28 U.S. Code § 91 - Hawaii
Hawaii constitutes one judicial district which includes the Midway Islands, Wake Island, Johnston Island, Sand Island, Kingman Reef, Palmyra Island, Baker Island, Howland Island, Jarvis Island, Canton Island, and Enderbury Island: Provided, That the inclusion of Canton and Enderbury Islands in such judicial district shall in no way be construed to be prejudicial to the claims of the United Kingdom to said Islands in accordance with the agreement of April 6, 1939, between the Governments of the United States and of the United Kingdom to set up a regime for their use in common.
Court shall be held at Honolulu.
Based on sections 641 and 642a of title 48, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Territories and Insular Possessions (Apr. 30, 1900, ch. 339, § 86, 31 Stat. 158; Mar. 3, 1909, ch. 269, § 1, 35 Stat. 838; July 9, 1921, ch. 42, § 313, 42 Stat. 119; Feb. 12, 1925, ch. 220, 43 Stat. 890; Dec. 13, 1926, ch. 6, § 1, 44 Stat. 919; Aug. 13, 1940, ch. 662, 54 Stat. 784).
Provisions of section 642a of title 48, U.S.C., 1940 ed., relating to jurisdiction of civil actions and criminal offenses, were omitted as covered by the general jurisdictional provisions of this title and revised title 18 (H. R. 3190, 80th Cong.).
Provisions of section 642a of title 48, U.S.C., 1940 ed., as to appeals were omitted as covered by section 1295 of this title. Provisions of said section 642a with reference to juries and jury trials were omitted as covered by chapter 121 of this title.
Changes were made in phraseology.
1960—Pub. L. 86–624 struck out Kure Island.
1959—Pub. L. 86–3 included Palmyra Island.
1949—Act May 24, 1949, inserted provisions relating to inclusion of Canton and Enderbury Islands.
Pub. L. 86–3, § 14, Mar. 18, 1959, 73 Stat. 10, provided that the amendments of sections 91, 373, 1252, 1293, and 1294 of this title,sections 3771 and 3772 of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure, and section 644a of Title 48, Territories and Insular Possessions, the repeal of sections 536, 539, 634, 634a, and 645 of title 48, and notes set out under sections 371 and 373 of this title, are effective on admission of the State of Hawaii into the Union. See Admission of Hawaii as State note below.
By a treaty of friendship, TIAS 10777, which entered into force Sept. 23, 1983, the United States recognized the sovereignty of Kiribati over Canton Island and Enderbury Island.
Admission of Hawaii into the Union was accomplished Aug. 21, 1959, on issuance of Proc. No. 3309, Aug. 21, 1959, 25 F.R. 6868, 73 Stat. c74, as required by sections 1 and 7(c) of Pub. L. 86–3, Mar. 18, 1959, 73 Stat. 4, set out as notes preceding section 491 of Title 48, Territories and Insular Possessions.
Section 9 of Pub. L. 86–3 provided in part that subsec. (a) of that section should be effective upon the admission of the State of Hawaii into the Union.
“All civil causes of action and all criminal offenses which shall have arisen or been committed prior to the admission of said State, but as to which no writ, action, indictment or proceeding shall be pending at the date of such admission, shall be subject to prosecution in the appropriate State courts or in the United States District Court for the District of Hawaii in like manner, to the same extent, and with like right of appellate review, as if said State had been created and said State courts had been established prior to the accrual of such causes of action or the commission of such offenses. The admission of said State shall effect no change in the substantive or criminal law governing such causes of action and criminal offenses which shall have arisen or been committed; and such of said criminal offenses as shall have been committed against the laws of the Territory shall be tried and punished by the appropriate courts of said State, and such as shall have been committed against the laws of the United States shall be tried and punished in the United States District Court for the District of Hawaii.”
The jurisdiction of the United States District Court for the District of Hawaii and the laws of the United States relating to civil acts or offenses consummated or committed on the high seas on board a vessel belonging to the United States were extended to the Midway Islands, Wake, Johnson, Sand, etc., Islands by section 644a of Title 48, Territories and Insular Possessions.
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