The term “facility” means a hospital, outpatient department, clinic, radiology practice, or mobile unit, an office of a physician, or other facility as determined by the Secretary, that conducts breast cancer screening or diagnosis through mammography activities. Such term does not include a facility of the Department of Veterans Affairs.
For the purposes of this section, the activities of a facility include the operation of equipment to produce the mammogram, the processing of the film, the initial interpretation of the mammogram and the viewing conditions for that interpretation. Where procedures such as the film processing, or the interpretation of the mammogram are performed in a location different from where the mammogram is performed, the facility performing the mammogram shall be responsible for meeting the quality standards described in subsection (f).
The term “review physician” means a physician as prescribed by the Secretary under subsection (f)(1)(D) who meets such additional requirements as may be established by an accreditation body under subsection (e) and approved by the Secretary to review clinical images under subsection (e)(1)(B)(i) on behalf of the accreditation body.
The Secretary may, upon the request of an accreditation body, issue a limited provisional certificate to an entity to enable the entity to conduct examinations for educational purposes while an onsite visit from an accreditation body is in progress. Such certificate shall be valid only during the time the site visit team from the accreditation body is physically in the facility, and in no case shall be valid for longer than 72 hours. The issuance of a certificate under this paragraph, shall not preclude the entity from qualifying for a provisional certificate under paragraph (4).
The Secretary may issue a provisional certificate for an entity to enable the entity to qualify as a facility. The applicant for a provisional certificate shall meet the requirements of subsection (d)(1), except providing information required by clauses (iii) and (iv) of subsection (d)(1)(A). A provisional certificate may be in effect no longer than 6 months from the date it is issued, except that it may be extended once for a period of not more than 90 days if the owner, lessor, or agent of the facility demonstrates to the Secretary that without such extension access to mammography in the geographic area served by the facility would be significantly reduced and if the owner, lessor, or agent of the facility will describe in a report to the Secretary steps that will be taken to qualify the facility for certification under subsection (b)(1).
The Secretary may approve a private nonprofit organization or State agency to accredit facilities for purposes of subsection (d)(1)(A)(iv) if the accreditation body meets the standards for accreditation established by the Secretary as described in subparagraph (B) and provides the assurances required by subparagraph (C).
The Secretary shall promulgate regulations under which the Secretary may withdraw the approval of an accreditation body if the Secretary determines that the accreditation body does not meet the standards under subparagraph (B) of paragraph (1), the requirements of clauses (i) through (vi) of subparagraph (C) of paragraph (1), or the requirements of paragraph (4).
Qualified individuals, as determined by the Secretary, shall conduct all inspections. The Secretary may request that a State or local agency acting on behalf of the Secretary designate a qualified officer or employee to conduct the inspections, or designate a qualified Federal officer or employee to conduct inspections. The Secretary shall establish minimum qualifications and appropriate training for inspectors and criteria for certification of inspectors in order to inspect facilities for compliance with subsection (f).
The Secretary or a State or local agency acting on behalf of the Secretary which is responsible for inspecting mammography facilities shall maintain records of annual inspections required under this paragraph for a period as prescribed by the Secretary. Such a State or local agency shall annually prepare and submit to the Secretary a report concerning the inspections carried out under this paragraph. Such reports shall include a description of the facilities inspected and the results of such inspections.
The Secretary, or State or local agency, may conduct inspections under paragraphs (1), (2), and (3), during regular business hours or at a mutually agreeable time and after providing such notice as the Secretary may prescribe, except that the Secretary may waive such requirements if the continued performance of mammography at such facility threatens the public health.
Nothing in this section limits the authority of the Secretary to conduct limited reinspections of facilities found not to be in compliance with this section.
The Secretary may establish a demonstration program under which inspections under paragraph (1) of selected facilities are conducted less frequently by the Secretary (or as applicable, by State or local agencies acting on behalf of the Secretary) than the interval specified in subparagraph (E) of such paragraph.
If the Secretary determines that the quality of mammography performed by a facility (whether or not certified pursuant to subsection (c)) was so inconsistent with the quality standards established pursuant to subsection (f) as to present a significant risk to individual or public health, the Secretary may require such facility to notify patients who received mammograms at such facility, and their referring physicians, of the deficiencies presenting such risk, the potential harm resulting, appropriate remedial measures, and such other relevant information as the Secretary may require.
The Secretary shall develop and implement procedures with respect to when and how each of the sanctions is to be imposed under paragraphs (1) through (3). Such procedures shall provide for notice to the owner or operator of the facility and a reasonable opportunity for the owner or operator to respond to the proposed sanctions and appropriate procedures for appealing determinations relating to the imposition of sanctions.
If the Secretary suspends a certificate under subparagraph (A), the Secretary shall provide an opportunity for a hearing to the owner or operator of the facility not later than 60 days from the effective date of the suspension. The suspension shall remain in effect until the decision of the Secretary made after the hearing.
If the Secretary revokes the certificate of a facility on the basis of an act described in paragraph (1), no person who owned or operated the facility at the time of the act may, within 2 years of the revocation of the certificate, own or operate a facility that requires a certificate under this section.
If the Secretary imposes a sanction on a facility under subsection (h) or suspends or revokes the certificate of a facility under subsection (i), the owner or operator of the facility may, not later than 60 days after the date the action of the Secretary becomes final, file a petition with the United States court of appeals for the circuit in which the facility is situated for judicial review of the action. As soon as practicable after receipt of the petition, the clerk of the court shall transmit a copy of the petition to the Secretary or other officer designated by the Secretary. As soon as practicable after receipt of the copy, the Secretary shall file in the court the record on which the action of the Secretary is based, as provided in section 2112 of title 28.
If the petitioner applies to the court for leave to adduce additional evidence, and shows to the satisfaction of the court that the additional evidence is material and that there were reasonable grounds for the failure to adduce such evidence in the proceeding before the Secretary, the court may order the additional evidence (and evidence in rebuttal of the additional evidence) to be taken before the Secretary, and to be adduced upon the hearing in such manner and upon such terms and conditions as the court may determine to be proper. The Secretary may modify the findings of the Secretary as to the facts, or make new findings, by reason of the additional evidence so taken, and the Secretary shall file the modified or new findings, and the recommendations of the Secretary, if any, for the modification or setting aside of the original action of the Secretary with the return of the additional evidence.
Upon the filing of the petition referred to in paragraph (1), the court shall have jurisdiction to affirm the action, or to set the action aside in whole or in part, temporarily or permanently. The findings of the Secretary as to the facts, if supported by substantial evidence, shall be conclusive.
The information to be compiled under paragraph (1) shall be information for the calendar year preceding the date the information is to be made available to the public.
The Secretary shall award grants to such entities as the Secretary may determine to be appropriate to establish surveillance systems in selected geographic areas to provide data to evaluate the functioning and effectiveness of breast cancer screening programs in the United States, including assessments of participation rates in screening mammography, diagnostic procedures, incidence of breast cancer, mode of detection (mammography screening or other methods), outcome and follow up information, and such related epidemiologic analyses that may improve early cancer detection and contribute to reduction in breast cancer mortality. Grants may be awarded for further research on breast cancer surveillance systems upon the Secretary’s review of the evaluation of the program.
The Secretary shall recruit facilities to provide to the breast cancer screening surveillance system relevant data that could help in the research of the causes, characteristics, and prevalence of, and potential treatments for, breast cancer and benign breast conditions, if the information may be disclosed under section 552 of title 5.
The Secretary may, after providing notice and opportunity for corrective action, withdraw the approval of a State’s authority under paragraph (1) if the Secretary determines that the State does not meet the requirements of such paragraph. The Secretary shall promulgate regulations for the implementation of this subparagraph.
The Secretary shall, in accordance with this paragraph assess and collect fees from persons described in subsection (d)(1)(A) (other than persons who are governmental entities, as determined by the Secretary) to cover the costs of inspections conducted under subsection (g)(1) by the Secretary or a State acting under a delegation under subparagraph (A) of such subsection. Fees may be assessed and collected under this paragraph only in such manner as would result in an aggregate amount of fees collected during any fiscal year which equals the aggregate amount of costs for such fiscal year for inspections of facilities of such persons under subsection (g)(1). A person’s liability for fees shall be reasonably based on the proportion of the inspection costs which relate to such person.
Fees collected under subparagraph (A) shall be deposited as an offsetting collection to the appropriations for the Department of Health and Human Services as provided in appropriation Acts and shall remain available without fiscal year limitation.