42 U.S. Code § 9628. State response programs

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(a) Assistance to States
(1) In general
(A) StatesThe Administrator may award a grant to a State or Indian tribe that—
(i)
has aresponse program that includes each of the elements, or is taking reasonable steps to include each of the elements, listed in paragraph (2); or
(ii)
is a party to a memorandum of agreement with the Administrator for voluntary response programs.
(B) Use of grants by States
(i) In general

A State or Indian tribe may use a grant under this subsection to establish or enhance the response program of the State or Indian tribe.

(ii) Additional usesIn addition to the uses under clause (i), aState or Indian tribe may use a grant under this subsection to—
(I)
capitalize a revolving loan fund for brownfield remediation under section 9604(k)(3) of this title;
(II)
purchase insurance or develop a risk sharing pool, an indemnity pool, or insurance mechanism to provide financing for response actions under a State response program; or
(III)
assist small communities, Indian tribes, rural areas, or disadvantaged areas in carrying out activities described in section 9604(k)(7)(A) of this title with respect to brownfield sites.
(iii) Small communities, Indian tribes, rural areas, and disadvantaged areas
(I) In general

To make grants to States or Indian tribes under clause (ii)(III), the Administrator may use, in addition to amounts available to carry out this subsection, not more than $1,500,000 of the amounts made available to carry out section 9604(k)(7) of this title in each fiscal year.

(II) Limitation

Each grant made under subclause (I) may be not more than $20,000.

(III) Inclusion in other grants

The Administrator may, at the request of a State or Indian tribe, include a grant under this clause in any other grant to the State or Indian tribe made under this subsection.

(iv) DefinitionsIn this subparagraph:
(I) Disadvantaged area

The term “disadvantaged area” means a community with an annual median household income that is less than 80 percent of the statewide annual median household income, as determined by the President based on the latest available decennial census.

(II) Small community

The term “small community” means a community with a population of not more than 15,000 individuals, as determined by the President based on the latest available decennial census.

(2) ElementsThe elements of aState or Indian tribe response program referred to in paragraph (1)(A)(i) are the following:
(A)
Timely survey and inventory of brownfield sites in the State.
(B) Oversight and enforcement authorities or other mechanisms, and resources, that are adequate to ensure that—
(i)aresponse action will—
(I)
protect human health and the environment; and
(II)
be conducted in accordance with applicable Federal and State law; and
(ii)
if the person conducting the response action fails to complete the necessary response activities, including operation and maintenance or long-term monitoring activities, the necessary response activities are completed.
(C) Mechanisms and resources to provide meaningful opportunities for public participation, including—
(i)
public access to documents that the State, Indian tribe, or party conducting the cleanup is relying on or developing in making cleanup decisions or conducting site activities;
(ii)
prior notice and opportunity for comment on proposed cleanup plans and site activities; and
(iii)a mechanism by which—
(I)
aperson that is or may be affected by a release or threatened release of a hazardous substance, pollutant, or contaminant at a brownfield site located in the community in which the person works or resides may request the conduct of a site assessment; and
(II)
an appropriate State official shall consider and appropriately respond to a request under subclause (I).
(D)
Mechanisms for approval of a cleanup plan, and a requirement for verification by and certification or similar documentation from the State, an Indian tribe, or a licensed site professional to the person conducting a response action indicating that the response is complete.
(3) Funding

There is authorized to be appropriated to carry out this subsection $50,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2019 through 2023.

(b) Enforcement in cases of a release subject to State program
(1) Enforcement
(A) In generalExcept as provided in subparagraph (B) and subject to subparagraph (C), in the case of an eligible response site at which—
(i)
there is a release or threatened release of ahazardous substance, pollutant, or contaminant; and
(ii)
aperson is conducting or has completed a response action regarding the specific release that is addressed by the response action that is in compliance with the State program that specifically governs response actions for the protection of public health and the environment,
the President may not use authority under this chapter to take an administrative or judicial enforcement action under section 9606(a) of this title or to take a judicial enforcement action to recover response costs under section 9607(a) of this title against the person regarding the specific release that is addressed by the response action.
(B) ExceptionsThe President may bring an administrative or judicial enforcement action under this chapter during or after completion of aresponse action described in subparagraph (A) with respect to a release or threatened release at an eligible response site described in that subparagraph if—
(i)
the State requests that the President provide assistance in the performance of a response action;
(ii)
the Administrator determines that contamination has migrated or will migrate across a State line, resulting in the need for further response action to protect human health or the environment, or the President determines that contamination has migrated or is likely to migrate onto property subject to the jurisdiction, custody, or control of a department, agency, or instrumentality of the United States and may impact the authorized purposes of the Federal property;
(iii) after taking into consideration the response activities already taken, the Administrator determines that—
(I)
a release or threatened release may present an imminent and substantial endangerment to public health or welfare or the environment; and
(II)
additional response actions are likely to be necessary to address, prevent, limit, or mitigate the release or threatened release; or
(iv)
the Administrator, after consultation with the State, determines that information, that on the earlier of the date on which cleanup was approved or completed, was not known by the State, as recorded in documents prepared or relied on in selecting or conducting the cleanup, has been discovered regarding the contamination or conditions at a facility such that the contamination or conditions at the facility present a threat requiring further remediation to protect public health or welfare or the environment. Consultation with the State shall not limit the ability of the Administrator to make this determination.
(C) Public record

The limitations on the authority of the President under subparagraph (A) apply only at sites in States that maintain, update not less than annually, and make available to the public a record of sites, by name and location, at which response actions have been completed in the previous year and are planned to be addressed under the State program that specifically governs response actions for the protection of public health and the environment in the upcoming year. The public record shall identify whether or not the site, on completion of the response action, will be suitable for unrestricted use and, if not, shall identify the institutional controls relied on in the remedy. Each State and tribe receiving financial assistance under subsection (a) shall maintain and make available to the public a record of sites as provided in this paragraph.

(D) EPA notification
(i) In generalIn the case of an eligible response site at which there is a release or threatened release of a hazardous substance, pollutant, or contaminant and for which the Administrator intends to carry out an action that may be barred under subparagraph (A), the Administrator shall—
(I)
notify the State of the action the Administrator intends to take; and
(II)
(aa)
wait 48 hours for a reply from the State under clause (ii); or
(bb)
if the State fails to reply to the notification or if the Administrator makes a determination under clause (iii), take immediate action under that clause.
(ii) State replyNot later than 48 hours after aState receives notice from the Administrator under clause (i), the State shall notify the Administrator if—
(I)
the release at the eligible response site is or has been subject to a cleanup conducted under a State program; and
(II)
the State is planning to abate the release or threatened release, any actions that are planned.
(iii) Immediate Federal action

The Administrator may take action immediately after giving notification under clause (i) without waiting for a State reply under clause (ii) if the Administrator determines that one or more exceptions under subparagraph (B) are met.

(E) Report to Congress

Not later than 90 days after the date of initiation of any enforcement action by the President under clause (ii), (iii), or (iv) of subparagraph (B), the President shall submit to Congress a report describing the basis for the enforcement action, including specific references to the facts demonstrating that enforcement action is permitted under subparagraph (B).

(2) Savings provision
(A) Costs incurred prior to limitations

Nothing in paragraph (1) precludes the President from seeking to recover costs incurred prior to January 11, 2002, or during a period in which the limitations of paragraph (1)(A) were not applicable.

(B) Effect on agreements between States and EPANothing in paragraph (1)—
(i)
modifies or otherwise affects a memorandum of agreement, memorandum of understanding, or any similar agreementrelating to this chapter between a State agency or an Indian tribe and the Administrator that is in effect on or before January 11, 2002 (which agreement shall remain in effect, subject to the terms of the agreement); or
(ii)
limits the discretionary authority of the President to enter into or modify an agreement with a State, an Indian tribe, or any other person relating to the implementation by the President of statutory authorities.
(3) Effective date

This subsection applies only to response actions conducted after February 15, 2001.

(c) Effect on Federal lawsNothing in this section affects any liability or response authority under any Federal law, including—
(1)
this chapter, except as provided in subsection (b);
References in Text

This chapter, referred to in subsecs. (b)(1)(A), (B), (2)(B)(i) and (c)(1), was in the original “this Act”, meaning Pub. L. 96–510, Dec. 11, 1980, 94 Stat. 2767, known as the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 9601 of this title and Tables.

The Solid Waste Disposal Act, referred to in subsec. (c)(2), is title II of Pub. L. 89–272, Oct. 20, 1965, 79 Stat. 997, as amended generally by Pub. L. 94–580, § 2, Oct. 21, 1976, 90 Stat. 2795, which is classified generally to chapter 82 (§ 6901 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 6901 of this title and Tables.

The Federal Water Pollution Control Act, referred to in subsec. (c)(3), is act June 30, 1948, ch. 758, as amended generally by Pub. L. 92–500, § 2, Oct. 18, 1972, 86 Stat. 816, which is classified generally to chapter 26 (§ 1251 et seq.) of Title 33, Navigation and Navigable Waters. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1251 of Title 33 and Tables.

The Toxic Substances Control Act, referred to in subsec. (c)(4), is Pub. L. 94–469, Oct. 11, 1976, 90 Stat. 2003, which is classified generally to chapter 53 (§ 2601 et seq.) of Title 15, Commerce and Trade. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2601 of Title 15 and Tables.

The Safe Drinking Water Act, referred to in subsec. (c)(5), is title XIV of act July 1, 1944, as added Dec. 16, 1974, Pub. L. 93–523, § 2(a), 88 Stat. 1660, which is classified generally to subchapter XII (§ 300f et seq.) of chapter 6A of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 201 of this title and Tables.

Amendments

2018—Subsec. (a)(1)(B)(ii)(III). Pub. L. 115–141, § 14(a)(1), added subcl. (III).

Subsec. (a)(1)(B)(iii), (iv). Pub. L. 115–141, § 14(a)(2), added cls. (iii) and (iv).

Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 115–141, § 15, amended par. (3) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: “There is authorized to be appropriated to carry out this subsection $50,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2002 through 2006.”