28 U.S. Code § 451 - Definitions
As used in this title:
The term “court of the United States” includes the Supreme Court of the United States, courts of appeals, district courts constituted by chapter 5 of this title, including the Court of International Trade and any court created by Act of Congress the judges of which are entitled to hold office during good behavior.
The term “judge of the United States” includes judges of the courts of appeals, district courts, Court of International Trade and any court created by Act of Congress, the judges of which are entitled to hold office during good behavior.
The term “department” means one of the executive departments enumerated in section 1 of Title 5, unless the context shows that such term was intended to describe the executive, legislative, or judicial branches of the government.
The term “agency” includes any department, independent establishment, commission, administration, authority, board or bureau of the United States or any corporation in which the United States has a proprietary interest, unless the context shows that such term was intended to be used in a more limited sense.
This section was inserted to make possible a greater simplification in consolidation of the provisions incorporated in this title.
Those provisions of this section which related to the Tax Court were eliminated by Senate amendment. See 80th Congress Senate Report No. 1559.
Section 1 of Title 5, referred to in text, is section 1 of former Title 5, Executive Departments and Government Officers and Employees, the provisions of which are covered by section 101 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.
1982—Pub. L. 97–164 struck out references to the Court of Claims and to the Court of Customs and Patent Appeals in the definitions of “court of the United States” and “judge of the United States”.
1980—Pub. L. 96–417 redesignated the Customs Court as the Court of International Trade.
1978—Pub. L. 95–598 directed the amendment of section by inserting references to bankruptcy courts and bankruptcy judges, which amendment did not become effective pursuant to section 402(b) of Pub. L. 95–598, as amended, set out as an Effective Date note preceding section 101 of Title 11, Bankruptcy.
1966—Pub. L. 89–571 removed the United States District Court for the District of Puerto Rico from the definition of “court of the United States”.
1959—Pub. L. 86–3 substituted “including the United States District for the District of Puerto Rico” for “including the district courts of the United States for the districts of Hawaii and Puerto Rico” in provisions defining “court of the United States”.
Amendment by Pub. L. 96–417 effective Nov. 1, 1980, and applicable with respect to civil actions pending on or commenced on or after such date, see section 701(a) of Pub. L. 96–417, set out as a note under section 251 of this title.
Pub. L. 86–3, § 10, Mar. 18, 1959, 73 Stat. 9, provided that the amendment made by section 10 of Pub. L. 86–3 shall be effective on admission of the State of Hawaii into the Union. Admission of Hawaii into the Union was accomplished Aug. 21, 1959, on issuance of Proc. No. 3309, Aug. 21, 1959, 25 F.R. 6868, 73 Stat. c74, as required by sections 1 and 7(c) of Pub. L. 86–3, Mar. 18, 1959, 73 Stat. 4, set out as notes preceding 491 of Title 48, Territories and Insular Possessions.
“Circuit Court of Appeals;” “Senior Circuit Judge,” Etc. Defined
Act Sept. 3, 1954, ch. 1263, § 51(b), 68 Stat. 1246, provided that this amendment should take effect as of Sept. 1, 1948.
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