Findings and Purposes of Trade, Customs, and Tariff Laws
Pub. L. 100–418, title I, § 1001, Aug. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 1119, provided that:
“(a) Findings.—The Congress finds that—
in the last 10 years there has arisen a new global economy in which trade, technological development, investment, and services
form an integrated system; and in this system these activities affect each other and the health of the United States
the United States
is confronted with a fundamental disequilibrium in its trade and current account balances and a rapid increase in its net external debt;
“(3) such disequilibrium and increase are a result of numerous factors, including—
disparities between the macroeconomic policies of the major trading nations,
instabilities and structural defects in the world monetary system,
the growth of debt throughout the developing world,
structural defects in the world trading system and inadequate enforcement of trade agreement
governmental distortions and barriers
inadequate growth in the productivity and competitiveness of United States firms
and industries relative to their overseas competition;
“(4) it is essential, and should be the highest priority of the United States Government, to pursue a broad array of domestic and international policies—
to ensure future stability in external trade of the United States
to guarantee the continued vitality of the technological, industrial, and agricultural base of the United States
the President should be authorized and encouraged to negotiate trade agreements
and related investment, financial, intellectual property, and services
agreements that meet the standards
set forth in this title [see Tables for classification]; and
while the United States
is not in a position to dictate economic policy to the rest of the world, the United States
is in a position to lead the world and it is in the national interest for the United States
to do so.
“(b) Purposes.—The purposes of this title [see Tables for classification] are to—
improve the development and management of United States
trade strategy; and
through these actions, improve standards
of living in the world.”
Ex. Ord. No. 12661. Implementing Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act of 1988 and Related International Trade Matters
Ex. Ord. No. 12661, Dec. 27, 1988, 54 F.R. 779, as amended by Ex. Ord. No. 12697, Dec. 22, 1989, 54 F.R. 53037; Ex. Ord. No. 12716, May 24, 1990, 55 F.R. 21831; Ex. Ord. No. 12774, Sept. 27, 1991, 56 F.R. 49835, provided:
By virtue of the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and laws of the United States of America, including the Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act of 1988 (P.L. 100–418, 102 Stat. 1107) (“Omnibus Trade Act”) [see Short Title note above], the Tariff Act of 1930 (Chapter 497, 46 Stat. 590, June 17, 1930), as amended (“Tariff Act”) [19 U.S.C. 1202 et seq.], the National Defense Authorization Act, Fiscal Year 1989 (P.L. 100–456, 102 Stat. 1918) (“Defense Authorization Act”) [see Tables for classification], section 301 of Title 3 of the United States Code, and, in general, to ensure that the international trade policy of the United States shall be conducted and administered in a way that achieves the economic, foreign policy, and national security objectives of the United States and in a coordinated manner under the direction of the President, it is hereby ordered as follows:
PART I—TRADE, CUSTOMS, AND TARIFF LAWS
Section 1–101. Accession of State Trading Regimes to the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade. The functions vested in the President by sections 1106(a), (b) and (d) of the Omnibus Trade Act [19 U.S.C. 2905(a), (b), (d)], regarding the accession of state trading regimes to the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, are delegated to the United States Trade Representative.
Sec. 1–201. Wine Barriers. The functions vested in the President by section 1125 of the Omnibus Trade Act [19 U.S.C. 2804 note], regarding the updated report on barriers to wine trade, are delegated to the United States Trade Representative.
Sec. 1–301. Steel Imports. The functions vested in the President by section 805(d)(1) and (2) of the Trade and Tariff Act of 1984 (19 U.S.C. 2253, note), as amended by section 1322 of the Omnibus Trade Act, are delegated to the United States Trade Representative.
Sec. 1–401. Telecommunications Trade. The functions vested in the President by sections 1375 and 1376(e) of the Omnibus Trade Act [19 U.S.C. 3104, 3105(e)], regarding certain telecommunications negotiations as may be ordered by the President and reports thereon to Congressional Committees, are delegated to the United States Trade Representative.
Sec. 1–501. Uniform Fee on Imports. The functions vested in the President by section 1428 of the Omnibus Trade Act [19 U.S.C. 2397, 19 U.S.C. 2397 note], regarding negotiations to obtain authority under the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade to impose a small uniform fee on imports, are delegated to the United States Trade Representative.
PART II—EXPORT ENHANCEMENT
Sec. 2–101. Countertrade and Barter.
(1) Establishment. There is established an Interagency Group on Countertrade, which shall be composed of the Secretaries of Commerce, State, Defense, Treasury, Labor, Agriculture, and Energy, the Attorney General, the Administrator of the Agency for International Development, the Director [Administrator] of the Federal Emergency Management Agency, the United States Trade Representative and the Director of the Office of Management and Budget, or their respective representatives. The Secretary of Commerce or his representative shall be the Chairman of the interagency group.
(2) Functions. The interagency group shall carry out the functions and duties set out in section 2205(a) of the Omnibus Trade Act [15 U.S.C. 4712(a)].
Sec. 2–201. Sanctions Against Toshiba and Kongsberg.
(1) Procurement Sanctions. Pursuant to section 2443 of the Omnibus Trade Act [former 50 U.S.C. App. 2410a note] and subject to the exceptions referred to in paragraph (3), departments, agencies and instrumentalities of the United States Government shall not for the three-year period beginning on the date this Order takes effect, contract with or procure products and services from Toshiba Machine Company, Kongsberg Trading Company, Toshiba Corporation or Kongsberg Vaapenfabrikk. The head of each department, agency or instrumentality is hereby directed and authorized to implement this procurement sanction in accordance with paragraph (3).
(2) Import Sanctions. Pursuant to section 2443 of the Omnibus Trade Act and subject to the exceptions referred to in paragraph (3), importation into the United States, its territories and possessions, of products produced by Toshiba Machine Company or Kongsberg Trading Company is prohibited for three years from the effective date of this Order. The Secretary of the Treasury is hereby directed and authorized to implement this import sanction in accordance with paragraph (3).
(3) Exceptions. Authority to make determinations as to exceptions to sanctions and to implement exceptions by regulation or otherwise is delegated (i) to the Secretary of Defense with respect to determinations under section 2443(c)(1) regarding the procurement of defense articles or defense services, (ii) to the Secretary of the Treasury with respect to exceptions under section 2443(c)(2) regarding importation prohibited by section 2443(a)(2), and (iii) to the head of each Federal department, agency or instrumentality with respect to exceptions under section 2443(c)(2) affecting their respective contracting and procurement. All regulations implementing these exceptions provisions shall be consistent with any guidelines provided by the Office of Federal Procurement Policy, Office of Management and Budget.
(4) Annual Report. The annual report required by section 2445 [adding former 50 U.S.C. 4616(f)], concerning estimated increases in defense expenditures arising from illegal technology transfers, shall be prepared by the Secretary of Defense, in consultation with the Secretaries of State and Commerce, for submission to the Congress by the President.
PART III—FOREIGN CORRUPT PRACTICES AMENDMENTS; INVESTMENT; AND TECHNOLOGY
Sec. 3–101. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act Amendments.
The functions conferred upon the President by section 5003(d)(1) (“International Agreement”) of the Omnibus Trade Act [15 U.S.C. 78dd–1 note] are delegated to the Secretary of State, who in performing such functions shall act in consultation with the Attorney General, the United States Trade Representative, the Chairman of the Securities and Exchange Commission, the Secretary of Commerce, the Secretary of the Treasury and the Director of the Office of Management and Budget.
Sec. 3–201. Authority to Review Certain Mergers, Acquisitions, and Takeovers.
(1) Executive Order No. 11858, as amended [50 U.S.C. 4565 note], regarding the Committee on Foreign Investment in the United States (the “Committee”) is further amended as follows:
(A) By adding new Sections 7 and 8 as follows:
“Sec. 7. (1) Investigations. (a) The Committee is designated to receive notices and other information, to determine whether investigations should be undertaken, and to make investigations, pursuant to Section 721(a) of the Defense Production Act. (b) If the Committee determines that an investigation should be undertaken, such investigation shall commence no later than 30 days after receipt by the Committee of written notification of the proposed or pending merger, acquisition, or takeover. Such investigation shall be completed no later than 45 days after such determination. (c) If one or more Committee members differ with a Committee decision not to undertake an investigation, the Chairman shall submit a report of the Committee to the President setting forth the differing views and presenting the issues for his decision within 25 days after receipt by the Committee of written notification of the proposed or pending merger, acquisition, or takeover. (d) A unanimous decision by the Committee not to undertake an investigation with regard to a notice shall conclude action under this section on such notice. The Chairman shall advise the President of said decision.
“(2) Report to the President. Upon completion or termination of any investigation, the Committee shall report to the President and present a recommendation. Any such report shall include information relevant to subparagraphs (1) and (2) of Section 721(d) of the Defense Production Act. If the Committee is unable to reach a unanimous recommendation, the Chairman shall submit a report of the Committee to the President setting forth the differing views and presenting the issues for his decision.
“Sec. 8. The Chairman of the Committee, in consultation with other members of the Committee, is hereby delegated the authority to issue regulations to implement Section 721 of the Defense Production Act.”
(B) By deleting, from the second sentence in Section 1(a), the text beginning with “a representative” and ending with “by each of”.
(C) By deleting, from the third sentence in Section 1(a), the phrase “representative of the”.
(D) By deleting “and” at the end of subparagraph (3) of Section 1(b), by substituting “; and” for the period at the end of subparagraph (4) of that Section, and by adding a new subparagraph (5) as follows: “(5) coordinate the views of the Executive Branch and discharge the responsibilities with respect to Section 721(a) and (e) of the Defense Production Act of 1950, as amended (50 U.S.C. App. 2061 et seq.) [now 50 U.S.C. 4501 et seq.] (“Defense Production Act”).”
(E) By adding the following sentence at the end of Section 5: “Information or documentary material filed pursuant to Section 1(b)(5) or Section 7 of this Order shall be treated in accordance with paragraph (b) of Section 721 of the Defense Production Act.”
(F) By inserting in Section 1(a) the following additional Committee members: “(7) The Attorney General.” and “(8) The Director of the Office of Management and Budget.”
(G) The Interim Presidential Directive to the Secretary of the Treasury of October 26, 1988, is hereby revoked, and any notices received or investigations pending as of the date this Order takes effect shall be referred to the Chairman of the Committee for action consistent with this Order.
Sec. 3–301. Reporting Requirement on Semiconductors, Fiber Optics and Superconducting Materials.
(1) The Secretary of Commerce, in consultation with the Director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy, the Secretary of Defense, and the Director of the Office of Management and Budget, shall prepare for the President to submit to the Congress with the Fiscal Year 1990 budget a report describing policies and budget proposals regarding:
(A) Federal research in semiconductors and semiconductor manufacturing technology, including a discussion of the respective roles of the various Federal departments and agencies in such research;
(B) Federal research and acquisition policies for fiber optics and optical-electronic technologies generally;
(C) Superconducting materials, including descriptions of research priorities, the scientific and technical barriers to commercialization which such research is designed to overcome, steps taken to ensure coordination among Federal agencies conducting research on superconducting materials, and steps taken to consult with private United States industry to ensure that no unnecessary duplication of research exists and that all important scientific and technical barriers to the commercialization of superconducting materials will be addressed; and
(D) Federal research to assist United States industry to develop and apply advanced manufacturing technologies for the production of durable and nondurable goods.
(2) The Department of Defense, the Department of Energy, the National Science Foundation, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the Department of State, the United States Trade Representative, and other Federal agencies deemed appropriate by the Secretary of Commerce shall provide the information described in section 5141 of the Omnibus Trade Act [Pub. L. 100–418, title V, Aug. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 1444] concerning their Fiscal Year 1989 program and proposed Fiscal Year 1990 program to the Secretary of Commerce in sufficient time to permit preparation of the report.
(3) The Office of Management and Budget shall provide to the Secretary of Commerce, in sufficient time to permit preparation of the report, a summary of the Federal base program and Fiscal Year 1990 budget initiatives in each of the technical areas of the report.
(4) The Office of Science and Technology Policy (“OSTP”) shall provide the Secretary of Commerce with appropriate policy guidance in the technical areas of the report, including a summary of the criteria used to select research projects within an agency and among agencies, and the results of any studies conducted by OSTP, or by others if OSTP deems them to be relevant, which analyze the influence of the Federal research programs in the technical areas of the report.
Sec. 3–401. [Revoked by Ex. Ord. No. 12774, § 3(a), Sept. 27, 1991, 56 F.R. 49835]
Sec. 5–101. Executive Oversight.
Any actions or determinations taken or made by an officer or agency under the Omnibus Trade Act or this Order shall be subject to the Executive oversight and direction of the President, and such actions or determinations shall be undertaken after appropriate inter-agency consultation as established by the President.
Sec. 5–102. Regulatory Review. Notwithstanding the provisions of section 1(a)(2) of Executive Order No. 12291 of February 17, 1981 [formerly 5 U.S.C. 601 note], the Director of the Office of Management and Budget shall, with regard to regulations, rules, or agency statements of general applicability and future effect designed to implement, interpret, or prescribe law or policy or describing the procedure or practice requirements of an agency relative to the administration of the Export Administration Act, determine whether such regulations, rules, or agency statements are exempted from review under that Order, pursuant to the provisions of section 8(b) thereof [former 50 U.S.C. 4607(b)].
Sec. 5–201. Offsets. The negotiating functions under section 825(c) of the Defense Authorization Act [10 U.S.C. 2532 note], as may be ordered by the President, are hereby jointly delegated to the Secretary of Defense and the United States Trade Representative. These functions shall be coordinated with the Secretary of State and conducted in consultation with the Secretaries of Commerce, Labor and the Treasury.
Sec. 5–202. Reporting Functions. The reporting functions of the President under section 825(d) of the Defense Authorization Act [10 U.S.C. 2532 note] are delegated to the Director of the Office of Management and Budget. The Director may further delegate to the heads of Executive departments and agencies responsibility for preparing particular sections of such reports. The heads of Executive departments and agencies shall, to the extent permitted by law, provide the Director with such information as may be necessary for the effective performance of these functions.
Sec. 5–301. International Trade Commission Report. The functions vested in the President by section 332(g) of the Tariff Act [19 U.S.C. 1332(g)], regarding reports by the United States International Trade Commission to the President, are delegated to the United States Trade Representative.
Sec. 5–401. Strengthening International Institutions. To the extent possible, actions undertaken under this Order shall be conducted in a manner that strengthens international institutions that further United States objectives, such as opening foreign markets and preventing the export of strategic goods and technologies to proscribed destinations.
Sec. 5–501. Effective Date. This Order shall take effect at 12:01 a.m. on Wednesday, December 28, 1988.