41 U.S. Code § 8301 - Definitions

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In this chapter:
(1) Public building, public use, and public work.—
The terms “public building”, “public use”, and “public work” mean a public building of, use by, and a public work of, the Federal Government, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, American Samoa, and the Virgin Islands.
(2) United states.—
The term “United States” includes any place subject to the jurisdiction of the United States.

Historical and Revision Notes

Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)

Source (Statutes at Large)

8301

41:10c.

Mar. 3, 1933, ch. 212, title III, § 1, 47 Stat. 1520; Pub. L. 86–70, § 43, June 25, 1959, 73 Stat. 151; Pub. L. 86–624, § 28, July 12, 1960, 74 Stat. 419; Pub. L. 100–418, title VII, § 7005(a), Aug. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 1552.

In paragraph (1), the words “the Philippine Islands” are omitted because of Proclamation No. 2695 (22 U.S.C. 1394 note). The words “the Canal Zone” are omitted because of the Panama Canal Treaty of 1977.

In paragraph (2), the words “when used in a geographical sense” are omitted as unnecessary.

Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries
Implementation of Buy American Act With Respect to Certain Water Resource Projects

Pub. L. 100–371, title V, § 508, July 19, 1988, 102 Stat. 875, provided that:

“(a) General Rule.—
For purposes of title III of the Act of March 3, 1933 (47 Stat. 1520; [former] 41 U.S.C. 10a–10c) [see 41 U.S.C. 8301 et seq.], commonly known as the Buy American Act, a cofferdam or any other temporary structure to be constructed by the Secretary of the Army, acting through the Chief of Engineers, shall be treated in the same manner as a permanent dam constructed by the Secretary of the Army.
“(b) Applicability.—
Subsection (a) shall only apply to contracts entered into after the date of the enactment of this Act [July 19, 1988].”
Executive Documents
Ex. Ord. No. 13788. Buy American and Hire American

Ex. Ord. No. 13788, Apr. 18, 2017, 82 F.R. 18837, as amended by Ex. Ord. No. 13858, § 5, Jan. 31, 2019, 84 F.R. 2040, provided:

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, and to ensure the faithful execution of the laws, it is hereby ordered as follows:

Section 1. Definitions. As used in this order:

(a) “Buy American Laws” means all statutes, regulations, rules, and Executive Orders relating to Federal procurement or Federal financial assistance—including those that refer to “Buy America” or “Buy American”—that require, or provide a preference for, the purchase or acquisition of goods, products, or materials produced in the United States, including iron, steel, and manufactured goods.

(b) “Produced in the United States” means, for iron and steel products, that all manufacturing processes, from the initial melting stage through the application of coatings, occurred in the United States.

(c) “Petition beneficiaries” means aliens petitioned for by employers to become nonimmigrant visa holders with temporary work authorization under the H–1B visa program.

(d) “Waivers” means exemptions from or waivers of Buy American Laws, or the procedures and conditions used by an executive department or agency (agency) in granting exemptions from or waivers of Buy American Laws.

(e) “Workers in the United States” and “United States workers” shall both be defined as provided at section 212(n)(4)(E) of the Immigration and Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1182(n)(4)(E)).

Sec. 2. Policy. It shall be the policy of the executive branch to buy American and hire American.

(a) Buy American Laws. In order to promote economic and national security and to help stimulate economic growth, create good jobs at decent wages, strengthen our middle class, and support the American manufacturing and defense industrial bases, it shall be the policy of the executive branch to maximize, consistent with law, through terms and conditions of Federal financial assistance awards and Federal procurements, the use of goods, products, and materials produced in the United States.

(b) Hire American. In order to create higher wages and employment rates for workers in the United States, and to protect their economic interests, it shall be the policy of the executive branch to rigorously enforce and administer the laws governing entry into the United States of workers from abroad, including section 212(a)(5) of the Immigration and Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1182(a)(5)).

Sec. 3. Immediate Enforcement and Assessment of Domestic Preferences According to Buy American Laws. (a) Every agency shall scrupulously monitor, enforce, and comply with Buy American Laws, to the extent they apply, and minimize the use of waivers, consistent with applicable law.

(b) Within 150 days of the date of this order, the heads of all agencies shall:

(i) assess the monitoring of, enforcement of, implementation of, and compliance with Buy American Laws within their agencies;

(ii) assess the use of waivers within their agencies by type and impact on domestic jobs and manufacturing; and

(iii) develop and propose policies for their agencies to ensure that, to the extent permitted by law, Federal financial assistance awards and Federal procurements maximize the use of materials produced in the United States, including manufactured products; components of manufactured products; and materials such as steel, iron, aluminum, and cement.

(c) Within 60 days of the date of this order, the Secretary of Commerce and the Director of the Office of Management and Budget, in consultation with the Secretary of State, the Secretary of Labor, the United States Trade Representative, and the Federal Acquisition Regulatory Council, shall issue guidance to agencies about how to make the assessments and to develop the policies required by subsection (b) of this section.

(d) Within 150 days of the date of this order, the heads of all agencies shall submit findings made pursuant to the assessments required by subsection (b) of this section to the Secretary of Commerce and the Director of the Office of Management and Budget.

(e) Within 150 days of the date of this order, the Secretary of Commerce and the United States Trade Representative shall assess the impacts of all United States free trade agreements and the World Trade Organization Agreement on Government Procurement on the operation of Buy American Laws, including their impacts on the implementation of domestic procurement preferences.

(f) The Secretary of Commerce, in consultation with the Secretary of State, the Director of the Office of Management and Budget, and the United States Trade Representative, shall submit to the President a report on Buy American that includes findings from subsections (b), (d), and (e) of this section. This report shall be submitted within 220 days of the date of this order and shall include specific recommendations to strengthen implementation of Buy American Laws, including domestic procurement preference policies and programs. Subsequent reports on implementation of Buy American Laws shall be submitted by each agency head annually to the Secretary of Commerce and the Director of the Office of Management and Budget, on November 15, 2018, 2019, and 2020, and in subsequent years as directed by the Secretary of Commerce and the Director of the Office of Management and Budget. The Secretary of Commerce shall submit to the President an annual report based on these submissions beginning January 15, 2019.

Sec. 4. Judicious Use of Waivers. (a) To the extent permitted by law, public interest waivers from Buy American Laws should be construed to ensure the maximum utilization of goods, products, and materials produced in the United States.

(b) To the extent permitted by law, determination of public interest waivers shall be made by the head of the agency with the authority over the Federal financial assistance award or Federal procurement under consideration.

(c) To the extent permitted by law, before granting a public interest waiver, the relevant agency shall take appropriate account of whether a significant portion of the cost advantage of a foreign-sourced product is the result of the use of dumped steel, iron, or manufactured goods or the use of injuriously subsidized steel, iron, or manufactured goods, and it shall integrate any findings into its waiver determination as appropriate.

Sec. 5. Ensuring the Integrity of the Immigration System in Order to “Hire American.” (a) In order to advance the policy outlined in section 2(b) of this order, the Secretary of State, the Attorney General, the Secretary of Labor, and the Secretary of Homeland Security shall, as soon as practicable, and consistent with applicable law, propose new rules and issue new guidance, to supersede or revise previous rules and guidance if appropriate, to protect the interests of United States workers in the administration of our immigration system, including through the prevention of fraud or abuse.

(b) In order to promote the proper functioning of the H–1B visa program, the Secretary of State, the Attorney General, the Secretary of Labor, and the Secretary of Homeland Security shall, as soon as practicable, suggest reforms to help ensure that H–1B visas are awarded to the most-skilled or highest-paid petition beneficiaries.

Sec. 6. General Provisions. (a) Nothing in this order shall be construed to impair or otherwise affect:

(i) the authority granted by law to an executive department or agency, or the head thereof;

(ii) the functions of the Director of the Office of Management and Budget relating to budgetary, administrative, or legislative proposals; or

(iii) existing rights or obligations under international agreements.

(b) This order shall be implemented consistent with applicable law and subject to the availability of appropriations.

(c) This order is not intended to, and does not, create any right or benefit, substantive or procedural, enforceable at law or in equity by any party against the United States, its departments, agencies, or entities, its officers, employees, or agents, or any other person.

Donald J. Trump.
Ex. Ord. No. 13858. Strengthening Buy-American Preferences for Infrastructure Projects

Ex. Ord. No. 13858, Jan. 31, 2019, 84 F.R. 2039, provided:

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, and to strengthen Buy-American principles in Federal financial assistance programs, it is hereby ordered as follows:

Section 1. Policy. As expressed in Executive Order 13788 of April 18, 2017 (Buy American and Hire American) [set out above], it is the policy of the executive branch to maximize, consistent with law, the use of goods, products, and materials produced in the United States, in Federal procurements and through the terms and conditions of Federal financial assistance awards.

Sec. 2. Definitions. As used in this order:

(a) “Produced in the United States” means, for iron and steel products, that all manufacturing processes, from the initial melting stage through the application of coatings, occurred in the United States.

(b) “Federal financial assistance” shall have the meaning and shall be interpreted consistent with the definition provided by the Office of Management and Budget’s Uniform Administrative Requirements, Cost Principles, and Audit Requirements for Federal Awards, found at section 200.40 of title 2, Code of Federal Regulations.

(c) “Manufactured products” means items and construction materials composed in whole or in part of non-ferrous metals such as aluminum; plastics and polymer-based products such as polyvinyl chloride pipe; aggregates such as concrete; glass, including optical fiber; and lumber.

(d) “Infrastructure project” means a project to develop public or private physical assets that are designed to provide or support services to the general public in the following sectors: surface transportation, including roadways, bridges, railroads, and transit; aviation; ports, including navigational channels; water resources projects; energy production, generation, and storage, including from fossil-fuels, renewable, nuclear, and hydroelectric sources; electricity transmission; gas, oil, and propane storage and transmission; electric, oil, natural gas, and propane distribution systems; broadband internet; pipelines; stormwater and sewer infrastructure; drinking water infrastructure; cybersecurity; and any other sector designated through a notice published in the Federal Register by the Federal Permitting Improvement Steering Council.

(e) “Covered program” means any program for which a focus of the statutory authorities under which it is administered is the award of Federal financial assistance for the alteration, construction, conversion, demolition, extension, improvement, maintenance, reconstruction, rehabilitation, or repair of an infrastructure project in the United States, except that this term shall not include:

(i) programs for which providing a domestic preference is inconsistent with law; or

(ii) programs providing Federal financial assistance that are subject to comparable domestic preferences.

(f) “Domestic Preference” means a preference for the purchase, acquisition, or use of goods, products, or materials produced in the United States, including iron and aluminum as well as steel, cement, and other manufactured products.

Sec. 3. Application of Buy-American Principles to Covered Programs. (a) Within 90 days of the date of this order [Jan. 31, 2019], the head of each executive department and agency (agency) administering a covered program shall, as appropriate and to the extent consistent with law, encourage recipients of new Federal financial assistance awards pursuant to a covered program to use, to the greatest extent practicable, iron and aluminum as well as steel, cement, and other manufactured products produced in the United States in every contract, subcontract, purchase order, or sub-award that is chargeable against such Federal financial assistance award.

(b) The head of each agency administering a covered program shall include in the report required by section 4 of this order a detailed explanation of the strategy, plan, or program developed to satisfy the requirement of subsection (a) of this section.

Sec. 4. Identification of Opportunities to Maximize the Use of Buy-American Principles. Within 120 days of the date of this order, the head of each agency administering a covered program shall identify in a report to the President, through the Assistant to the President for Trade and Manufacturing Policy, any tools, techniques, terms, or conditions that have been used or could be used, consistent with law and in furtherance of the policy set forth in section 1 of this order, to maximize the use of iron and aluminum as well as steel, cement, and other manufactured products produced in the United States in contracts, sub-contracts, purchase orders, or sub-awards that are chargeable against Federal financial assistance awards for infrastructure projects. In preparing this report, the agency head shall take care to analyze whether covered programs within the agency head’s jurisdiction would support, through terms and conditions on new Federal financial assistance awards under such covered programs, the imposition of a requirement to use iron and aluminum as well as steel, cement, and other manufactured products produced in the United States in contracts, sub-contracts, purchase orders, or sub-awards that are chargeable against such Federal financial assistance awards.

Sec. 5. [Amended Ex. Ord. No. 13788, set out above.]

Sec. 6. General Provisions. (a) Nothing in this order shall be construed to impair or otherwise affect:

(i) the authority granted by law to an executive department or agency, or the head thereof;

(ii) the functions of the Director of the Office of Management and Budget relating to budgetary, administrative, or legislative proposals; or

(iii) existing rights or obligations under international agreements.

(b) This order shall be implemented consistent with applicable law and subject to the availability of appropriations.

(c) This order is not intended to, and does not, create any right or benefit, substantive or procedural, enforceable at law or in equity by any party against the United States, its departments, agencies, or entities, its officers, employees, or agents, or any other person.

Donald J. Trump.
Ex. Ord. No. 13881. Maximizing Use of American-Made Goods, Products, and Materials

Ex. Ord. No. 13881, July 15, 2019, 84 F.R. 34257, provided:

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, and to promote the principles underlying the Buy American Act of 1933 (41 U.S.C. 8301–8305), it is hereby ordered as follows:

Section 1. Policy. (a) As expressed in Executive Order 13788 of April 18, 2017 (Buy American and Hire American) [set out above], and in Executive Order 13858 of January 31, 2019 (Strengthening Buy-American Preferences for Infrastructure Projects) [set out above], it is the policy of the United States to buy American and to maximize, consistent with law, the use of goods, products, and materials produced in the United States. To those ends, my Administration shall enforce the Buy American Act to the greatest extent permitted by law.

(b) In Executive Order 10582 of December 17, 1954 (Prescribing Uniform Procedures for Certain Determinations Under the Buy-American Act) [41 U.S.C. 8303 note], President Eisenhower established that materials shall be, for purposes of the Buy American Act, considered of foreign origin if the cost of the foreign products used in such materials constitutes 50 percent or more of the cost of all the products used in such materials. He also established that, in determining whether the bid or offered price of materials of domestic origin is unreasonable or inconsistent with the public interest, the executive agencies shall either (1) add 6 percent to the total bid or offered price of materials of foreign origin, or (2) add 10 percent to the total bid or offered price of materials of foreign origin less certain specified costs as follows. Where the foreign bid or offer is less than $25,000, applicable duty is excluded from the calculation. Where the foreign bid or offer is more than $25,000, both applicable duty, and all costs incurred after arrival in the United States, are excluded from the calculation.

(c) The policies described in section 1(b) of this order were adopted by the Federal Acquisition Regulatory Council (FAR Council) in the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR), title 48, Code of Federal Regulations. The FAR should be reviewed and revised, as appropriate, to most effectively carry out the goals of the Buy American Act and my Administration’s policy of enforcing the Buy American Act to its maximum lawful extent. I therefore direct the members of the FAR Council to consider measures that may better effectuate this policy.

Sec. 2. Proposed Rules. (a) Within 180 days of the date of this order [July 15, 2019], the FAR Council shall consider proposing for notice and public comment:

(i) an amendment to the applicable provisions in the FAR that would provide that materials shall be considered to be of foreign origin if:

(A) for iron and steel end products, the cost of foreign iron and steel used in such iron and steel end products constitutes 5 percent or more of the cost of all the products used in such iron and steel end products; or

(B) for all other end products, the cost of the foreign products used in such end products constitutes 45 percent or more of the cost of all the products used in such end products; and

(ii) an amendment to the applicable provisions in the FAR that would provide that the executive agency concerned shall in each instance conduct the reasonableness and public interest determination referred to in sections 8302 and 8303 of title 41, United States Code, on the basis of the following-described differential formula, subject to the terms thereof: the sum determined by computing 20 percent (for other than small businesses), or 30 percent (for small businesses), of the offer or offered price of materials of foreign origin.

(b) The FAR Council shall consider and evaluate public comments on any regulations proposed pursuant to section 2(a) of this order and shall promptly issue a final rule, if appropriate and consistent with applicable law and the national security interests of the United States. The head of each executive agency shall issue such regulations as may be necessary to ensure that agency procurement practices conform to the provisions of any final rule issued pursuant to this order.

Sec. 3. Effect on Executive Order 10582. Executive Order 10582 is superseded to the extent that it is inconsistent with this order. Upon the issuance of a final rule pursuant to section 2 of this order, subsections 2(a) and 2(c) of Executive Order 10582 are revoked.

Sec. 4. Additional Actions. Within 180 days of the date of this order, the Secretary of Commerce and the Director of the Office of Management and Budget shall, in consultation with the FAR Council, the Chairman of the Council of Economic Advisers, the Assistant to the President for Economic Policy, and the Assistant to the President for Trade and Manufacturing Policy, submit to the President a report on any other changes to the FAR that the FAR Council should consider in order to better enforce the Buy American Act and to otherwise act consistent with the policy described in section 1 of this order, including whether and when to further decrease, including incrementally, the threshold percentage in subsection 2(a)(i)(B) of this order from the proposed 45 percent to 25 percent. The report shall include recommendations based on the feasibility and desirability of any decreases, including the timing of such decreases.

Sec. 5. General Provisions. (a) Nothing in this order shall be construed to impair or otherwise affect:

(i) the authority granted by law to an executive department or agency, or the head thereof, including, for example, the authority to utilize non-availability and public interest exceptions as delineated in section 8303 of title 41, United States Code, and 48 CFR 25.103; or

(ii) the functions of the Director of the Office of Management and Budget relating to budgetary, administrative, or legislative proposals.

(b) This order shall be implemented consistent with applicable law and subject to the availability of appropriations.

(c) This order is not intended to, and does not, create any right or benefit, substantive or procedural, enforceable at law or in equity by any party against the United States, its departments, agencies, or entities, its officers, employees, or agents, or any other person.

Donald J. Trump.