or, if such services are furnished by a public provider of services, or by another provider which demonstrates to the satisfaction of the Secretary that a significant portion of its patients are low-income (and requests that payment be made under this provision), free of charge or at nominal charges to the public, the amount determined in accordance with section 1395f(b)(2) of this title;
Before applying subsection (a) with respect to expenses incurred by an individual during any calendar year, the total amount of the expenses incurred by such individual during such year (which would, except for this subsection, constitute incurred expenses from which benefits payable under subsection (a) are determinable) shall be reduced by a deductible of $75 for calendar years before 1991, $100 for 1991 through 2004, $110 for 2005, and for a subsequent year the amount of such deductible for the previous year increased by the annual percentage increase in the monthly actuarial rate under section 1395r(a)(1) of this title ending with such subsequent year (rounded to the nearest $1); except that (1) such total amount shall not include expenses incurred for preventive services described in subparagraph (A) of section 1395x(ddd)(3) of this title that are recommended with a grade of A or B by the United States Preventive Services Task Force for any indication or population and are appropriate for the individual.,1 (2) such deductible shall not apply with respect to home health services (other than a covered osteoporosis drug (as defined in section 1395x(kk) of this title)), (3) such deductible shall not apply with respect to clinical diagnostic laboratory tests for which payment is made under this part (A) under subsection (a)(1)(D)(i) or (a)(2)(D)(i) on an assignment-related basis, or to a provider having an agreement under section 1395cc of this title, or (B) for tests furnished before January 1, 2017, on the basis of a negotiated rate determined under subsection (h)(6), (4) such deductible shall not apply to Federally qualified health center services, (5) such deductible shall not apply with respect to screening mammography (as described in section 1395x(jj) of this title), (6) such deductible shall not apply with respect to screening pap smear and screening pelvic exam (as described in section 1395x(nn) of this title), (7) such deductible shall not apply with respect to ultrasound screening for abdominal aortic aneurysm (as defined in section 1395x(bbb) of this title), (8) such deductible shall not apply with respect to colorectal cancer screening tests (as described in section 1395x(pp)(1) of this title), (9) such deductible shall not apply with respect to an initial preventive physical examination (as defined in section 1395x(ww) of this title), and (10) such deductible shall not apply with respect to personalized prevention plan services (as defined in section 1395x(hhh)(1) of this title). The total amount of the expenses incurred by an individual as determined under the preceding sentence shall, after the reduction specified in such sentence, be further reduced by an amount equal to the expenses incurred for the first three pints of whole blood (or equivalent quantities of packed red blood cells, as defined under regulations) furnished to the individual during the calendar year, except that such deductible for such blood shall in accordance with regulations be appropriately reduced to the extent that there has been a replacement of such blood (or equivalent quantities of packed red blood cells, as so defined); and for such purposes blood (or equivalent quantities of packed red blood cells, as so defined) furnished such individual shall be deemed replaced when the institution or other person furnishing such blood (or such equivalent quantities of packed red blood cells, as so defined) is given one pint of blood for each pint of blood (or equivalent quantities of packed red blood cells, as so defined) furnished such individual with respect to which a deduction is made under this sentence. The deductible under the previous sentence for blood or blood cells furnished an individual in a year shall be reduced to the extent that a deductible has been imposed under section 1395e(a)(2) of this title to blood or blood cells furnished the individual in the year. Paragraph (1) of the first sentence of this subsection shall apply with respect to a colorectal cancer screening test regardless of the code that is billed for the establishment of a diagnosis as a result of the test, or for the removal of tissue or other matter or other procedure that is furnished in connection with, as a result of, and in the same clinical encounter as the screening test.
No payment shall be made to any provider of services or other person under this part unless there has been furnished such information as may be necessary in order to determine the amounts due such provider or other person under this part for the period with respect to which the amounts are being paid or for any prior period.
For purposes of carrying out this subparagraph, the Secretary shall provide for the transfer, from the Federal Supplementary Medical Insurance Trust Fund under section 1395t of this title to the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services Program Management Account, of $5,000,000 for each fiscal year beginning with fiscal year 2018, to remain available until expended. Such funds may not be used by a contractor under section 1395ddd(h) of this title for medical reviews under this subparagraph.
Whenever a final determination is made that the amount of payment made under this part either to a provider of services or to another person pursuant to an assignment under section 1395u(b)(3)(B)(ii) of this title was in excess of or less than the amount of payment that is due, and payment of such excess or deficit is not made (or effected by offset) within 30 days of the date of the determination, interest shall accrue on the balance of such excess or deficit not paid or offset (to the extent that the balance is owed by or owing to the provider) at a rate determined in accordance with the regulations of the Secretary of the Treasury applicable to charges for late payments.
The Secretary may not provide for payment under subsection (a)(1)(A) with respect to an organization unless the organization provides assurances satisfactory to the Secretary that the organization meets the requirement of section 1395cc(f) of this title (relating to maintaining written policies and procedures respecting advance directives).
For purposes of this subsection, subject to clause (ii), the “unadjusted copayment amount” applicable to a covered OPD service (or group of such services) is 20 percent of the national median of the charges for the service (or services within the group) furnished during 1996, updated to 1999 using the Secretary’s estimate of charge growth during the period.
The Secretary shall establish a 1999 conversion factor for determining the medicare OPD fee schedule amounts for each covered OPD service (or group of such services) furnished in 1999. Such conversion factor shall be established on the basis of the weights and frequencies described in paragraph (2)(C) and in such a manner that the sum for all services and groups of the products (described in subclause (II) for each such service or group) equals the total projected amount described in subparagraph (A).
Subject to paragraph (8)(B), the Secretary shall establish a conversion factor for covered OPD services furnished in subsequent years in an amount equal to the conversion factor established under this subparagraph and applicable to such services furnished in the previous year increased by the OPD fee schedule increase factor specified under clause (iv) for the year involved.
Insofar as the Secretary determines that the adjustments for service mix under paragraph (2) for a previous year (or estimates that such adjustments for a future year) did (or are likely to) result in a change in aggregate payments under this subsection during the year that are a result of changes in the coding or classification of covered OPD services that do not reflect real changes in service mix, the Secretary may adjust the conversion factor computed under this subparagraph for subsequent years so as to eliminate the effect of such coding or classification changes.
For purposes of this subparagraph, subject to paragraph (17) and subparagraph (F) of this paragraph, the “OPD fee schedule increase factor” for services furnished in a year is equal to the market basket percentage increase applicable under section 1395ww(b)(3)(B)(iii) of this title to hospital discharges occurring during the fiscal year ending in such year, reduced by 1 percentage point for such factor for services furnished in each of 2000 and 2002. In applying the previous sentence for years beginning with 2000, the Secretary may substitute for the market basket percentage increase an annual percentage increase that is computed and applied with respect to covered OPD services furnished in a year in the same manner as the market basket percentage increase is determined and applied to inpatient hospital services for discharges occurring in a fiscal year.
Reduce the adjusted amount determined under subparagraph (A) by the amount of the deductible under subsection (b), to the extent applicable.
The total of the additional payments made under this paragraph for covered OPD services furnished in a year (as estimated by the Secretary before the beginning of the year) may not exceed the applicable percentage (specified in clause (ii)) of the total program payments estimated to be made under this subsection for all covered OPD services furnished in that year. If this paragraph is first applied to less than a full year, the previous sentence shall apply only to the portion of such year.
A drug or biological that is used for a rare disease or condition with respect to which the drug or biological has been designated as an orphan drug under section 360bb of title 21 if payment for the drug or biological as an outpatient hospital service under this part was being made on the first date that the system under this subsection is implemented.
A drug or biological that is used in cancer therapy, including (but not limited to) a chemotherapeutic agent, an antiemetic, a hematopoietic growth factor, a colony stimulating factor, a biological response modifier, a bisphosphonate, and a device of brachytherapy or temperature monitored cryoablation, if payment for such drug, biological, or device as an outpatient hospital service under this part was being made on such first date.
The Secretary shall initially establish under this clause categories of medical devices based on type of device by April 1, 2001. Such categories shall be established in a manner such that each medical device that meets the requirements of clause (ii) or (iv) of subparagraph (A) as of January 1, 2001, is included in such a category and no such device is included in more than one category. For purposes of the preceding sentence, whether a medical device meets such requirements as of such date shall be determined on the basis of the program memoranda issued before such date.
Such categories shall be established under this clause in a manner such that no medical device is described by more than one category. Such criteria shall include a test of whether the average cost of devices that would be included in a category and are in use at the time the category is established is not insignificant, as described in subparagraph (A)(iv)(II).
Criteria shall first be established under this clause by July 1, 2001. The Secretary may establish in compelling circumstances categories under this clause before the date such criteria are established.
The total of the additional payments made under this paragraph for covered OPD services furnished in a year (as estimated by the Secretary before the beginning of the year) may not exceed the applicable percentage (specified in clause (ii)) of the total program payments estimated to be made under this subsection for all covered OPD services furnished in that year. If this paragraph is first applied to less than a full year, the previous sentence shall apply only to the portion of such year. This clause shall not apply for 2018.
If the Secretary estimates before the beginning of a year that the amount of the additional payments under this paragraph for the year (or portion thereof) as determined under clause (i) without regard to this clause will exceed the limit established under such clause, the Secretary shall reduce pro rata the amount of each of the additional payments under this paragraph for that year (or portion thereof) in order to ensure that the aggregate additional payments under this paragraph (as so estimated) do not exceed such limit.
In the case of a drug or biological whose period of pass-through status under this paragraph ended on December 31, 2017, and for which payment under this subsection was packaged into a payment for a covered OPD service (or group of services) furnished beginning January 1, 2018, such pass-through status shall be extended for a 2-year period beginning on October 1, 2018.
In this paragraph, the term “PPS amount” means, with respect to covered OPD services, the amount payable under this subchapter for such services (determined without regard to this paragraph), including amounts payable as copayment under paragraph (8), coinsurance under section 1395cc(a)(2)(A)(ii) of this title, and the deductible under subsection (b).
In this paragraph, the “pre-BBA amount” means, with respect to covered OPD services furnished by a hospital in a year, an amount equal to the product of the reasonable cost of the hospital for such services for the portions of the hospital’s cost reporting period (or periods) occurring in the year and the base OPD payment-to-cost ratio for the hospital (as defined in clause (ii)).
Nothing in this paragraph shall be construed to affect the unadjusted copayment amount described in paragraph (3)(B) or the copayment amount under paragraph (8).
Except as provided in subparagraphs (B) and (C), the copayment amount under this subsection is the amount by which the amount described in paragraph (4)(B) exceeds the amount of payment determined under paragraph (4)(C).
The Secretary shall establish a procedure under which a hospital, before the beginning of a year (beginning with 1999), may elect to reduce the copayment amount otherwise established under subparagraph (A) for some or all covered OPD services to an amount that is not less than 20 percent of the medicare OPD fee schedule amount (computed under paragraph (3)(D)) for the service involved. Under such procedures, such reduced copayment amount may not be further reduced or increased during the year involved and the hospital may disseminate information on the reduction of copayment amount effected under this subparagraph.
The Secretary shall review not less often than annually and revise the groups, the relative payment weights, and the wage and other adjustments described in paragraph (2) to take into account changes in medical practice, changes in technology, the addition of new services, new cost data, and other relevant information and factors. The Secretary shall consult with an expert outside advisory panel composed of an appropriate selection of representatives of providers to review (and advise the Secretary concerning) the clinical integrity of the groups and weights. Such panel may use data collected or developed by entities and organizations (other than the Department of Health and Human Services) in conducting such review.
If the Secretary makes adjustments under subparagraph (A), then the adjustments for a year may not cause the estimated amount of expenditures under this part for the year to increase or decrease from the estimated amount of expenditures under this part that would have been made if the adjustments had not been made. In determining adjustments under the preceding sentence for 2004 and 2005, the Secretary shall not take into account under this subparagraph or paragraph (2)(E) any expenditures that would not have been made but for the application of paragraph (14).
If the Secretary determines under methodologies described in paragraph (2)(F) that the volume of services paid for under this subsection increased beyond amounts established through those methodologies, the Secretary may appropriately adjust the update to the conversion factor otherwise applicable in a subsequent year.
Insofar as the Secretary determines under subparagraph (A) that costs incurred by hospitals located in rural areas exceed those costs incurred by hospitals located in urban areas, the Secretary shall provide for an appropriate adjustment under paragraph (2)(E) to reflect those higher costs by January 1, 2006.
The Comptroller General of the United States shall conduct a survey in each of 2004 and 2005 to determine the hospital acquisition cost for each specified covered outpatient drug. Not later than April 1, 2005, the Comptroller General shall furnish data from such surveys to the Secretary for use in setting the payment rates under subparagraph (A) for 2006.
The surveys conducted under clauses (i) and (ii) shall have a large sample of hospitals that is sufficient to generate a statistically significant estimate of the average hospital acquisition cost for each specified covered outpatient drug. With respect to the surveys conducted under clause (i), the Comptroller General shall report to Congress on the justification for the size of the sample used in order to assure the validity of such estimates.
In conducting surveys under clause (i), the Comptroller General shall determine and report to Congress if there is (and the extent of any) variation in hospital acquisition costs for drugs among hospitals based on the volume of covered OPD services performed by such hospitals or other relevant characteristics of such hospitals (as defined by the Comptroller General).
Not later than 30 days after the date the Secretary promulgated proposed rules setting forth the payment rates under subparagraph (A) for 2006, the Comptroller General shall evaluate such proposed rates and submit to Congress a report regarding the appropriateness of such rates based on the surveys the Comptroller General has conducted under clause (i).
Additional expenditures resulting from this paragraph shall not be taken into account in establishing the conversion, weighting, and other adjustment factors for 2004 and 2005 under paragraph (9), but shall be taken into account for subsequent years.
With respect to payment under this part for an outpatient drug or biological that is covered under this part and is furnished as part of covered OPD services for which a HCPCS code has not been assigned, the amount provided for payment for such drug or biological under this part shall be equal to 95 percent of the average wholesale price for the drug or biological.
Notwithstanding the preceding provisions of this subsection, for a device of brachytherapy consisting of a seed or seeds (or radioactive source) furnished on or after January 1, 2004, and before January 1, 2010, and for therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals furnished on or after January 1, 2008, and before January 1, 2010, the payment basis for the device or therapeutic radiopharmaceutical under this subsection shall be equal to the hospital’s charges for each device or therapeutic radiopharmaceutical furnished, adjusted to cost. Charges for such devices or therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals shall not be included in determining any outlier payment under this subsection.
In making any budget neutrality adjustments under this subsection for 2013 (with respect to covered OPD services furnished on or after April 1, 2013, and before January 1, 2014) or a subsequent year, the Secretary shall not take into account the reduced expenditures that result from the application of this subparagraph.
In the case of an imaging service that is an X-ray taken using film and that is furnished during 2017 or a subsequent year, the payment amount for such service (including the X-ray component of a packaged service) that would otherwise be determined under this section (without application of this paragraph and before application of any other adjustment under this subsection) for such year shall be reduced by 20 percent.
For purposes of paragraph (3)(C)(iv) for 2009 and each subsequent year, in the case of a subsection (d) hospital (as defined in section 1395ww(d)(1)(B) of this title) that does not submit, to the Secretary in accordance with this paragraph, data required to be submitted on measures selected under this paragraph with respect to such a year, the OPD fee schedule increase factor under paragraph (3)(C)(iv) for such year shall be reduced by 2.0 percentage points.
The Secretary shall develop measures that the Secretary determines to be appropriate for the measurement of the quality of care (including medication errors) furnished by hospitals in outpatient settings and that reflect consensus among affected parties and, to the extent feasible and practicable, shall include measures set forth by one or more national consensus building entities.
The Secretary shall establish procedures for making data submitted under this paragraph available to the public. Such procedures shall ensure that a hospital has the opportunity to review the data that are to be made public with respect to the hospital prior to such data being made public. The Secretary shall report quality measures of process, structure, outcome, patients’ perspectives on care, efficiency, and costs of care that relate to services furnished in outpatient settings in hospitals on the Internet website of the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services.
The Secretary shall conduct a study to determine if, under the system under this subsection, costs incurred by hospitals described in section 1395ww(d)(1)(B)(v) of this title with respect to ambulatory payment classification groups exceed those costs incurred by other hospitals furnishing services under this subsection (as determined appropriate by the Secretary). In conducting the study under this subparagraph, the Secretary shall take into consideration the cost of drugs and biologicals incurred by such hospitals.
Insofar as the Secretary determines under subparagraph (A) that costs incurred by hospitals described in section 1395ww(d)(1)(B)(v) of this title exceed those costs incurred by other hospitals furnishing services under this subsection, the Secretary shall, subject to subparagraph (C), provide for an appropriate adjustment under paragraph (2)(E) to reflect those higher costs effective for services furnished on or after January 1, 2011.
In applying section 419.43(i) of title 42 of the Code of Federal Regulations to implement the appropriate adjustment under this paragraph for services furnished on or after January 1, 2018, the Secretary shall use a target PCR that is 1.0 percentage points less than the target PCR that would otherwise apply. In addition to the percentage point reduction under the previous sentence, the Secretary may consider making an additional percentage point reduction to such target PCR that takes into account payment rates for applicable items and services described in paragraph (21)(C) other than for services furnished by hospitals described in section 1395ww(d)(1)(B)(v) of this title. In making any budget neutrality adjustments under this subsection for 2018 or a subsequent year, the Secretary shall not take into account the reduced expenditures that result from the application of this subparagraph.
Subject to subparagraph (B), with respect to covered OPD services furnished on or after January 1, 2011, the area wage adjustment factor applicable under the payment system established under this subsection to any hospital outpatient department which is located in a frontier State (as defined in section 1395ww(d)(3)(E)(iii)(II) of this title) may not be less than 1.00. The preceding sentence shall not be applied in a budget neutral manner.
For purposes of applying clause (ii) with respect to applicable items and services furnished during 2017, a department of a provider (as so defined) not described in such clause is deemed to be billing under this subsection with respect to covered OPD services furnished prior to November 2, 2015, if the Secretary received from the provider prior to December 2, 2015, an attestation (pursuant to section 413.65(b)(3) of title 42 of the Code of Federal Regulations) that such department was a department of a provider (as so defined).
Not later than December 31, 2018, the Secretary shall audit the compliance with requirements of clause (iv) with respect to each department of a provider to which such clause applies. Not later than 2 years after the date the Secretary receives an attestation under clause (vi) relating to compliance of a department of a provider with requirements referred to in such clause, the Secretary shall audit the compliance with such requirements with respect to the department. If the Secretary finds as a result of an audit under this clause that the applicable requirements were not met with respect to such department, the department shall not be excluded from the term “off-campus outpatient department of a provider” under such clause.
Payments for applicable items and services furnished by an off-campus outpatient department of a provider that are described in paragraph (1)(B)(v) shall be made under the applicable payment system under this part (other than under this subsection) if the requirements for such payment are otherwise met.
Each hospital shall provide to the Secretary such information as the Secretary determines appropriate to implement this paragraph and paragraph (1)(B)(v) (which may include reporting of information on a hospital claim using a code or modifier and reporting information about off-campus outpatient departments of a provider on the enrollment form described in section 1395cc(j) of this title).
In conducting the review under clause (i) of subparagraph (A) and considering revisions under clause (iii) of such subparagraph, the Secretary shall focus on covered OPD services (or groups of services) assigned to a comprehensive ambulatory payment classification, ambulatory payment classifications that primarily include surgical services, and other services determined by the Secretary which generally involve treatment for pain management.
If the Secretary identifies revisions to payments pursuant to subparagraph (A)(iii), the Secretary shall, as determined appropriate, begin making such revisions for services furnished on or after January 1, 2020. Revisions under the previous sentence shall be treated as adjustments for purposes of application of paragraph (9)(B).
The Secretary shall rank each such county or area based separately on its primary care ratio and its specialist care ratio.
The Secretary shall periodically revise the counties or areas identified in subparagraph (A) (but not less often than once every three years) unless the Secretary determines that there is no new data available on the number of physicians practicing in the county or area or the number of individuals residing in the county or area, as identified in paragraph (2).
For purposes of paying the additional amount specified in paragraph (1), if the Secretary uses the 5-digit postal ZIP Code where the service is furnished, the dominant county of the postal ZIP Code (as determined by the United States Postal Service, or otherwise) shall be used to determine whether the postal ZIP Code is in a scarcity county identified in subparagraph (A) or revised in subparagraph (B).
With respect to physicians’ services furnished on or after January 1, 2008, and before July 1, 2008, for purposes of this subsection, the Secretary shall use the primary care scarcity counties and the specialty care scarcity counties (as identified under the preceding provisions of this paragraph) that the Secretary was using under this subsection with respect to physicians’ services furnished on December 31, 2007.
To the extent feasible, the Secretary shall treat a rural census tract of a metropolitan statistical area (as determined under the most recent modification of the Goldsmith Modification, originally published in the Federal Register on February 27, 1992 (57 Fed. Reg. 6725)), as an equivalent area for purposes of qualifying as a primary care scarcity county or specialist care scarcity county under this subsection.