant to this section.
For definition of “this chapter”, referred to in subsec. (b), see References in Text note set out under section 3101 of this title.
The National Bank Act, referred to in subsec. (b), is act June 3, 1864, ch. 106, 13 Stat. 99, as amended, which is classified principally to chapter 2 (§ 21 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see References in Text note set out under section 38 of this title.
Section 3104 of this title, referred to in subsec. (g)(1), was in the original a reference to section 6 of Pub. L. 95–369, which enacted section 3104 of this title and amended sections 1813, 1815, 1817, 1818, 1820, 1821, 1822, 1823, 1828, 1829b, and 1831b of this title.
2000—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 106–569 redesignated cls. (2) to (4) as (1) to (3), respectively, and struck out former cl. (1) which read as follows: “the requirements of section 481 of this title shall be met with respect to a Federal branch or agency if it is examined at least once in each calendar year;”.
1991—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 102–242, § 202(b), inserted heading, designated existing provisions as par. (1) and inserted heading, and added par. (2).
Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 102–242, § 203(b), inserted at end: “The Comptroller of the Currency shall coordinate examinations of Federal branches and agencies of foreign banks with examinations conducted by the Board under section 3105(c)(1) of this title and, to the extent possible, shall participate in any simultaneous examinations of the United States operations of a foreign bank requested by the Board under such section.”
Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 102–242, § 202(c), amended heading, designated existing provisions as par. (1), inserted par. (1) heading, redesignated former pars. (1) and (2) as subpars. (A) and (B), respectively, and added par. (2).
Pub. L. 102–242, title II, § 215, Dec. 19, 1991, 105 Stat. 2304, as amended by Pub. L. 102–550, title XVI, § 1604(a)(14), Oct. 28, 1992, 106 Stat. 4083, directed Secretary of the Treasury, jointly with Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System and in consultation with Comptroller of the Currency, Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, and Attorney General, to conduct a study of whether foreign banks should be required to conduct banking operations in United States through subsidiaries rather than branches and, not later than 1 year after Dec. 19, 1991, to transmit to Congress a report on the results of the study.