28 U.S. Code § 1581. Civil actions against the United States and agencies and officers thereof
For termination of amendment by section 501(c) of Pub. L. 100–449, see Effective and Termination Dates of 1988 Amendment note below.
The predecessor of the United States Customs Court was the Board of General Appraisers which was created by the Customs Administrative Act of June 10, 1890. The Board was under the administrative supervision of the Secretary of the Treasury.
From 1890 to 1926, the Board of General Appraisers had jurisdiction over all protests from decisions of the collectors of customs and appeals for reappraisement under sections 13 and 14 of the Customs Administrative Act of June 10, 1890, ch. 407, 26 Stat. 136.
The Customs Court was established by act May 28, 1926, ch. 411, §§ 1, 2, 44 Stat. 669, sections 405a and 405b of Title 19, Customs Duties, and said act transferred to it all the jurisdiction and powers of the former Board of General Appraisers. The Tariff Act of June 1930, ch. 497, title IV, § 518, 46 Stat. 737, section 1518 of Title 19, continued the Customs Court as constituted on June 17, 1930 with, however, several important changes.
Sections 516A and 517 of the Tariff Act of 1930, referred to in subsecs. (c) and (i), are classified to sections 1516a and 1517 of Title 19, Customs Duties.
The Trade Act of 1974, referred to in subsec. (d), is Pub. L. 93–618, Jan. 3, 1975, 88 Stat. 1978, which is classified principally to chapter 12 (§ 2101 et seq.) of Title 19, Customs Duties. Sections 223, 251, 293, and 296 of the Act are classified to sections 2273, 2341, 2401b, and 2401e, respectively, of Title 19. Section 273 of the Act, formerly classified to section 2371b of Title 19, was repealed by Pub. L. 112–40, title II, § 222(a)(1), Oct. 21, 2011, 125 Stat. 411. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see References in Text note set out under section 2101 of Title 19 and Tables.
A prior section 1581, act June 25, 1948, ch. 646, 62 Stat. 943, related to powers of the Customs Court generally, prior to the general revision of this chapter by Pub. L. 96–417. See section 1585 of this title.
2016—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 114–125 inserted “or 517” after “516A”.
2009—Subsec. (d)(3), (4). Pub. L. 111–5 substituted “273” for “271” in par. (3) and added par. (4).
1993—Subsec. (g)(3). Pub. L. 103–182, § 684(a)(1), added par. (3).
1988—Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 100–449 temporarily inserted at end “This subsection shall not confer jurisdiction over an antidumping or countervailing duty determination which is reviewable either by the Court of International Trade under section 516A(a) of the Tariff Act of 1930 or by a binational panel under article 1904 of the United States-Canada Free-Trade Agreement and section 516A(g) of the Tariff Act of 1930.” See Effective and Termination Dates of 1988 Amendment note below.
1986—Subsec. (g)(1). Pub. L. 99–514 substituted “(3)” for “(3) or (c)”.
1984—Subsec. (g)(1). Pub. L. 98–573 amended par. (1) generally, substituting “a customs broker’s license under section 641(b)(2) or (3) or (c) of the Tariff Act of 1930, or to deny a customs broker’s permit under section 641(c)(1) of such Act, or to revoke a license or permit under section 641(b)(5) or (c)(2) of such Act” for “or revoke a customhouse broker’s license under section 641(a) of the Tariff Act of 1930”.
Subsec. (g)(2). Pub. L. 98–573 amended par. (2) generally, substituting “any decision of the Secretary of the Treasury to revoke or suspend a customs broker’s license or permit, or impose a monetary penalty in lieu thereof, under section 641(d)(2)(B) of the Tariff Act of 1930” for “any order of the Secretary of the Treasury to revoke or suspend a customhouse broker’s license under section 641(b) of the Tariff Act of 1930”.
Except as otherwise provided and subject to certain applicability provisions, amendment by Pub. L. 111–5 effective upon the expiration of the 90-day period beginning on Feb. 17, 2009, see section 1891 of Pub. L. 111–5, set out as an Effective and Termination Dates of 2009 Amendment note under section 2271 of Title 19, Customs Duties.
Amendment by section 414(a)(1) of Pub. L. 103–182 effective on the date the North American Free Trade Agreement enters into force with respect to the United States [Jan. 1, 1994], but not applicable to any final determination described in section 1516a(a)(1)(B) or (2)(B)(i), (ii), or (iii) of Title 19, Customs Duties, notice of which is published in the Federal Register before such date, or to a determination described in section 1516a(a)(2)(B)(vi) of Title 19, notice of which is received by the Government of Canada or Mexico before such date, or to any binational panel review under the United States-Canada Free-Trade Agreement, or to any extraordinary challenge arising out of any such review, that was commenced before such date, see section 416 of Pub. L. 103–182, set out as an Effective Date note under section 3431 of Title 19.
Amendment by Pub. L. 100–449 effective on date United States-Canada Free-Trade Agreement enters into force (Jan. 1, 1989), and to cease to have effect on date Agreement ceases to be in force, see section 501(a), (c) of Pub. L. 100–449, set out in a note under section 2112 of Title 19, Customs Duties.
Chapter effective Nov. 1, 1980, and applicable with respect to civil actions pending on or commenced on or after such date, see section 701(a) of Pub. L. 96–417, set out as an Effective Date of 1980 Amendment note under section 251 of this title.
Subsecs. (d) and (g) to (i) of this section applicable with respect to civil actions commenced on or after Nov. 1, 1980, see section 701(b)(1)(A) of Pub. L. 96–417.
For transfer of functions, personnel, assets, and liabilities of the United States Customs Service of the Department of the Treasury, including functions of the Secretary of the Treasury relating thereto, to the Secretary of Homeland Security, and for treatment of related references, see sections 203(1), 551(d), 552(d), and 557 of Title 6, Domestic Security, and the Department of Homeland Security Reorganization Plan of November 25, 2002, as modified, set out as a note under section 542 of Title 6. For establishment of U.S. Customs and Border Protection in the Department of Homeland Security, treated as if included in Pub. L. 107–296 as of Nov. 25, 2002, see section 211 of Title 6, as amended generally by Pub. L. 114–125, and section 802(b) of Pub. L. 114–125, set out as a note under section 211 of Title 6.
 See References in Text note below.