Quick search by citation:

42 U.S. Code § 2000e–16c - Coverage of previously exempt State employees

(a) ApplicationThe rights, protections, and remedies provided pursuant to section 2000e–16b of this title shall apply with respect to employment of any individual chosen or appointed, by a person elected to public office in any State or political subdivision of any State by the qualified voters thereof—
to be a member of the elected official’s personal staff;
to serve the elected official on the policymaking level; or
to serve the elected official as an immediate advisor with respect to the exercise of the constitutional or legal powers of the office.
(b) Enforcement by administrative action
(1) In general

Any individual referred to in subsection (a) may file a complaint alleging a violation, not later than 180 days after the occurrence of the alleged violation, with the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, which, in accordance with the principles and procedures set forth in sections 554 through 557 of title 5, shall determine whether a violation has occurred and shall set forth its determination in a final order. If the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission determines that a violation has occurred, the final order shall also provide for appropriate relief.

(2) Referral to State and local authorities
(A) Application

Section 2000e–5(d) of this title shall apply with respect to any proceeding under this section.

(B) Definition

For purposes of the application described in subparagraph (A), the term “any charge filed by a member of the Commission alleging an unlawful employment practice” means a complaint filed under this section.

(c) Judicial review

Any party aggrieved by a final order under subsection (b) may obtain a review of such order under chapter 158 of title 28. For the purpose of this review, the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission shall be an “agency” as that term is used in chapter 158 of title 28.

(d) Standard of reviewTo the extent necessary to decision and when presented, the reviewing court shall decide all relevant questions of law and interpret constitutional and statutory provisions. The court shall set aside a final order under subsection (b) if it is determined that the order was—
arbitrary, capricious, an abuse of discretion, or otherwise not consistent with law;
not made consistent with required procedures; or
unsupported by substantial evidence.
In making the foregoing determinations, the court shall review the whole record or those parts of it cited by a party, and due account shall be taken of the rule of prejudicial error.
(e) Attorney’s fees

If the individual referred to in subsection (a) is the prevailing party in a proceeding under this subsection,[1] attorney’s fees may be allowed by the court in accordance with the standards prescribed under section 2000e–5(k) of this title.

(Pub. L. 102–166, title III, § 304, formerly § 321, Nov. 21, 1991, 105 Stat. 1097; renumbered § 304 and amended Pub. L. 104–1, title V, § 504(a)(3), (4), Jan. 23, 1995, 109 Stat. 41.)

[1]  So in original.
Editorial Notes

Section was enacted as part of the Government Employee Rights Act of 1991, and not as part of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, title VII of which comprises this subchapter.

Section was formerly classified to section 1220 of Title 2, The Congress.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 304 of Pub. L. 102–166 was classified to section 1204 of Title 2, The Congress, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 104–1.


1995—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 104–1, § 504(a)(4), struck out “and 1207(h) of title 2” before “shall apply” in introductory provisions.

Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries
Effective Date

Section effective Nov. 21, 1991, except as otherwise provided, see section 402 of Pub. L. 102–166, set out as an Effective Date of 1991 Amendment note under section 1981 of this title.