For purposes of clarity in communications, the Secretary shall separately identify loans made by the lenders referred to in clause (i) and loans made by the lenders referred to in clause (ii) of paragraph (1)(B) of this subsection.
Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the Secretary may provide to eligible lenders, and to any guaranty agency having a guaranty agreement under section 1078(c)(1) of this title, any information with respect to the names and addresses of borrowers or other relevant information which is available to the Secretary, from whatever source such information may be derived.
For the purpose of carrying out this subsection, the records of any entity described in subparagraph (A), (B), (C), or (D)  of paragraph (1) shall be available to the Comptroller General and the Inspector General of the Department of Education. For the purpose of section 716(c) of title 31, such records shall be considered to be records to which the Comptroller General has access by law, and for the purpose of section 6(a)(4) of the Inspector General Act of 1978, such records shall be considered to be records necessary in the performance of functions assigned by that Act to the Inspector General.
For the purpose of this subsection, the term “record” includes any information, document, report, answer, account, paper, or other data or documentary evidence.
In conducting audits pursuant to this subsection, the Comptroller General and the Inspector General of the Department of Education shall audit the records to determine the extent to which they, at a minimum, comply with Federal statutes, and rules and regulations prescribed by the Secretary, in effect at the time that the record was made, and in no case shall the Comptroller General or the Inspector General apply subsequently determined standards, procedures, or regulations to the records of such agency, lender, or Authority.
A lender or guaranty agency has no liability under paragraph (1) of this subsection if, prior to notification by the Secretary under that paragraph, the lender or guaranty agency cures or corrects the violation or failure or notifies the person who received the substantial misrepresentation of the actual nature of the financial charges involved.
For the purpose of paragraph (1) of this subsection, violations, failures, or substantial misrepresentations arising from a specific practice of a lender or guaranty agency, and occurring prior to notification by the Secretary under that paragraph, shall be deemed to be a single violation, failure, or substantial misrepresentation even if the violation, failure, or substantial misrepresentation affects more than one loan or more than one borrower, or both. The Secretary may only impose a single civil penalty for each such violation, failure, or substantial misrepresentation.
If a loan affected by a violation, failure, or substantial misrepresentation is assigned to another holder, the lender or guaranty agency responsible for the violation, failure, or substantial misrepresentation shall remain liable for any civil money penalty provided for under paragraph (1) of this subsection, but the assignee shall not be liable for any such civil money penalty.
Until a matter is referred to the Attorney General, any civil penalty under paragraph (1) of this subsection may be compromised by the Secretary. In determining the amount of such penalty, or the amount agreed upon in compromise, the Secretary shall consider the appropriateness of the penalty to the resources of the lender or guaranty agency subject to the determination; the gravity of the violation, failure, or substantial misrepresentation; the frequency and persistence of the violation, failure, or substantial misrepresentation; and the amount of any losses resulting from the violation, failure, or substantial misrepresentation. The amount of such penalty, when finally determined, or the amount agreed upon in compromise, may be deducted from any sums owing by the United States to the lender or agency charged, unless the lender or agency has, in the case of a final agency determination, commenced proceedings for judicial review within 90 days of the determination, in which case the deduction may not be made during the pendency of the proceeding.
In the event that all other collection efforts have failed, the Secretary is authorized to sell defaulted student loans assigned to the United States under this part to collection agencies, eligible lenders, guaranty agencies, or other qualified purchaser on such terms as the Secretary determines are in the best financial interests of the United States. A loan may not be sold pursuant to this subsection if such loan is in repayment status.
An emergency action under this subsection may not exceed 30 days unless a limitation, suspension, or termination proceeding is initiated against the lender under subsection (h) before the expiration of that period.
The Secretary shall provide the lender, if it so requests, an opportunity to show cause that the emergency action is unwarranted.
The Secretary shall undertake a program to encourage corporations and other private and public employers, including the Federal Government, to assist borrowers in repaying loans received under this subchapter, including providing employers with options for payroll deduction of loan payments and offering loan repayment matching provisions as part of employee benefit packages.
The Secretary shall recommend to the appropriate committees in the Senate and House of Representatives changes to statutes that could be made in order to further encourage such efforts.
The Secretary shall review regulations prescribed pursuant to paragraph (1) and seek additional recommendations from guaranty agencies, lenders, institutions of higher education, students, secondary markets, third party servicers and other organizations involved in providing loans under this part, not less frequently than annually, for additional methods of simplifying and standardizing the administration of the programs authorized by this part.
The Secretary shall develop and require the use of master promissory note forms for loans made under this part and part D. Such forms shall be available for periods of enrollment beginning not later than July 1, 2000. Each form shall allow eligible borrowers to receive, in addition to initial loans, additional loans for the same or subsequent periods of enrollment through a student confirmation process approved by the Secretary. Such forms shall be used for loans made under this part or part D as directed by the Secretary. Unless otherwise notified by the Secretary, each institution of higher education that participates in the program under this part or part D may use a master promissory note for loans under this part and part D.
Notwithstanding any other provision of law, each loan made under a master promissory note under this subsection may be sold or assigned independently of any other loan made under the same promissory note and each such loan shall be separately enforceable in all Federal and State courts on the basis of an original or copy of the master promissory note in accordance with the terms of the master promissory note.
Notwithstanding the provisions of any State law to the contrary, including the Uniform Commercial Code as in effect in any State, a security interest in loans made under this part, on behalf of any eligible lender (as defined in section 1085(d) of this title) shall attach, be perfected, and be assigned priority in the manner provided by the applicable State’s law for perfection of security interests in accounts, as such law may be amended from time to time (including applicable transition provisions). If any such State’s law provides for a statutory lien to be created in such loans, such statutory lien may be created by the entity or entities governed by such State law in accordance with the applicable statutory provisions that created such a statutory lien.
In addition to any other method for describing collateral in a legally sufficient manner permitted under the laws of the State, the description of collateral in any financing statement filed pursuant to this subparagraph shall be deemed legally sufficient if it lists such loans, or refers to records (identifying such loans) retained by the secured party or any designee of the secured party identified in such financing statement, including the debtor or any loan servicer.
Notwithstanding clauses (i) and (ii) and any provisions of any State law to the contrary, other than any such State’s law providing for creation of a statutory lien, an outright sale of loans made under this part shall be effective and perfected automatically upon attachment as defined in the Uniform Commercial Code of such State.
The Secretary, in cooperation with representatives of guaranty agencies, institutions of higher education, and lenders involved in loans made under this part, shall prescribe a common deferment reporting form to be used for the processing of deferments of loans made under this subchapter.
The Secretary shall promulgate standards including necessary rules, regulations (including the definitions of all relevant terms), and procedures so as to require all lenders and guaranty agencies to report information on all aspects of loans made under this part in uniform formats, so as to permit the direct comparison of data submitted by individual lenders, servicers, or guaranty agencies.
There are authorized to be appropriated $25,000,000 for fiscal year 1999 and each of the four succeeding fiscal years, for the Secretary to expend for default reduction management activities for the purposes of establishing a performance measure that will reduce defaults by 5 percent relative to the prior fiscal year. Such funds shall be in addition to, and not in lieu of, other appropriations made for such purposes.
In the event that the Secretary has determined that a guaranty agency is unable to meet its insurance obligations under this part, the holder of loans insured by the guaranty agency may submit insurance claims directly to the Secretary and the Secretary shall pay to the holder the full insurance obligation of the guaranty agency, in accordance with insurance requirements no more stringent than those of the guaranty agency. Such arrangements shall continue until the Secretary is satisfied that the insurance obligations have been transferred to another guarantor who can meet those obligations or a successor will assume the outstanding insurance obligations.
All officers and directors, and those employees and paid consultants of eligible institutions, eligible lenders, guaranty agencies, loan servicing agencies, accrediting agencies or associations, State licensing agencies or boards, and entities acting as secondary markets (including the Student Loan Marketing Association), who are engaged in making decisions as to the administration of any program or funds under this subchapter or as to the eligibility of any entity or individual to participate under this subchapter, shall report to the Secretary, in such manner and at such time as the Secretary shall require, on any financial interest which such individual may hold in any other entity participating in any program assisted under this subchapter.