The Secretary shall enter into an agreement with each manufacturer of covered outpatient drugs under which the amount required to be paid (taking into account any rebate or discount, as provided by the Secretary) to the manufacturer for covered outpatient drugs (other than drugs described in paragraph (3)) purchased by a covered entity on or after the first day of the first month that begins after November 4, 1992, does not exceed an amount equal to the average manufacturer price for the drug under title XIX of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 1396 et seq.] in the preceding calendar quarter, reduced by the rebate percentage described in paragraph (2). Each such agreement shall require that the manufacturer furnish the Secretary with reports, on a quarterly basis, of the price for each covered outpatient drug subject to the agreement that, according to the manufacturer, represents the maximum price that covered entities may permissibly be required to pay for the drug (referred to in this section as the “ceiling price”), and shall require that the manufacturer offer each covered entity covered outpatient drugs for purchase at or below the applicable ceiling price if such drug is made available to any other purchaser at any price.
For purposes of subparagraph (A), in the case of over the counter drugs, the “rebate percentage” shall be determined as if the rebate required under section 1927(c) of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 1396r–8(c)] is based on the applicable percentage provided under section 1927(c)(3) of such Act.
The term “over the counter drug” means a drug that may be sold without a prescription and which is prescribed by a physician (or other persons authorized to prescribe such drug under State law).
Drugs described in this paragraph are drugs purchased by the entity for which payment is made by the State under the State plan for medical assistance under title XIX of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 1396 et seq.].
A covered entity shall not request payment under title XIX of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 1396 et seq.] for medical assistance described in section 1905(a)(12) of such Act [42 U.S.C. 1396d(a)(12)] with respect to a drug that is subject to an agreement under this section if the drug is subject to the payment of a rebate to the State under section 1927 of such Act [42 U.S.C. 1396r–8].
The Secretary shall establish a mechanism to ensure that covered entities comply with clause (i). If the Secretary does not establish a mechanism within 12 months under the previous sentence, the requirements of section 1927(a)(5)(C) of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 1396r–8(a)(5)(C)] shall apply.
With respect to any covered outpatient drug that is subject to an agreement under this subsection, a covered entity shall not resell or otherwise transfer the drug to a person who is not a patient of the entity.
A covered entity shall permit the Secretary and the manufacturer of a covered outpatient drug that is subject to an agreement under this subsection with the entity (acting in accordance with procedures established by the Secretary relating to the number, duration, and scope of audits) to audit at the Secretary’s or the manufacturer’s expense the records of the entity that directly pertain to the entity’s compliance with the requirements described in subparagraphs  (A) or (B) with respect to drugs of the manufacturer.
If the Secretary finds, after audit as described in subparagraph (C) and after notice and hearing, that a covered entity is in violation of a requirement described in subparagraphs 2 (A) or (B), the covered entity shall be liable to the manufacturer of the covered outpatient drug that is the subject of the violation in an amount equal to the reduction in the price of the drug (as described in subparagraph (A)) provided under the agreement between the entity and the manufacturer under this paragraph.
In the case of a covered entity that is a distinct part of a hospital, the hospital shall not be considered a covered entity under this paragraph unless the hospital is otherwise a covered entity under this subsection.
Not later than 60 days after November 4, 1992, the Secretary shall develop and implement a process for the certification of entities described in subparagraphs (J) and (K) of paragraph (4).
The process developed under subparagraph (A) shall include a requirement that an entity applying for certification under this paragraph submit information to the Secretary concerning the amount such entity expended for covered outpatient drugs in the preceding year so as to assist the Secretary in evaluating the validity of the entity’s subsequent purchases of covered outpatient drugs at discounted prices.
The Secretary shall make available to all manufacturers of covered outpatient drugs a description of the criteria for certification under this paragraph.
The certification process developed by the Secretary under subparagraph (A) shall include procedures under which each State shall, not later than 30 days after the submission of the descriptions under subparagraph (C), prepare and submit a report to the Secretary that contains a list of entities described in subparagraphs (J) and (K) of paragraph (4) that are located in the State.
The Secretary shall require the recertification of entities certified pursuant to this paragraph on a not more frequent than annual basis, and shall require that such entities submit information to the Secretary to permit the Secretary to evaluate the validity of subsequent purchases by such entities in the same manner as that required under subparagraph (B).
The Secretary shall establish a prime vendor program under which covered entities may enter into contracts with prime vendors for the distribution of covered outpatient drugs. If a covered entity obtains drugs directly from a manufacturer, the manufacturer shall be responsible for the costs of distribution.
The Secretary shall notify manufacturers of covered outpatient drugs and single State agencies under section 1902(a)(5) of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 1396a(a)(5)] of the identities of covered entities under this paragraph, and of entities that no longer meet the requirements of paragraph (5) or that are no longer certified pursuant to paragraph (7).
Nothing in this subsection shall prohibit a manufacturer from charging a price for a drug that is lower than the maximum price that may be charged under paragraph (1).
In this section, the terms “average manufacturer price”, “covered outpatient drug”, and “manufacturer” have the meaning given such terms in section 1927(k) of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 1396r–8(k)].
From amounts appropriated under paragraph (4), the Secretary shall provide for improvements in compliance by manufacturers with the requirements of this section in order to prevent overcharges and other violations of the discounted pricing requirements specified in this section.
From amounts appropriated under paragraph (4), the Secretary shall provide for improvements in compliance by covered entities with the requirements of this section in order to prevent diversion and violations of the duplicate discount provision and other requirements specified under subsection (a)(5).
Not later than 180 days after March 23, 2010, the Secretary shall promulgate regulations to establish and implement an administrative process for the resolution of claims by covered entities that they have been overcharged for drugs purchased under this section, and claims by manufacturers, after the conduct of audits as authorized by subsection (a)(5)(C), of violations of subsections  (a)(5)(A) or (a)(5)(B), including appropriate procedures for the provision of remedies and enforcement of determinations made pursuant to such process through mechanisms and sanctions described in paragraphs (1)(B) and (2)(B).
The administrative resolution of a claim or claims under the regulations promulgated under subparagraph (A) shall be a final agency decision and shall be binding upon the parties involved, unless invalidated by an order of a court of competent jurisdiction.
For covered entities described in subparagraph (M) (other than a children’s hospital described in subparagraph (M)), (N), or (O) of subsection (a)(4), the term “covered outpatient drug” shall not include a drug designated by the Secretary under section 360bb of title 21 for a rare disease or condition.