In this section, the term “unit” means, with respect to each National Drug Code (including package size) associated with a drug or biological, the lowest identifiable quantity (such as a capsule or tablet, milligram of molecules, or grams) of the drug or biological that is dispensed, exclusive of any diluent without reference to volume measures pertaining to liquids. For years after 2004, the Secretary may establish the unit for a manufacturer to report and methods for counting units as the Secretary determines appropriate to implement this section.
The average sales price as determined using the methodology applied under paragraph (3) for single source drugs and biologicals furnished before April 1, 2008, and using the methodology applied under paragraph (6) for single source drugs and biologicals furnished on or after April 1, 2008, for all National Drug Codes assigned to such drug or biological product.
The wholesale acquisition cost (as defined in subsection (c)(6)(B)) using the methodology applied under paragraph (3) for single source drugs and biologicals furnished before April 1, 2008, and using the methodology applied under paragraph (6) for single source drugs and biologicals furnished on or after April 1, 2008, for all National Drug Codes assigned to such drug or biological product.
The payment amount shall be determined under this subsection based on information reported under subsection (f) and without regard to any special packaging, labeling, or identifiers on the dosage form or product or package.
Sales exempt from the inclusion in the determination of “best price” under section 1396r–8(c)(1)(C)(i) of this title.
In calculating the manufacturer’s average sales price under this subsection, such price shall include volume discounts, prompt pay discounts, cash discounts, free goods that are contingent on any purchase requirement, chargebacks, and rebates (other than rebates under section 1396r–8 of this title). For years after 2004, the Secretary may include in such price other price concessions, which may be based on recommendations of the Inspector General, that would result in a reduction of the cost to the purchaser.
The manufacturer’s average sales price, for a drug or biological of a manufacturer, shall be calculated by such manufacturer under this subsection on a quarterly basis. In making such calculation insofar as there is a lag in the reporting of the information on rebates and chargebacks under paragraph (3) so that adequate data are not available on a timely basis, the manufacturer shall apply a methodology based on a 12-month rolling average for the manufacturer to estimate costs attributable to rebates and chargebacks. For years after 2004, the Secretary may establish a uniform methodology under this subparagraph to estimate and apply such costs.
The term “manufacturer” means, with respect to a drug or biological, the manufacturer (as defined in section 1396r–8(k)(5) of this title), except that, for purposes of subsection (f)(2), the Secretary may, if the Secretary determines appropriate, exclude repackagers of a drug or biological from such term.
The term “wholesale acquisition cost” means, with respect to a drug or biological, the manufacturer’s list price for the drug or biological to wholesalers or direct purchasers in the United States, not including prompt pay or other discounts, rebates or reductions in price, for the most recent month for which the information is available, as reported in wholesale price guides or other publications of drug or biological pricing data.
Subparagraph (C)(ii) shall not apply if the Food and Drug Administration changes by regulation the requirement that, for purposes of the publication described in subparagraph (C)(i), in order for drug products to be rated as therapeutically equivalent, they must be pharmaceutically equivalent and bioequivalent, as defined in subparagraph (F).
The Inspector General of the Department of Health and Human Services shall conduct studies, which may include surveys, to determine the widely available market prices of drugs and biologicals to which this section applies, as the Inspector General, in consultation with the Secretary, determines to be appropriate.
If the Secretary determines that a manufacturer has made a misrepresentation in the reporting of the manufacturer’s average sales price for a drug or biological, the Secretary may apply a civil money penalty in an amount of up to $10,000 for each such price misrepresentation and for each day in which such price misrepresentation was applied.
If the Secretary determines that a manufacturer described in subsection (f)(2) has failed to report on information described in section 1396r–8(b)(3)(A)(iii) of this title with respect to a drug or biological in accordance with such subsection, the Secretary shall apply a civil money penalty in an amount of $10,000 for each day the manufacturer has failed to report such information and such amount shall be paid to the Treasury.
Any manufacturer required to submit information under subsection (f)(2) that knowingly provides false information is subject to a civil money penalty in an amount not to exceed $100,000 for each item of false information. Such civil money penalties are in addition to other penalties as may be prescribed by law.
In this subsection, the term “widely available market price” means the price that a prudent physician or supplier would pay for the drug or biological. In determining such price, the Inspector General shall take into account the discounts, rebates, and other price concessions routinely made available to such prudent physicians or suppliers for such drugs or biologicals.
In the case of a public health emergency under section 247d of this title in which there is a documented inability to access drugs and biologicals, and a concomitant increase in the price, of a drug or biological which is not reflected in the manufacturer’s average sales price for one or more quarters, the Secretary may use the wholesale acquisition cost (or other reasonable measure of drug or biological price) instead of the manufacturer’s average sales price for such quarters and for subsequent quarters until the price and availability of the drug or biological has stabilized and is substantially reflected in the applicable manufacturer’s average sales price.
If the manufacturer of a drug or biological described in subparagraph (C), (E), or (G) of section 1395u(o)(1) of this title or in section 1395rr(b)(14)(B) of this title that is payable under this part has not entered into and does not have in effect a rebate agreement described in subsection (b) of section 1396r–8 of this title, for calendar quarters beginning on January 1, 2022, such manufacturer shall report to the Secretary the information described in subsection (b)(3)(A)(iii) of such section 1396r–8 of this title with respect to such drug or biological in a time and manner specified by the Secretary. For purposes of applying this paragraph, a drug or biological described in the previous sentence includes items, services, supplies, and products that are payable under this part as a drug or biological.
Information reported under subparagraph (A) is subject to audit by the Inspector General of the Department of Health and Human Services.
The Secretary may survey wholesalers and manufacturers that directly distribute drugs or biologicals described in subparagraph (A), when necessary, to verify manufacturer prices and manufacturer’s average sales prices (including wholesale acquisition cost) if required to make payment reported under subparagraph (A). The Secretary may impose a civil monetary penalty in an amount not to exceed $100,000 on a wholesaler, manufacturer, or direct seller, if the wholesaler, manufacturer, or direct seller of such a drug or biological refuses a request for information about charges or prices by the Secretary in connection with a survey under this subparagraph or knowingly provides false information. The provisions of section 1320a–7a of this title (other than subsections (a) (with respect to amounts of penalties or additional assessments) and (b)) shall apply to a civil money penalty under this subparagraph in the same manner as such provisions apply to a penalty or proceeding under section 1320a–7a(a) of this title.
The Inspector General of the Department of Health and Human Services shall conduct periodic studies to identify National Drug Codes for drug or biological products that are self-administered for which payment may not be made under this part because such products are not covered pursuant to section 1395x(s)(2) of this title and which the Inspector General determines (based on the same or similar methodologies to the methodologies used in the final recommendation followup report of the Inspector General described in paragraph (3) or in the November 2017 final report of the Inspector General entitled “Excluding Noncovered Versions When Setting Payment for Two Part B Drugs Would Have Resulted in Lower Drug Costs for Medicare and its Beneficiaries”) should be excluded from the determination of the payment amount under this section.