20 U.S. Code § 1070 - Statement of purpose; program authorization
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It is the purpose of this part, to assist in making available the benefits of postsecondary education to eligible students (defined in accordance with section 1091 of this title) in institutions of higher education by—
(2) providing supplemental educational opportunity grants to those students who demonstrate financial need;
(3) providing for payments to the States to assist them in making financial aid available to such students;
(4) providing for special programs and projects designed
(A) to identify and encourage qualified youths with financial or cultural need with a potential for postsecondary education,
Source(Pub. L. 89–329, title IV, § 400, formerly § 401, as added Pub. L. 99–498, title IV, § 401(a),Oct. 17, 1986, 100 Stat. 1308; renumbered § 400,Pub. L. 102–325, title IV, § 402(a)(3),July 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 482; amended Pub. L. 105–244, title IV, § 401(g)(1),Oct. 7, 1998, 112 Stat. 1652; Pub. L. 111–39, title IV, § 401(a)(1),July 1, 2009, 123 Stat. 1938.)
A prior section 1070,Pub. L. 89–329, title IV, § 401, as added and amended Pub. L. 92–318, title I, § 131(b)(1), title X, § 1001(c)(1), (2),June 23, 1972, 86 Stat. 247, 381; Pub. L. 94–482, title I, § 125,Oct. 12, 1976, 90 Stat. 2096; Pub. L. 96–374, title IV, § 401, title XIII, § 1391(a)(1),Oct. 3, 1980, 94 Stat. 1401, 1503, stated purpose of program of grants to students in attendance at institutions of higher education, prior to the general revision of this part by Pub. L. 99–498.
2009—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 111–39substituted “1 through 9” for “1 through 8”.
1998—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 105–244substituted “Federal Pell Grants” for “basic educational opportunity grants”.
Effective Date of 2009 Amendment
Amendment by Pub. L. 111–39effective as if enacted on the date of enactment of Pub. L. 110–315(Aug. 14, 2008), see section 3 ofPub. L. 111–39, set out as a note under section 1001 of this title.
Effective Date of 1998 Amendment
Amendment by Pub. L. 105–244effective Oct. 1, 1998, except as otherwise provided in Pub. L. 105–244, see section 3 ofPub. L. 105–244, set out as a note under section 1001 of this title.
Higher Education Relief Opportunities for Students
Pub. L. 108–76, §§ 1–5,Aug. 18, 2003, 117 Stat. 904, formerly set out in a note under this section, was transferred to part F–1 (§ 1098aa et seq.) of this subchapter. Pub. L. 108–76, § 6,Aug. 18, 2003, 117 Stat. 908, as amended by Pub. L. 109–78, § 1,Sept. 30, 2005, 119 Stat. 2043, formerly set out in the same note under this section, which provided for termination of Pub. L. 108–76on Sept. 30, 2007, was repealed by Pub. L. 110–93, § 2,Sept. 30, 2007, 121 Stat. 999.
Pub. L. 107–122, Jan. 15, 2002, 115 Stat. 2386, known as the Higher Education Relief Opportunities for Students Act of 2001, authorized the Secretary of Education to waive or modify statutory or regulatory provisions applicable to the student financial aid programs under title IV of the Higher Education Act of 1965 (20 U.S.C. 1070 et seq., 42 U.S.C. 2751 et seq.) as deemed necessary because of a national emergency, provided sense of Congress as to tuition refunds from institutions of postsecondary education, and provided that the Act ceased to be effective Sept. 30, 2003.
Community Scholarship Mobilization
Pub. L. 105–244, title VIII, part C, Oct. 7, 1998, 112 Stat. 1810, known as the Community Scholarship Mobilization Act, which established regional, State and community program centers to foster development of local entities in high poverty areas that promote higher education goals for low-income students with academic support and scholarship assistance for postsecondary education, was repealed by Pub. L. 110–315, title IX, § 931(2),Aug. 14, 2008, 122 Stat. 3456.
Community School Partnerships
Pub. L. 103–382, title V, part B, Oct. 20, 1994, 108 Stat. 4045, which provided for grants to establish community centers giving academic support and postsecondary scholarships to poor students, was repealed by Pub. L. 105–277, div. A, § 101(f) [title VIII, § 301(a)], Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–337, 2681–410.
Study of Federal Benefit Coordination
Pub. L. 102–325, title XIV, § 1405,July 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 818, directed Secretary of Education to conduct a study to evaluate the coordination of Federal student financial assistance programs under title IV of the Higher Education Act of 1965 [20 U.S.C. 1070 et seq.; 42 U.S.C. 2751 et seq.] with other programs funded in whole or in part with Federal funds, with Secretary to prepare and submit to appropriate committees of Congress a report on the study not later than 3 years after July 23, 1992, together with such recommendations as the Secretary deemed appropriate, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 105–332, § 6(b)(2),Oct. 31, 1998, 112 Stat. 3128.
Pub. L. 102–325, title XV, § 1543,July 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 836, as amended by Pub. L. 105–244, title VIII, § 836,Oct. 7, 1998, 112 Stat. 1820; Pub. L. 106–554, § 1(a)(1) [title III, § 319], Dec. 21, 2000, 114 Stat. 2763, 2763A–49; Pub. L. 107–116, title III, § 305(a),Jan. 10, 2002, 115 Stat. 2208; Pub. L. 110–315, title IX, § 934,Aug. 14, 2008, 122 Stat. 3460, provided that:
“(a) Scholarships Authorized.—
“(1) In general.—The Secretary of Education is authorized to provide financial assistance to the United States Olympic Education Center or the United States Olympic Training Center to enable such centers to provide financial assistance to athletes who are training at such centers and are pursuing postsecondary education at institutions of higher education (as such term is defined in section 481(a) of the Higher Education Act of 1965 [20 U.S.C. 1088 (a)]).
“(2) Award determination.—The amount of the financial assistance provided to an athlete described in paragraph (1) shall be determined in accordance with criteria, and in amounts, specified in the application of the center under subsection (c). Such assistance shall not exceed the athlete’s cost of attendance as determined under section 472 of the Higher Education Act of 1965 (20 U.S.C. 1087ll).
“(3) Information on distribution of assistance.—Each center providing such assistance shall annually report to the Secretary such information as the Secretary may reasonably require on the distribution of such assistance among athletes and institutions of higher education. The Secretary shall compile such reports and submit them to the Committees on Education and the Workforce and Appropriations of the House of Representatives and the Committees on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions and Appropriations of the Senate.
“(b) Eligibility.—The Secretary of Education shall ensure that financial assistance provided under this part [part E (§ 1543) of Pub. L. 102–325] is available to both full-time and part-time students who are athletes at centers described in subsection (a).
“(c) Application.—Each center desiring financial assistance under this section shall submit an application to the Secretary of Education at such time, in such manner and accompanied by such information as the Secretary may reasonably require.
“(d) Authorization of Appropriations.—There are authorized to be appropriated $5,000,000 for fiscal year 2009 and such sums as may be necessary for each of the five succeeding fiscal years to carry out this section.
“(e) Designation.—Scholarships awarded under this section shall be known as ‘B.J. Stupak Olympic Scholarships’.”
[Pub. L. 107–116, title III, § 305(b),Jan. 10, 2002, 115 Stat. 2208, provided that: “The amendments made by subsection (a) [amending section 1543 ofPub. L. 102–325, set out above] shall apply with respect to any funds appropriated pursuant to section 1543(d) of the Higher Education Amendments of 1992 [section 1543(d) ofPub. L. 102–325, set out above], including funds appropriated pursuant to that section in fiscal years 2000 and 2001, that are available for financial assistance under section 1543 on or after the date of enactment of this Act [Jan. 10, 2002].”]
Persian Gulf Conflict Higher Education Assistance
“SEC. 4. OPERATION DESERT SHIELD/DESERT STORM WAIVER AUTHORITY.
“(a) Purpose.—It is the purpose of this section to ensure that—
“(1) the men and women serving on active duty in connection with Operation Desert Shield or Operation Desert Storm who are borrowers of Stafford Loans or Perkins Loans are not placed in a worse position financially in relation to those loans because of such service;
“(2) the administrative requirements placed on all borrowers of student loans made in accordance with title IV of the Act [20 U.S.C. 1070 et seq.; 42 U.S.C. 2751 et seq.] who are engaged in such military service are minimized to the extent possible without impairing the integrity of the student loan programs, in order to ease the burden on such borrowers, and to avoid inadvertent, technical defaults; and
“(3) the future eligibility of such an individual for Pell Grants is not reduced by the amount of such assistance awarded for a period of instruction that such individual was unable to complete, or for which the individual did not receive academic credit, because he or she was called up for such service.
“(b) Waiver Requirement.—Notwithstanding any other provision of law, unless enacted with specific reference to this section, the Secretary of Education shall waive or modify any statutory or regulatory provision applicable to the student financial aid programs under title IV of the Act that the Secretary deems necessary to achieve the purposes stated in subsection (a), including—
“(1) the length of, and eligibility requirements for, the military deferments authorized under sections 427(a)(2)(C)(ii), 428(b)(1)(M)(ii), and 464(c)(2)(A)(ii) of the Act [20 U.S.C. 1077 (a)(2)(C)(ii), 1078 (b)(1)(M)(ii), 1087dd (c)(2)(A)(ii)], in order to enable the borrower of a Stafford Loan or a Perkins Loan who is or was serving on active duty in connection with Operation Desert Shield or Operation Desert Storm to obtain a military deferment, under which interest shall accrue and shall, if otherwise payable by the Secretary, be paid by the Secretary of Education, for the duration of such service;
“(2) administrative requirements placed on all borrowers of student loans made in accordance with title IV of the Act who are or were engaged in such military service;
“(3) the number of years for which individuals who are engaged in such military service may be eligible for Pell Grants under subpart 1 of part A of title IV of the Act [20 U.S.C. 1070a et seq.];
“(4) the point at which the borrower of a Stafford Loan who is or was engaged in such military service is required to resume repayment of principal and interest on such loan after the borrower completes a period of deferment under section 427(a)(2)(C)(ii) or 428(b)(1)(M)(ii) of the Act;
“(5) the point at which the borrower of a Stafford Loan who is or was engaged in such military service is required to resume repayment of principal and interest on such loan after the borrower completes a single period of deferment under section 427(a)(2)(C)(i) or 428(b)(1)(M)(i) of the Act subsequent to such service; and
“(6) the modification of the terms ‘annual adjusted family income’ and ‘available income,’ as used in the determination of need for student financial assistance under title IV of the Act for such individual (and the determination of such need for his or her spouse and dependents, if applicable), to mean the sums received in the first calendar year of the award year for which such determination is made, in order to reflect more accurately the financial condition of such individual and his or her family.
“(c) Notice of Waiver.—Notwithstanding section 431 [now 437] of the General Education Provisions Act (20 U.S.C. 1232) and section 553 of title 5, United States Code, the Secretary shall, by notice in the Federal Register, publish the waivers or modifications of statutory and regulatory provisions the Secretary deems necessary to achieve the purposes of this section. Such notice shall include the terms and conditions to be applied in lieu of such statutory and regulatory provisions. The Secretary is not required to exercise the waiver or modification authority under this section on a case-by-case basis.
“(d) Definitions.—For purposes of this Act [probably should be “section”]—
“(1) Individuals ‘serving on active duty in connection with Operation Desert Shield or Operation Desert Storm’ shall include—
“(A) any Reserve of an Armed Force called to active duty under section 672 (a) [now 12301(a)], 672(g) [now 12301(g)], 673 [now 12302], 673b [now 12304], 674 [now 12306], or 688 of title 10, United States Code, for service in connection with Operation Desert Shield or Operation Desert Storm, regardless of the location at which such active duty service is performed; and
“(B) for purposes of waivers of administrative requirements under subsection (b)(2) only, any other member of an Armed Force on active duty in connection with Operation Desert Shield or Operation Desert Storm, who has been assigned to a duty station at a location other than the location at which such member is normally assigned.
“(2) The term ‘active duty’ has the meaning given such term in section 101 (22) of title 10, United States Code, except that such term does not include active duty for training or attendance at a service school.“SEC. 5. TUITION REFUNDS OR CREDITS.
“(a) Sense of Congress.—It is the sense of the Congress that all institutions offering postsecondary education should provide a full refund to any member or Reserve of an Armed Force on active duty service in connection with Operation Desert Shield or Operation Desert Storm for that portion of a period of instruction such individual was unable to complete, or for which such individual did not receive academic credit, because he or she was called up for such service. For purposes of this section, a full refund includes a refund of required tuition and fees, or a credit in a comparable amount against future tuition and fees.
“(b) Encouragement and Report.—The Secretary of Education shall encourage institutions to provide such refunds or credits, and shall report to the appropriate committees of Congress on the actions taken in accordance with this subsection as well as information he receives regarding any institutions that are not providing such refunds or credits.“SEC. 6. TERMINATION OF AUTHORITY. “SEC. 371. SHORT TITLE
“This part may be cited as the ‘Persian Gulf Conflict Higher Education Assistance Act’.
“SEC. 372. [Superseded by section 4 ofPub. L. 102–26, set out above.]
“SEC. 373. [Superseded by section 5 ofPub. L. 102–26, set out above.]“SEC. 376. COORDINATION WITH OTHER LAW
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