1990—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 101–508, § 6203(a)(1), inserted “habitat areas of the” before “coastal zone”.
Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 101–508, § 6203(a)(2), inserted “exclusive economic zone,” after “territorial sea,”.
Subsecs. (k) to (m). Pub. L. 101–508, § 6203(a)(3), added subsecs. (k) to (m).
1980—Subsecs. (f) to (j). Pub. L. 96–464, § 2(1), (2), added subsec. (f) and redesignated former subsecs. (f) to (i) as (g) to (j), respectively.
1976—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 94–370, § 2(1), inserted “ecological,” after “recreational,”.
Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 94–370, § 2(3), added subsec. (i).
Short Title of 1996 Amendment
Pub. L. 104–150, § 1, June 3, 1996, 110 Stat. 1380, provided that:
“This Act [enacting section 1465 of this title
, amending sections 1454, 1455a, 1456a, 1456b, 1461, and 1464 of this title, and enacting provisions set out as a note under section 1454 of this title
] may be cited as the ‘Coastal Zone Protection Act of 1996
Short Title of 1990 Amendment
Pub. L. 101–508, title VI, § 6201, Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388–299, provided that:
“This subtitle [subtitle C (§§ 6201–6217) of title VI of Pub. L. 101–508
, enacting sections 1455b, 1456c, and 1460 of this title, amending this section and sections 1452 to 1456b, 1458, 1461, and 1464 of this title, and enacting provisions set out as notes under this section and section 1455 of this title
] may be cited as the ‘Coastal Zone Act Reauthorization Amendments of 1990
Short Title of 1986 Amendment
Pub. L. 99–272, title VI, § 6041, Apr. 7, 1986, 100 Stat. 124, provided that:
“This subtitle [subtitle D (§§ 6041–6047) of title VI of Pub. L. 99–272
, amending sections 1455, 1455a, 1456a, 1458, 1461, and 1464 of this title, repealing sections 1456c and 1460 of this title, and repealing provisions set out as a note under this section] may be cited as the ‘Coastal Zone Management Reauthorization Act of 1985
Short Title of 1980 Amendment
Pub. L. 96–464, § 1, Oct. 17, 1980, 94 Stat. 2060, provided:
“That this Act [enacting sections 1455a
of this title, amending this section and sections 1452
, and 1464
of this title, and enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 1455
, and 1463a
of this title] may be cited as the ‘Coastal Zone Management Improvement Act of 1980
Short Title of 1976 Amendment
Pub. L. 94–370, § 1, July 26, 1976, 90 Stat. 1013, provided:
“That this Act [enacting section 1511a of Title 15
, Commerce and Trade, and sections 1456a to 1456c of this title, amending this section, sections 1453 to 1456 and 1457 to 1464 of this title, and section 5316 of Title 5
, Government Organization and Employees, and enacting provisions set out as notes under section 1511a of Title 15
and section 1462 of this title
] may be cited as the ‘Coastal Zone Management Act Amendments of 1976
Pub. L. 110–114, title V, § 5022, Nov. 8, 2007, 121 Stat. 1203, provided that:
[of the Army] may participate with Federal, State, and local agencies, non-Federal and nonprofit entities, regional researchers, and other interested parties to assess hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico.”
Harmful Algal Blooms and Hypoxia Research and Control
Pub. L. 108–456, title I, § 102 (part), Dec. 10, 2004, 118 Stat. 3630, formerly set out as a note under this section, was transferred to section 4001a of Title 33, Navigation and Navigable Waters.
Pub. L. 105–383, title VI, Nov. 13, 1998, 112 Stat. 3447, as amended by Pub. L. 108–456, title I, §§ 102–105, Dec. 10, 2004, 118 Stat. 3630–3633; Pub. L. 110–161, div. B, title V, § 528, Dec. 26, 2007, 121 Stat. 1930, formerly set out as a note under this section, was transferred to chapter 53 (§ 4001 et seq.) of Title 33, Navigation and Navigable Waters.
Findings and Purpose of Coastal Zone Act Reauthorization Amendments of 1990
Pub. L. 101–508, title VI, § 6202, Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388–299, provided that:
“(a) Findings.—Congress finds and declares the following:
Our oceans, coastal waters
, and estuaries constitute a unique resource. The condition of the water quality in and around the coastal areas is significantly declining. Growing human pressures on the coastal ecosystem will continue to degrade this resource until adequate actions and policies are implemented.
Almost one-half of our total population now lives in coastal areas. By 2010, the coastal population will have grown from 80,000,000 in 1960 to 127,000,000 people, an increase of approximately 60 percent, and population density in coastal counties will be among the highest in the Nation.
Marine resources contribute to the Nation’s economic stability. Commercial and recreational fishery activities support an industry with an estimated value of $12,000,000,000 a year.
Wetlands play a vital role in sustaining the coastal economy and environment. Wetlands support and nourish fishery and marine resources. They also protect the Nation’s shores from storm and wave damage. Coastal wetlands contribute an estimated $5,000,000,000 to the production of fish and shellfish in the United States coastal waters
. Yet, 50 percent of the Nation’s coastal wetlands have been destroyed, and more are likely to decline in the near future.
Nonpoint source pollution is increasingly recognized as a significant factor in coastal water degradation. In urban areas, storm water and combined sewer overflow are linked to major coastal problems, and in rural areas, run-off from agricultural activities may add to coastal pollution.
Coastal planning and development control measures are essential to protect coastal water quality, which is subject to continued ongoing stresses. Currently, not enough is being done to manage and protect our coastal resources.
Global warming results from the accumulation of man-made gases, released into the atmosphere from such activities as the burning of fossil fuels, deforestation, and the production of chlorofluorocarbons, which trap solar heat in the atmosphere and raise temperatures worldwide. Global warming could result in significant global sea level rise by 2050 resulting from ocean expansion, the melting of snow and ice, and the gradual melting of the polar ice cap. Sea level rise will result in the loss of natural resources such as beaches, dunes, estuaries, and wetlands, and will contribute to the salinization of drinking water supplies. Sea level rise will also result in damage to properties, infrastructures, and public works. There is a growing need to plan for sea level rise.
It is the purpose of Congress
in this subtitle [see Short Title of 1990 Amendment note above] to enhance the effectiveness of the Coastal Zone Management Act of 1972
[16 U.S.C. 1451
et seq.] by increasing our understanding of the coastal environment and expanding the ability of State coastal zone
management programs to address coastal environmental problems.”
Establishment of Positions and Fixing of Compensation by Secretary of Commerce; Appointments
Pub. L. 94–370, § 15(c), July 26, 1976, 90 Stat. 1032, related to establishment and compensation of four new positions without regard to the provisions of chapter 51 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 99–272, title VI, § 6045(3), Apr. 7, 1986, 100 Stat. 127.
Territorial Sea of United States
For extension of territorial sea of United States, see Proc. No. 5928, set out as a note under section 1331 of Title 43, Public Lands.
Executive Order No. 13554
Ex. Ord. No. 13554, Oct. 5, 2010, 75 F.R. 62313, which established the Gulf Coast Ecosystem Restoration Task Force, was revoked, concurrent with the termination of the Task Force, by Ex. Ord. No. 13626, § 6(d), Sept. 10, 2012, 77 F.R. 56752, set out as a note under section 1321 of Title 33, Navigation and Navigable Waters.