1998—Subsec. (a)(1)(A). Pub. L. 105–366, § 2(a)(1), amended subpar. (A) generally. Prior to amendment, subpar. (A) read as follows:
“(A)(i) influencing any act or decision of such foreign official in his official capacity, or (ii) inducing such foreign official to do or omit to do any act in violation of the lawful duty of such official, or”.
Subsec. (a)(2)(A). Pub. L. 105–366, § 2(a)(2), amended subpar. (A) generally. Prior to amendment, subpar. (A) read as follows:
“(A)(i) influencing any act or decision of such party, official, or candidate in its or his official capacity, or (ii) inducing such party, official, or candidate to do or omit to do an act in violation of the lawful duty of such party, official, or candidate,”.
Subsec. (a)(3)(A). Pub. L. 105–366, § 2(a)(3), amended subpar. (A) generally. Prior to amendment, subpar. (A) read as follows:
“(A)(i) influencing any act or decision of such foreign official, political party, party official, or candidate in his or its official capacity, or (ii) inducing such foreign official, political party, party official, or candidate to do or omit to do any act in violation of the lawful duty of such foreign official, political party, party official, or candidate, or”.
Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 105–366, § 2(c)(2), substituted “Subsections (a) and (g)” for “Subsection (a)”.
Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 105–366, § 2(c)(3), substituted “subsection (a) or (g)” for “subsection (a)”.
Subsec. (f)(1). Pub. L. 105–366, § 2(b), amended par. (1) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (1) read as follows: “The term ‘foreign official’ means any officer or employee of a foreign government or any department, agency, or instrumentality thereof, or any person acting in an official capacity for or on behalf of any such government or department, agency, or instrumentality.”
Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 105–366, § 2(c)(1), added subsec. (g).
1988—Pub. L. 100–418 substituted “Prohibited foreign trade” for “Foreign corrupt” in section catchline and amended text generally, revising and restating provisions of subsec. (a) relating to prohibitions, adding subsecs. (b) to (e), and redesignating provisions of subsec. (b) relating to definitions as subsec. (f) and amending those provisions generally.
Treatment of International Organizations Providing Commercial Communications Services
Pub. L. 105–366, § 5, Nov. 10, 1998, 112 Stat. 3309, provided that:
“(a) Definition.—For purposes of this section:
“(1) International organization providing commercial communications services.—The term ‘international organization providing commercial communications services’ means—
the International Telecommunications Satellite Organization
established pursuant to the Agreement Relating to the International Telecommunications Satellite Organization
the International Mobile Satellite Organization
established pursuant to the Convention on the International Maritime Satellite Organization
“(2) Pro-competitive privatization.—
The term ‘pro-competitive privatization’ means a privatization that the President determines to be consistent with the United States
policy of obtaining full and open competition
to such organizations
(or their successors), and nondiscriminatory market access, in the provision of satellite services.
“(b) Treatment as Public International Organizations.—
“(2) Limitation on effect of treatment.—
The requirement for a certification under paragraph (1), and any certification made under such paragraph, shall not be construed to affect the administration
by the Federal Communications Commission
of the Communications Act of 1934
[47 U.S.C. 151
et seq.] in authorizing the provision of services
to, from, or within the United States
over space segment of the international satellite organizations,
or the privatized affiliates or successors thereof.
“(c) Extension of Legal Process.—
“(1) In general.—
Except as required by international agreements to which the United States
is a party, an international organization
providing commercial communications services,
its officials and employees,
and its records
shall not be accorded immunity from suit or legal process
for any act or omission taken in connection with such organization’
s capacity as a provider, directly or indirectly, of commercial telecommunications services
to, from, or within the United States.
“(2) No effect on personal liability.—
Paragraph (1) shall not affect any immunity from personal liability
of any individual who is an official or employee
of an international organization
providing commercial communications services.
“(3) Effective date.—
This subsection shall take effect on May 1, 1999.
“(d) Elimination or Limitation of Exceptions.—
“(1) Action required.—
The President shall, in a manner that is consistent with requirements in international agreements to which the United States
is a party, expeditiously take all appropriate actions necessary to eliminate or to reduce substantially all privileges
and immunities that are accorded to an international organization
described in subparagraph (A) or (B) of subsection (a)(1), its officials, its employees,
or its records
, and that are not eliminated pursuant to subsection (c).
“(2) Designation of agreements.—
The President shall designate which agreements constitute international agreements to which the United States
is a party for purposes of this section.
“(e) Preservation of Law Enforcement and Intelligence Functions.—Nothing in subsection (c) or (d) of this section shall affect any immunity from suit or legal process of an international organization providing commercial communications services, or the privatized affiliates or successors thereof, for acts or omissions—
under similar State
laws providing protection to service
providers cooperating with law enforcement agencies pursuant to State
electronic surveillance or evidence laws, rules,
regulations, or procedures; or
pursuant to a court order.
“(f) Rules of Construction.—
Nothing in this section shall affect the President’s existing constitutional authority regarding the time, scope, and objectives of international negotiations.
Nothing in this section shall be construed as legislative authorization for the privatization of INTELSAT or Inmarsat, nor to increase the President’s authority with respect to negotiations concerning such privatization.”
[Memorandum of President of the United States, Nov. 16, 1998, 63 F.R. 65997, delegated to Secretary of State functions and authorities vested in the President by section 5(d)(2) of Pub. L. 105–366, set out above.]
Enforcement and Monitoring
Pub. L. 105–366, § 6, Nov. 10, 1998, 112 Stat. 3311, provided that:
“(a) Reports Required.—Not later than July 1 of 1999 and each of the 5 succeeding years, the Secretary of Commerce shall submit to the House of Representatives and the Senate a report that contains the following information with respect to implementation of the Convention:
of the countries that have ratified the Convention, the dates of ratification by such countries, and the entry into force for each such country.
“(2) Domestic legislation.—
A description of domestic laws enacted by each party to the Convention that implement commitments under the Convention, and assessment of the compatibility of such laws with the Convention.
“(3) Enforcement.—As assessment of the measures taken by each party to the Convention during the previous year to fulfill its obligations under the Convention and achieve its object and purpose including—
an assessment of the enforcement of the domestic laws described in paragraph (2);
an assessment of the efforts by each such party to promote public awareness of such domestic laws and the achievement of such object and purpose; and
an assessment of the effectiveness, transparency, and viability of the monitoring process
for the Convention, including its inclusion of input from the private sector and nongovernmental organizations
“(4) Laws prohibiting tax deduction of bribes.—
An explanation of the domestic laws enacted by each party to the Convention that would prohibit the deduction of bribes in the computation of domestic taxes.
“(5) New signatories.—
A description of efforts to expand international participation in the Convention by adding new signatories to the Convention and by assuring that all countries which are or become members
of the Organization
for Economic Cooperation and Development are also parties to the Convention.
“(6) Subsequent efforts.—
An assessment of the status of efforts to strengthen the Convention by extending the prohibitions contained in the Convention to cover bribes to political parties, party officials, and candidates for political office.
Advantages, in terms of immunities, market access, or otherwise, in the countries or regions served by the organizations
described in section 5(a) [set out as a note above], the reason for such advantages, and an assessment of progress toward fulfilling the policy described in that section.
“(8) Bribery and transparency.—
An assessment of anti-bribery programs
and transparency with respect to each of the international organizations
covered by this Act [enacting section 78dd–3 of this title
, amending this section and sections 78dd–2 and 78ff of this title, and enacting provisions set out as notes under this section].
“(9) Private sector review.—
A description of the steps taken to ensure full involvement of United States
private sector participants
and representatives of nongovernmental organizations
in the monitoring and implementation of the Convention.
For purposes of this section, the term ‘Convention’ means the Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions
adopted on November 21, 1997
, and signed on December 17, 1997
, by the United States
and 32 other nations.”
International Agreements Concerning Acts Prohibited With Respect to Issuers and Domestic Concerns; Report to Congress
Pub. L. 100–418, title V, § 5003(d), Aug. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 1424, provided that:
It is the sense of the Congress
that the President should pursue the negotiation of an international agreement, among the members
of the Organization
of Economic Cooperation and Development, to govern persons
from those countries concerning acts prohibited with respect to issuers
and domestic concerns
by the amendments made by this section [amending sections 78dd–1
, and 78ff
of this title]. Such international agreement should include a process
by which problems and conflicts associated with such acts could be resolved.
“(2) Report to congress.—
(A) Within 1 year after the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 23, 1988], the President shall submit to the Congress a report on—
the progress of the negotiations referred to in paragraph (1),[;]
those steps which the executive branch and the Congress
should consider taking in the event that these negotiations do not successfully eliminate any competitive disadvantage of United States
businesses that results when persons
from other countries commit the acts described in paragraph (1); and
possible actions that could be taken to promote cooperation by other countries in international efforts to prevent bribery of foreign officials
, candidates, or parties in third countries.
“(B) The President shall include in the report submitted under subparagraph (A)—
any legislative recommendations necessary to give the President the authority to take appropriate action to carry out clauses (ii) and (iii) of subparagraph (A);
an analysis of the potential effect on the interests of the United States
, including United States
, when persons
from other countries commit the acts described in paragraph (1); and
an assessment of the current and future role of private initiatives in curtailing such acts.”
[For delegation of functions of the President under section 5003(d)(1) of Pub. L. 100–418 to the Secretary of State, see section 3–101 of Ex. Ord. No. 12661, Dec. 27, 1988, 54 F.R. 779, set out as a note under section 2901 of Title 19, Customs Duties.]
Ex. Ord. No. 13259. Designation of Public International Organizations for Purposes of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 and the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977
Ex. Ord. No. 13259, Mar. 19, 2002, 67 F.R. 13239, provided:
By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including section 30A(f)(1)(B)(ii) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (15 U.S.C. 78dd–1(f)(1)(B)(ii)) and sections 104(h)(2)(B)(ii) and 104A(f)(2)(B)(ii) of the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977 (15 U.S.C. 78dd–2(h)(2)(B)(ii), 78dd–3(f)(2)(B)(ii)), I hereby designate as “public international organizations” for the purposes of application of section 30A of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 and sections 104 and 104A of the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977:
(a) The European Union, including: the European Communities (the European Community, the European Coal & Steel Community, and the European Atomic Energy Community); institutions of the European Union, such as the European Commission, the Council of the European Union, the European Parliament, the European Court of Justice, the European Court of Auditors, the Economic and Social Committee, the Committee of the Regions, the European Central Bank, and the European Investment Bank; and any departments, agencies, and instrumentalities thereof; and
(b) The European Police Office (Europol), including any departments, agencies, and instrumentalities thereof.
Designation in this Executive Order is intended solely to further the purposes of the statutes mentioned above and is not determinative of whether an entity is a public international organization for the purpose of other statutes or regulations.