The court, in issuing any final order in any action brought pursuant to subsection (a) of this section, may award costs of litigation (including reasonable attorney and expert witness fees) to any party, whenever the court determines such award is appropriate. The court may, if a temporary restraining order or preliminary injunction is sought, require the filing of a bond or equivalent security in accordance with the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure.
42 U.S. Code § 7604 - Citizen suits
 So in original. The period probably should be “, or”.
 So in original. The word “or” probably should not appear.
 So in original.
 So in original. The semicolon probably should be a comma.
 So in original. The period probably should be a comma.
 So in original. Probably should be “this section”.
The Federal Rules of Civil Procedure, referred to in subsec. (d), are set out in the Appendix to Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.
Section was formerly classified to section 1857h–2 of this title.
1990—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 101–549, § 707(a), (f), in closing provisions, inserted before period at end “, and to apply any appropriate civil penalties (except for actions under paragraph (2))” and inserted sentences at end giving courts jurisdiction to compel agency action unreasonably delayed and requiring 180 days notice prior to commencement of action.
Subsec. (a)(1), (3). Pub. L. 101–549, § 707(g), inserted “to have violated (if there is evidence that the alleged violation has been repeated) or” before “to be in violation”.
Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 101–549, § 302(f), substituted “section 7412(i)(3)(A) or (f)(4)” for “section 7412(c)(1)(B)” in closing provisions.
Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 101–549, § 707(c), amended par. (2) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (2) read as follows: “In such action under this section, the Administrator, if not a party, may intervene as a matter of right.”
Subsec. (c)(3). Pub. L. 101–549, § 707(d), added subsec. (c)(3).
Subsec. (f)(3). Pub. L. 101–549, § 707(e), struck out “any condition or requirement of section 7413(d) of this title (relating to certain enforcement orders)” before “, section 7419 of this title”, substituted “subchapter VI” for “part B of subchapter I”, and substituted “; or” for period at end.
Subsec. (f)(4). Pub. L. 101–549, § 707(e), which directed that par. (4) be added at end of subsec. (f), was executed by adding par. (4) after par. (3), to reflect the probable intent of Congress.
Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 101–549, § 707(b), added subsec. (g).
1977—Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 95–190, § 14(a)(77), inserted “or modified” after “new”.
Pub. L. 95–95, § 303(a), added subsec. (a)(3).
Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 95–95, § 303(c), inserted provisions which prohibited any construction of this section or any other law of the United States which would prohibit, exclude, or restrict any State, local, or interstate authority from bringing any enforcement action or obtaining any judicial remedy or sanction in any State or local court against the United States or bringing any administrative enforcement action or obtaining any administrative remedy or sanction against the United States in any State or local administrative agency, department, or instrumentality under State or local law.
Subsec. (f)(3). Pub. L. 95–190, § 14(a)(78), inserted “, or” after “(relating to ozone protection)”, substituted “any condition or requirement under an” for “requirements under an”, and struck out “or” before “section 7491”.
Pub. L. 95–95, § 303(b), added par. (3).
For termination, effective May 15, 2000, of reporting provisions in subsec. (g)(1) of this section, see section 3003 of Pub. L. 104–66, as amended, set out as a note under section 1113 of Title 31, Money and Finance, and the 6th item on page 165 of House Document No. 103–7.
Suits, actions, and other proceedings lawfully commenced by or against the Administrator or any other officer or employee of the United States in his official capacity or in relation to the discharge of his official duties under act July 14, 1955, the Clean Air Act, as in effect immediately prior to the enactment of Pub. L. 95–95 [Aug. 7, 1977], not to abate by reason of the taking effect of Pub. L. 95–95, see section 406(a) of Pub. L. 95–95, set out as an Effective Date of 1977 Amendment note under section 7401 of this title.
All rules, regulations, orders, determinations, contracts, certifications, authorizations, delegations, or other actions duly issued made, or taken by or pursuant to act July 14, 1955, the Clean Air Act, as in effect immediately prior to the date of enactment of Pub. L. 95–95 [Aug. 7, 1977] to continue in full force and effect until modified or rescinded in accordance with act July 14, 1955, as amended by Pub. L. 95–95 [this chapter], see section 406(b) of Pub. L. 95–95, set out as an Effective Date of 1977 Amendment note under section 7401 of this title.
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