23 U.S. Code § 131. Control of outdoor advertising
This Act, referred to in subsec. (d), probably means Pub. L. 89–285, Oct. 22, 1965, 79 Stat. 1028, as amended, known as the Highway Beautification Act of 1965, which enacted section 136 of this title and provisions set out as notes under sections 131 and 135 of this title and amended sections 131 and 319 of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 136 of this title and Tables.
The date of enactment of this subsection, referred to in subsec. (o), means May 5, 1976, the date of approval of Pub. L. 94–280.
For the effective date of this subsection, referred to in subsecs. (r)(1) and (s), see the Effective Date of 1991 Amendment note set out below.
Section 1047 of the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991, referred to in subsec. (s), is section 1047 of Pub. L. 102–240, which is set out as a note under section 101 of this title.
2012—Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 112–141, § 1539(b), inserted at end “A State may permit the installation of signs that acknowledge the sponsorship of rest areas within such rest areas or along the main traveled way of the system, provided that such signs shall not affect the safe and efficient utilization of the Interstate System and the primary system. The Secretary shall establish criteria for the installation of such signs on the main traveled way, including criteria pertaining to the placement of rest area sponsorship acknowledgment signs in relation to the placement of advance guide signs for rest areas.”
Subsec. (m). Pub. L. 112–141, § 1519(c)(6), formerly § 1519(c)(7), as renumbered by Pub. L. 114–94, § 1446(d)(5)(B), substituted “A State” for “Subject to approval by the Secretary in accordance with the program of projects approval process of section 105, a State”.
1995—Subsec. (s). Pub. L. 104–59 inserted at end “In designating a scenic byway for purposes of this section and section 1047 of the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991, a State may exclude from such designation any segment of a highway that is inconsistent with the State’s criteria for designating State scenic byways. Nothing in the preceding sentence shall preclude a State from signing any such excluded segment, including such segment on a map, or carrying out similar activities, solely for purposes of system continuity.”
1992—Subsec. (n). Pub. L. 102–302 inserted at end “Funds apportioned to a State under section 104 of this title shall not be treated for purposes of the preceding sentence as being available to the State for making such a payment except to the extent that the State, in its discretion, expends such funds for such a payment.”
1991—Subsec. (m). Pub. L. 102–240, § 1046(a), inserted at end “Subject to approval by the Secretary in accordance with the program of projects approval process of section 105, a State may use any funds apportioned to it under section 104 of this title for removal of any sign, display, or device lawfully erected which does not conform to this section.”
Subsecs. (r) to (t). Pub. L. 102–240, § 1046(b), (c), added subsecs. (r) to (t).
1979—Subsec. (c)(5). Pub. L. 96–106 substituted “distribution by nonprofit” for “distribution of nonprofit”.
1978—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 95–599 §§ 121, 122(c), inserted “including those which may be changed at reasonable intervals by electronic process or by remote control,” after “devices” in cl. (3) and added cl. (5).
Subsec. (k). Pub. L. 95–599, § 122(b), substituted “Subject to compliance with subsection (g) of this section for the payment of just compensation, nothing” for “Nothing”.
1976—Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 94–280, § 122(a), authorized the Secretary, in consultation with the States, to provide within the rights-of-way of the primary system for areas in which signs, displays, and devices giving specific information in the interest of the traveling public may be erected and maintained.
Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 94–280, § 122(c), authorized a State to establish travel information systems within the rights-of-way and prescribed as the Federal share of the cost of establishing an information center or travel information system the Federal share which is provided in section 120 of this title for a highway project on that Federal-aid system to be served by such center or system.
Subsecs. (o) to (q). Pub. L. 94–280, § 122(b), added subsecs. (o) to (q).
1975—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 93–643, § 109(a), required reduction of Federal-aid highway funds apportioned on or after Jan. 1, 1975, or after the expiration of the next regular session of the State legislature, whichever is later, to any State which the Secretary determines has not made provision for effective control of the erection and maintenance along the Interstate System and the primary system of those additional outdoor advertising signs, displays, and devices which are more than 660 feet off the nearest edge of the right-of-way, located outside of urban areas, visible from the main traveled way of the system, and erected with the purpose of their message being read from such main traveled way.
Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 93–643, § 109(b), substituted “Effective control means that such signs, displays, or devices after January 1, 1968, if located within six hundred and sixty feet of the right-of-way and, on or after July 1, 1975, or after the expiration of the next regular session of the State legislature, whichever is later, if located beyond six hundred and sixty feet of the right-of-way, located outside of urban areas, visible from the main traveled way of the system, and erected with the purpose of their message being read from such main traveled way,” for “Effective control means that after January 1, 1968, such signs, displays, and devices”, deleted in cl. (1) “other” before “official signs”, and added cl. (4).
Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 93–643, § 109(c), substituted first sentence reading “Just compensation shall be paid upon the removal of any outdoor advertising sign, display, or device lawfully erected under State law.” for prior first sentence which provided for payment of just compensation for removal of outdoor advertising signs, displays, and devices (1) lawfully in existence on Oct. 22, 1965, (2) lawfully on any highway made a part of the interstate or primary system on or after Oct. 22, 1965, and before Jan. 1, 1968, and (3) lawfully erected on or after Jan. 1, 1968.
1970—Subsec. (m). Pub. L. 91–605 authorized to be appropriated not to exceed $27,000,000, $20,500,000 and $50,000,000, for the fiscal years ending June 30, 1971, 1972, and 1973, respectively.
1968—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 90–495, § 6(a), provided that whenever a bona fide State, county, or local zoning authority has made a determination of customary use, such determination will be accepted in lieu of controls by agreement in the zoned commercial and industrial areas within the geographical jurisdiction of such authority.
Subsec. (j). Pub. L. 90–495, § 6(b), struck out provision for the imposition of controls on outdoor advertising by the Federal government that are stricter than those imposed by the State highway department.
Subsec. (m). Pub. L. 90–495, § 6(c), inserted provision authorizing an appropriation of not to exceed $2,000,000 for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1970.
Subsec. (n). Pub. L. 90–495, § 6(d), added subsec. (n).
1966—Subsec. (m). Pub. L. 89–574 substituted provisions making applicable to the funds authorized to be appropriated to carry out this section after June 30, 1967 the provisions of chapter 1 of this title relating to the obligation, period of availability and expenditure of Federal-aid primary highway funds for provisions prohibiting the use of any part of the Highway Trust Fund in carrying out this section.
1965—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 89–285 struck out specific reference to the area which lies within six-hundred and sixty feet of the edge of the right-of-way and which is visible from the right-of-way and instead made only general reference to the areas adjacent to the Interstate System and struck out reference to types of permissible signs.
Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 89–285 substituted provisions reducing by 10 per centum the apportioned share, on or after January 1, 1968, of any State not making provision for effective control of erection and maintenance of outdoor advertising signs, displays and devices within six-hundred and sixty feet of the nearest edge of the right of way and visible from the traveled portion, reapportioning withheld funds to other States, and allowing for suspension of such provisions in the discretion of the Secretary, for provisions which authorized the Secretary to enter into agreements with the States to carry out national policy on control of areas adjacent to the Interstate System.
Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 89–285 substituted provisions setting out permissible types of signs as directional and other official signs and notices, signs advertising sale or lease of property on which the sign is located, and signs, displays, and devices advertising activities conducted on the property on which the sign is located, for provisions allowing for an increase in the Federal share payable under the Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1956, as amended, in the case of States entering into an agreement with the Secretary prior to July 1, 1965.
Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 89–285 substituted provisions allowing for agreements between the Secretary and the several States covering commercial or industrial property, for provisions covering control of the adjacent area when the Interstate System is located on or near public lands or reservations of the United States.
Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 89–285 substituted provisions setting out the timetable for removal of signs, displays, and devices lawfully along Interstate System or Federal-aid primary system highways, for provisions allowing the inclusion of the cost of purchase or condemnation of the right to advertise or control advertising in the area adjacent to Interstate System right-of-way as part of the cost of construction.
Subsecs. (f) to (m). Pub. L. 89–285 added subsecs. (f) to (m).
1963—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 88–157 substituted “July 1, 1965” for “July 1, 1963”.
1961—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 87–61 substituted “July 1, 1963” for “July 1, 1961”.
1959—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 86–342 substituted “Agreements entered into between the Secretary of Commerce and State highway departments under this section shall not apply to those segments of the Interstate System which traverse commercial or industrial zones within the presently existing boundaries of incorporated municipalities wherein the use of real property adjacent to the Interstate System is subject to municipal regulation or control, or which traverse other areas where the land use, as of the date of approval of this Act, is clearly established by State law as industrial or commercial” for “Upon application of the State, any such agreement may, within the discretion of the Secretary of Commerce consistent with the national policy, provide for excluding from application of the national standards segments of the Interstate System which traverse incorporated municipalities wherein the use of real property adjacent to the Interstate System is subject to municipal regulation or control, or which traverse other areas where the land use is clearly established by State law as industrial or commercial.”
Pub. L. 114–94, div. A, title I, § 1446(d), Dec. 4, 2015, 129 Stat. 1438, provided that the amendment made by section 1446(d)(5)(B) is effective as of July 6, 2012, and as if included in Pub. L. 112–141 as enacted.
Amendment by Pub. L. 102–240 effective Dec. 18, 1991, and applicable to funds authorized to be appropriated or made available after Sept. 30, 1991, and, with certain exceptions, not applicable to funds appropriated or made available on or before Sept. 30, 1991, see section 1100 of Pub. L. 102–240, set out as a note under section 104 of this title.
Pub. L. 105–178, title I, § 1213(g), June 9, 1998, 112 Stat. 202, required the Secretary to conduct a study to determine the practices in the States for specific service food signs described in sections 2G–5.7 and 2G–5.8 of the Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices for Streets and Highways, and to transmit to Congress, not later than 1 year after June 9, 1998, a report on the results of the study, including any recommendations and, if appropriate, modifications to the Manual.
Pub. L. 91–605, title I, § 123, Dec. 31, 1970, 84 Stat. 1727, as amended by Pub. L. 93–6, Feb. 16, 1973, 87 Stat. 6, established the Commission on Highway Beautification to (1) study existing statutes and regulations governing control of outdoor advertising and junkyards in areas adjacent to Federal-aid highway system, (2) review policies and practices of Federal and State agencies charged with administrative jurisdiction over such highways insofar as such policies and practices relate to governing control of outdoor advertising and junkyards, (3) compile data necessary to understand and determine the requirements for such control which may now exist or are likely to exist within foreseeable future, (4) study problems relating to control of on-premise outdoor advertising signs, promotional signs, directional signs, and signs providing information that is essential to motoring public, (5) study methods of financing and possible sources of Federal funds, including use of the Highway Trust Fund, to carry out highway beautification program, and (6) recommend such modifications or additions to existing laws, regulations, policies, practices, and demonstration programs as will, in judgment of the Commission, achieve a workable and effective highway beautification program and best serve the public interest and to submit, not later than Dec. 31, 1973, its final report. The Commission terminated six months after submission of said report.
Pub. L. 89–285, title III, § 302, Oct. 22, 1965, 79 Stat. 1032, provided that in order to provide the basis for evaluating the continuing programs authorized by Pub. L. 89–285, and to furnish the Congress with the information necessary for authorization of appropriations for fiscal years beginning after June 30, 1967, the Secretary, in cooperation with the State highway departments, shall make a detailed estimate of the cost of carrying out the provisions of Pub. L. 89–285, and a comprehensive study of the economic impact of such programs on affected individuals and commercial and industrial enterprises, the effectiveness of such programs and the public and private benefits realized thereby, and alternate or improved methods of accomplishing the objectives of Pub. L. 89–285. The Secretary was required to submit such detailed estimate and a report concerning such comprehensive study to the Congress not later than Jan. 10, 1967.
Pub. L. 89–285, title III, § 303, Oct. 22, 1965, 79 Stat. 1033, mandated the holding of public hearings by the Secretary of Commerce prior to the promulgation of standards, criteria and rules and regulations necessary to carry out this section and section 136 of this title, such standards, criteria, etc., to be reported to Congress not later than Jan. 10, 1967.