42 U.S. Code § 5133 - Predisaster hazard mitigation
(a) Definition of small impoverished community
In this section, the term “small impoverished community” means a community of 3,000 or fewer individuals that is economically disadvantaged, as determined by the State in which the community is located and based on criteria established by the President.
(b) Establishment of program
The President may establish a program to provide technical and financial assistance to States and local governments to assist in the implementation of predisaster hazard mitigation measures that are cost-effective and are designed to reduce injuries, loss of life, and damage and destruction of property, including damage to critical services and facilities under the jurisdiction of the States or local governments.
(c) Approval by President
If the President determines that a State or local government has identified natural disaster hazards in areas under its jurisdiction and has demonstrated the ability to form effective public-private natural disaster hazard mitigation partnerships, the President, using amounts in the National Predisaster Mitigation Fund established under subsection (i) of this section (referred to in this section as the “Fund”), may provide technical and financial assistance to the State or local government to be used in accordance with subsection (e) of this section.
(d) State recommendations
(1) In general
The Governor of each State may recommend to the President not fewer than five local governments to receive assistance under this section.
(B) Deadline for submission
The recommendations under subparagraph (A) shall be submitted to the President not later than October 1, 2001, and each October 1st thereafter or such later date in the year as the President may establish.
(A) In general
Except as provided in subparagraph (B), in providing assistance to local governments under this section, the President shall select from local governments recommended by the Governors under this subsection.
(B) Extraordinary circumstances
In providing assistance to local governments under this section, the President may select a local government that has not been recommended by a Governor under this subsection if the President determines that extraordinary circumstances justify the selection and that making the selection will further the purpose of this section.
(3) Effect of failure to nominate
If a Governor of a State fails to submit recommendations under this subsection in a timely manner, the President may select, subject to the criteria specified in subsection (g) of this section, any local governments of the State to receive assistance under this section.
(e) Uses of technical and financial assistance
(1) In general
Technical and financial assistance provided under this section—
(A) shall be used by States and local governments principally to implement predisaster hazard mitigation measures that are cost-effective and are described in proposals approved by the President under this section; and
(f) Allocation of funds
(1) In general
The President shall award financial assistance under this section on a competitive basis and in accordance with the criteria in subsection (g).
(2) Minimum and maximum amounts
In providing financial assistance under this section, the President shall ensure that the amount of financial assistance made available to a State (including amounts made available to local governments of the State) for a fiscal year—
(A) is not less than the lesser of—
(g) Criteria for assistance awards
In determining whether to provide technical and financial assistance to a State or local government under this section, the President shall take into account—
(2) the degree of commitment of the State or local government to reduce damages from future natural disasters;
(3) the degree of commitment by the State or local government to support ongoing non-Federal support for the hazard mitigation measures to be carried out using the technical and financial assistance;
(4) the extent to which the hazard mitigation measures to be carried out using the technical and financial assistance contribute to the mitigation goals and priorities established by the State;
(5) the extent to which the technical and financial assistance is consistent with other assistance provided under this chapter;
(6) the extent to which prioritized, cost-effective mitigation activities that produce meaningful and definable outcomes are clearly identified;
(7) if the State or local government has submitted a mitigation plan under section 5165 of this title, the extent to which the activities identified under paragraph (6) are consistent with the mitigation plan;
(9) the extent to which assistance will fund mitigation activities in small impoverished communities; and
(h) Federal share
(1) In general
Financial assistance provided under this section may contribute up to 75 percent of the total cost of mitigation activities approved by the President.
(i) National Predisaster Mitigation Fund
The President may establish in the Treasury of the United States a fund to be known as the “National Predisaster Mitigation Fund”, to be used in carrying out this section.
(2) Transfers to Fund
There shall be deposited in the Fund—
(A) amounts appropriated to carry out this section, which shall remain available until expended; and
(3) Expenditures from Fund
Upon request by the President, the Secretary of the Treasury shall transfer from the Fund to the President such amounts as the President determines are necessary to provide technical and financial assistance under this section.
(4) Investment of amounts
(A) In general
The Secretary of the Treasury shall invest such portion of the Fund as is not, in the judgment of the Secretary of the Treasury, required to meet current withdrawals. Investments may be made only in interest-bearing obligations of the United States.
(B) Acquisition of obligations
For the purpose of investments under subparagraph (A), obligations may be acquired—
(C) Sale of obligations
Any obligation acquired by the Fund may be sold by the Secretary of the Treasury at the market price.
(D) Credits to Fund
The interest on, and the proceeds from the sale or redemption of, any obligations held in the Fund shall be credited to and form a part of the Fund.
(E) Transfers of amounts
(i) In general The amounts required to be transferred to the Fund under this subsection shall be transferred at least monthly from the general fund of the Treasury to the Fund on the basis of estimates made by the Secretary of the Treasury.
(j) Limitation on total amount of financial assistance
The President shall not provide financial assistance under this section in an amount greater than the amount available in the Fund.
(k) Multihazard advisory maps
(1) Definition of multihazard advisory map
In this subsection, the term “multihazard advisory map” means a map on which hazard data concerning each type of natural disaster is identified simultaneously for the purpose of showing areas of hazard overlap.
(2) Development of maps
In consultation with States, local governments, and appropriate Federal agencies, the President shall develop multihazard advisory maps for areas, in not fewer than five States, that are subject to commonly recurring natural hazards (including flooding, hurricanes and severe winds, and seismic events).
(3) Use of technology
In developing multihazard advisory maps under this subsection, the President shall use, to the maximum extent practicable, the most cost-effective and efficient technology available.
(4) Use of maps
(A) Advisory nature
The multihazard advisory maps shall be considered to be advisory and shall not require the development of any new policy by, or impose any new policy on, any government or private entity.
(B) Availability of maps
The multihazard advisory maps shall be made available to the appropriate State and local governments for the purposes of—
(i) informing the general public about the risks of natural hazards in the areas described in paragraph (2);
(l) Report on Federal and State administration
Not later than 18 months after October 30, 2000, the President, in consultation with State and local governments, shall submit to Congress a report evaluating efforts to implement this section and recommending a process for transferring greater authority and responsibility for administering the assistance program established under this section to capable States.
(m) Authorization of appropriations
There are authorized to be appropriated to carry out this section—
(n) Prohibition on earmarks
In this subsection, the term “congressionally directed spending” means a statutory provision or report language included primarily at the request of a Senator or a Member, Delegate or Resident Commissioner of the House of Representatives providing, authorizing, or recommending a specific amount of discretionary budget authority, credit authority, or other spending authority for a contract, loan, loan guarantee, grant, loan authority, or other expenditure with or to an entity, or targeted to a specific State, locality, or Congressional district, other than through a statutory or administrative formula-driven or competitive award process.
None of the funds appropriated or otherwise made available to carry out this section may be used for congressionally directed spending.
Source(Pub. L. 93–288, title II, § 203, as added Pub. L. 106–390, title I, § 102(a),Oct. 30, 2000, 114 Stat. 1553; amended Pub. L. 108–199, div. H, § 135,Jan. 23, 2004, 118 Stat. 441; Pub. L. 108–447, div. J, title I, § 105,Dec. 8, 2004, 118 Stat. 3343; Pub. L. 109–139, § 2,Dec. 22, 2005, 119 Stat. 2649; Pub. L. 110–329, div. D, title V, § 553,Sept. 30, 2008, 122 Stat. 3690; Pub. L. 111–83, title V, § 543,Oct. 28, 2009, 123 Stat. 2176; Pub. L. 111–351, §§ 3(a), (b), 4,Jan. 4, 2011, 124 Stat. 3864.)
References in Text
This chapter, referred to in subsec. (g)(5), was in the original “this Act”, meaning Pub. L. 93–288, May 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 143. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 5121 of this title and Tables.
2011—Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 111–351, § 3(a), amended subsec. (f) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (f) related to a different allocation of funds.
Subsec. (m). Pub. L. 111–351, § 3(b), amended subsec. (m) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (m) related to the termination of this section on Sept. 30, 2010.
Subsec. (n). Pub. L. 111–351, § 4, added subsec. (n).
2009—Subsec. (m). Pub. L. 111–83substituted “September 30, 2010” for “September 30, 2009”.
2008—Subsec. (m). Pub. L. 110–329substituted “September 30, 2009” for “September 30, 2008”.
2005—Subsec. (m). Pub. L. 109–139substituted “September 30, 2008” for “December 31, 2005”.
2004—Subsec. (m). Pub. L. 108–447substituted “2005” for “2004”.
Pub. L. 108–199substituted “2004” for “2003”.
“(1) The predisaster hazard mitigation program has been successful and cost-effective. Funding from the predisaster hazard mitigation program has successfully reduced loss of life, personal injuries, damage to and destruction of property, and disruption of communities from disasters.
“(2) The predisaster hazard mitigation program has saved Federal taxpayers from spending significant sums on disaster recovery and relief that would have been otherwise incurred had communities not successfully applied mitigation techniques.
“(3) A 2007 Congressional Budget Office report found that the predisaster hazard mitigation program reduced losses by roughly $3 (measured in 2007 dollars) for each dollar invested in mitigation efforts funded under the predisaster hazard mitigation program. Moreover, the Congressional Budget Office found that projects funded under the predisaster hazard mitigation program could lower the need for post-disaster assistance from the Federal Government so that the predisaster hazard mitigation investment by the Federal Government would actually save taxpayer funds.
“(4) A 2005 report by the Multihazard Mitigation Council showed substantial benefits and cost savings from the hazard mitigation programs of the Federal Emergency Management Agency generally. Looking at a range of hazard mitigation programs of the Federal Emergency Management Agency, the study found that, on average, $1 invested by the Federal Emergency Management Agency in hazard mitigation provided the Nation with roughly $4 in benefits. Moreover, the report projected that the mitigation grants awarded between 1993 and 2003 would save more than 220 lives and prevent nearly 4,700 injuries over approximately 50 years.
“(5) Given the substantial savings generated from the predisaster hazard mitigation program in the years following the provision of assistance under the program, increasing funds appropriated for the program would be a wise investment.”
Findings and Purpose
“(a) Findings.—Congress finds that—
“(1) natural disasters, including earthquakes, tsunamis, tornadoes, hurricanes, flooding, and wildfires, pose great danger to human life and to property throughout the United States;
“(2) greater emphasis needs to be placed on—
“(A) identifying and assessing the risks to States and local governments (including Indian tribes) from natural disasters;
“(B) implementing adequate measures to reduce losses from natural disasters; and
“(C) ensuring that the critical services and facilities of communities will continue to function after a natural disaster;
“(3) expenditures for postdisaster assistance are increasing without commensurate reductions in the likelihood of future losses from natural disasters;
“(4) in the expenditure of Federal funds under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act (42 U.S.C. 5121 et seq.), high priority should be given to mitigation of hazards at the local level; and
“(5) with a unified effort of economic incentives, awareness and education, technical assistance, and demonstrated Federal support, States and local governments (including Indian tribes) will be able to—
“(A) form effective community-based partnerships for hazard mitigation purposes;
“(B) implement effective hazard mitigation measures that reduce the potential damage from natural disasters;
“(C) ensure continued functionality of critical services;
“(D) leverage additional non-Federal resources in meeting natural disaster resistance goals; and
“(E) make commitments to long-term hazard mitigation efforts to be applied to new and existing structures.
“(b) Purpose.—The purpose of this title [enacting this section and sections 5134, 5165 and 5165a of this title, amending section 5170c of this title, and repealing section 5176 of this title] is to establish a national disaster hazard mitigation program—
“(1) to reduce the loss of life and property, human suffering, economic disruption, and disaster assistance costs resulting from natural disasters; and
“(2) to provide a source of predisaster hazard mitigation funding that will assist States and local governments (including Indian tribes) in implementing effective hazard mitigation measures that are designed to ensure the continued functionality of critical services and facilities after a natural disaster.”