20 U.S. Code § 2344. State leadership activities
(a) General authority
(A) preparation for non-traditional fields in current and emerging professions, programs for special populations, and other activities that expose students, including special populations, to high-skill, high-wage, and in-demand occupations;
(C) recruiting, preparing, or retaining career and technical education teachers, faculty, specialized instructional support personnel, or paraprofessionals, such as preservice, professional development, or leadership development programs; and
(D) technical assistance for eligible recipients; and
(2) report on the effectiveness of such use of funds in achieving the goals described in section 2342(d)(2) of this title and the State determined levels of performance described in section 2323(b)(3)(A) of this title, and reducing disparities or performance gaps as described in section 2323(b)(3)(C)(ii)(II) of this title.
(b) Permissible uses of funds
The State leadership activities described in subsection (a) may include—
(1) developing statewide programs of study, which may include standards, curriculum, and course development, and career exploration, guidance, and advisement activities and resources;
(2) approving locally developed programs of study that meet the requirements established in section 2342(d)(4)(B) of this title;
(3) establishing statewide articulation agreements aligned to approved programs of study;
(4) establishing statewide industry or sector partnerships among local educational agencies, institutions of higher education, adult education providers, Indian Tribes and Tribal organizations that may be present in the State, employers, including small businesses, and parents, as appropriate to—
(A) develop and implement programs of study aligned to State and local economic and education needs, including, as appropriate, in-demand industry sectors and occupations;
(B) facilitate the establishment, expansion, and integration of opportunities for students at the secondary level to—
(i) successfully complete coursework that integrates rigorous and challenging technical and academic instruction aligned with the challenging State academic standards adopted by the State under section 1111(b)(1) of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965; and
(ii) earn a recognized postsecondary credential or credit toward a recognized postsecondary credential, which may be earned through a dual or concurrent enrollment program or early college high school, at no cost to the student or the student’s family; and
(C) facilitate work-based learning opportunities (including internships, externships, and simulated work environments) into programs of study;
(5) for teachers, faculty, specialized instructional support personnel, and paraprofessionals providing career and technical education instruction, support services, and specialized instructional support services, high-quality comprehensive professional development that is, to the extent practicable, grounded in evidence-based research (to the extent a State determines that such evidence is reasonably available) that identifies the most effective educator professional development process and is coordinated and aligned with other professional development activities carried out by the State (including under title II of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 and title II of the Higher Education Act of 1965), including programming that—
(A) promotes the integration of the challenging State academic standards adopted by the State under section 1111(b)(1) of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 and relevant technical knowledge and skills, including programming jointly delivered to academic and career and technical education teachers;
(B) prepares career and technical education teachers, faculty, specialized instructional support personnel, and paraprofessionals to provide appropriate accommodations for students who are members of special populations, including through the use of principles of universal design for learning, multi-tier systems of supports, and positive behavioral interventions and support; and
(C) increases the ability of teachers, faculty, specialized instructional support personnel, and paraprofessionals providing career and technical education instruction to stay current with industry standards and earn an industry-recognized credential or license, as appropriate, including by assisting those with relevant industry experience in obtaining State teacher licensure or credential requirements;
(A) high-quality programs of study that provide skill development; and
(B) effective teachers, faculty, specialized instructional support personnel, and paraprofessionals;
(7) awarding incentive grants to eligible recipients—
(A) for exemplary performance in carrying out programs under this chapter, which awards shall be based on—
(i) eligible recipients exceeding the local level of performance on a core indicator of performance established under section 2323(b)(4)(A) of this title in a manner that reflects sustained or significant improvement;
(ii) eligible recipients effectively developing connections between secondary education and postsecondary education and training;
(iii) the integration of academic and technical standards;
(iv) eligible recipients’ progress in closing achievement gaps among subpopulations who participate in programs of study; or
(8) providing support for—
(A) the adoption and integration of recognized postsecondary credentials and work-based learning into programs of study, and for increasing data collection associated with recognized postsecondary credentials and employment outcomes; or
(B) consultation and coordination with other State agencies for the identification and examination of licenses or certifications that—
(ii) do not protect the health, safety, or welfare of consumers;
(9) the creation, implementation, and support of pay for success initiatives leading to a recognized postsecondary credential;
(10) support for career and technical education programs for adults and out-of-school youth concurrent with their completion of their secondary school education in a school or other educational setting;
(11) the creation, evaluation, and support of competency-based curricula;
(13) partnering with qualified intermediaries to improve training, the development of public-private partnerships, systems development, capacity-building, and scalability of the delivery of high-quality career and technical education;
(14) improvement of career guidance and academic counseling programs that assist students in making informed academic and career and technical education decisions, including academic and financial aid counseling;
(15) support for the integration of employability skills into career and technical education programs and programs of study;
(16) support for programs and activities that increase access, student engagement, and success in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics fields (including computer science, coding, and architecture), support for the integration of arts and design skills, and support for hands-on learning, particularly for students who are members of groups underrepresented in such subject fields, such as female students, minority students, and students who are members of special populations;
(17) support for career and technical student organizations, especially with respect to efforts to increase the participation of students in nontraditional fields and students who are members of special populations;
(18) support for establishing and expanding work-based learning opportunities that are aligned to career and technical education programs and programs of study;
(19) integrating and aligning programs of study and career pathways;
(20) supporting the use of career and technical education programs and programs of study aligned with State, regional, or local high-skill, high-wage, or in-demand industry sectors or occupations identified by the State workforce development board described in section 3111 of title 29 or local workforce development boards;
(21) making all forms of instructional content widely available, which may include use of open educational resources;
(22) developing valid and reliable assessments of competencies and technical skills and enhancing data systems to collect and analyze data on secondary and postsecondary academic and employment outcomes;
(23) support for accelerated learning programs, as described in section 4104(b)(3)(A)(i)(IV) of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965, in the case of any such program that is part of a career and technical education program of study;
(24) support for career academies to implement a postsecondary education and workforce-ready curriculum at the secondary education level that integrates rigorous academic, technical, and employability contents through career and technical education programs and programs of study that address needs described in the comprehensive needs assessment under section 2354(c) of this title; and
(c) Restriction on uses of funds
See 2018 Amendment notes below.
The Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965, referred to in subsec. (b)(3)(E), is Pub. L. 89–10, Apr. 11, 1965, 79 Stat. 27, as amended. Title II of the Act is classified generally to subchapter II (§ 6601 et seq.) of chapter 70 of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 6301 of this title and Tables.
The Higher Education Act of 1965, referred to in subsec. (b)(3)(E), is Pub. L. 89–329, Nov. 8, 1965, 79 Stat. 1219, as amended. Title II of the Act is classified generally to subchapter II (§ 1021 et seq.) of chapter 28 of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1001 of this title and Tables.
The Adult Education and Family Literacy Act, referred to in subsec. (c)(12), was title II of Pub. L. 105–220, Aug. 7, 1998, 112 Stat. 1059, which was classified principally to subchapter I (§ 9201 et seq.) of chapter 73 of this title, and was repealed by Pub. L. 113–128, title V, §§ 506, 511(a), July 22, 2014, 128 Stat. 1703, 1705, effective July 1, 2015. Pub. L. 113–128 also included a title II, entitled the “Adult Education and Family Literacy Act”, which is classified generally to subchapter II (§ 3271 et seq.) of chapter 32 of Title 29, Labor. Pursuant to section 3361(a) of Title 29, references to a provision of Pub. L. 105–220 are deemed to refer to the corresponding provision of Pub. L. 113–128, July 22, 2014, 128 Stat. 1425, effective July 1, 2015. For complete classification of title II of Pub. L. 105–220 to the Code, see Tables. For complete classification of title II of Pub. L. 113–128 to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 3101 of Title 29 and Tables.
A prior section 2344, Pub. L. 88–210, title I, § 124, as added Pub. L. 105–332, § 1(b), Oct. 31, 1998, 112 Stat. 3107, related to State leadership activities, prior to the general amendment of this chapter by Pub. L. 109–270.
Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 115–224, § 124(2), substituted “Permissible” for “Required” in heading and “may” for “shall” in introductory provisions, added pars. (1) to (25), and struck out former pars. (1) to (9) which set out activities required to be included in State leadership activities.
Subsecs. (c), (d). Pub. L. 115–224, § 124(3)–(5), redesignated subsec. (d) as (c), inserted “, unless expressly authorized under subsection (a)” before period at end, and struck out former subsec. (c) which set out permissible uses of funds for State leadership activities.
2015—Subsec. (b)(4)(A). Pub. L. 114–95 substituted “a well-rounded education (as defined in section 8101 of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965)” for “the core academic subjects (as defined in section 9101 of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965)”.
2014—Subsec. (c)(13). Pub. L. 113–128 substituted “such as through referral to the system established under section 3151 of title 29” for “such as through referral to the system established under section 2841 of title 29”.
Amendment by Pub. L. 114–95 effective Dec. 10, 2015, except with respect to certain noncompetitive programs and competitive programs, see section 5 of Pub. L. 114–95, set out as a note under section 6301 of this title.