33 U.S. Code § 495 - Violations of orders respecting bridges and accessory works
(a) Criminal penalties for violation; misdemeanor; fine; new offenses; jurisdiction: suits for recovery of removal expenses, enforcement of removal, and obstruction-to-navigation causes or questions
Any persons who shall willfully fail or refuse to comply with the lawful order of the Secretary of Transportation or the Chief of Engineers, made in accordance with the provisions of sections 491 to 494 and 495 to 498 of this title, shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor and on conviction thereof shall be punished in any court of competent jurisdiction by a fine not exceeding $5,000, and every month such persons shall remain in default shall be deemed a new offense and subject such persons to additional penalties therefor; and in addition to the penalties above described the Secretary of Transportation and the Chief of Engineers may, upon refusal of the persons owning or controlling any such bridge and accessory works to comply with any lawful order issued by the Secretary of Transportation or Chief of Engineers in regard thereto, cause the removal of such bridge and accessory works at the expense of the persons owning or controlling such bridge, and suit for such expense may be brought in the name of the United States against such persons, and recovery had for such expense in any court of competent jurisdiction; and the removal of any structures erected or maintained in violation of the provisions of said sections, or the order or direction of the Secretary of Transportation or Chief of Engineers made in pursuance thereof may be enforced by injunction, mandamus, or other summary process, upon application to the district court in the district in which such structure may, in whole or in part, exist, and proper proceedings to this end may be instituted under the direction of the Attorney General of the United States at the request of the Secretary of Transportation; and in case of any litigation arising from any obstruction or alleged obstruction to navigation created by the construction of any bridge under said sections, the cause or question arising may be tried before the district court of the United States in any district which any portion of said obstruction or bridge touches.
(b) Civil penalties for violation; separate offenses; notice and hearing; assessment, collection, and remission; civil actions
Whoever violates any provision of sections 491 to 494 and 495 to 498 of this title, or any order issued under sections 491 to 494 and 495 to 498 of this title, shall be liable to a civil penalty of not more than $5,000 for a violation occurring in 2004; $10,000 for a violation occurring in 2005; $15,000 for a violation occurring in 2006; $20,000 for a violation occurring in 2007; and $25,000 for a violation occurring in 2008 and any year thereafter. Each day a violation continues shall be deemed a separate offense. No penalty may be assessed under this subsection until the person charged is given notice and an opportunity for a hearing on the charge. The Secretary of Transportation may assess and collect any civil penalty incurred under this subsection and, in his discretion, may remit, mitigate, or compromise any penalty until the matter is referred to the Attorney General. If a person against whom a civil penalty is assessed under this subsection fails to pay that penalty, an action may be commenced in the district court of the United States for any district in which the violation occurs for such penalty.
Source(Mar. 23, 1906, ch. 1130, § 5,34 Stat. 85; Mar. 3, 1911, ch. 231, §§ 289, 291,36 Stat. 1167; Pub. L. 97–322, title I, § 108(c),Oct. 15, 1982, 96 Stat. 1584; Pub. L. 97–449, § 2(d)(1),Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2440; Pub. L. 108–293, title VI, § 601(a),Aug. 9, 2004, 118 Stat. 1050.)
The words “district court” were substituted for “circuit court,” upon incorporation into the Code, the Circuit Courts being abolished by act Mar. 3, 1911, and their powers and duties transferred to the district courts by section 291 of that act.
2004—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 108–293substituted “$5,000 for a violation occurring in 2004; $10,000 for a violation occurring in 2005; $15,000 for a violation occurring in 2006; $20,000 for a violation occurring in 2007; and $25,000 for a violation occurring in 2008 and any year thereafter” for “$1,000”.
1983—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 97–449substituted “Secretary of Transportation” for “Secretary of War” wherever appearing. See Transfer of Functions note below.
1982—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 97–322, § 108(c)(1)–(3), designated existing provisions as subsec. (a), provided for punishment of persons who shall “willfully” fail to comply with lawful orders, and struck out “shall be deemed guilty of a violation of said sections, and any persons who shall be guilty of a violation of said sections” before “shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor”.
Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 97–322, § 108(c)(4), added subsec. (b).
Transfer of Functions
Functions, powers, and duties of Secretary of the Army [formerly War] and other offices and officers of Department the Army [formerly War] under this section to extent that they relate generally to location and clearances of bridges and causeways in navigable waters of United States transferred to and vested in Secretary of Transportation by Pub. L. 89–670, § 6(g)(6)(B),Oct. 15, 1966, 80 Stat. 941. Pub. L. 97–449amended this section to reflect transfer made by section 6(g)(6)(B) ofPub. L. 89–670, and repealed section 6 (g)(6)(B).