42 U.S. Code § 9604 - Response authorities
Whenever the President is authorized to act pursuant to subsection (a) of this section, or whenever the President has reason to believe that a release has occurred or is about to occur, or that illness, disease, or complaints thereof may be attributable to exposure to a hazardous substance, pollutant, or contaminant and that a release may have occurred or be occurring, he may undertake such investigations, monitoring, surveys, testing, and other information gathering as he may deem necessary or appropriate to identify the existence and extent of the release or threat thereof, the source and nature of the hazardous substances, pollutants or contaminants involved, and the extent of danger to the public health or welfare or to the environment. In addition, the President may undertake such planning, legal, fiscal, economic, engineering, architectural, and other studies or investigations as he may deem necessary or appropriate to plan and direct response actions, to recover the costs thereof, and to enforce the provisions of this chapter.
The President shall promptly notify the appropriate Federal and State natural resource trustees of potential damages to natural resources resulting from releases under investigation pursuant to this section and shall seek to coordinate the assessments, investigations, and planning under this section with such Federal and State trustees.
Any officer, employee, or representative of the President, duly designated by the President, is authorized to take action under paragraph (2), (3), or (4) (or any combination thereof) at a vessel, facility, establishment, place, property, or location or, in the case of paragraph (3) or (4), at any vessel, facility, establishment, place, property, or location which is adjacent to the vessel, facility, establishment, place, property, or location referred to in such paragraph (3) or (4). Any duly designated officer, employee, or representative of a State or political subdivision under a contract or cooperative agreement under subsection (d)(1) is also authorized to take such action. The authority of paragraphs (3) and (4) may be exercised only if there is a reasonable basis to believe there may be a release or threat of release of a hazardous substance or pollutant or contaminant. The authority of this subsection may be exercised only for the purposes of determining the need for response, or choosing or taking any response action under this subchapter, or otherwise enforcing the provisions of this subchapter.
Any officer, employee or representative described in paragraph (1) is authorized to inspect and obtain samples from any vessel, facility, establishment, or other place or property referred to in paragraph (3) or from any location of any suspected hazardous substance or pollutant or contaminant. Any such officer, employee, or representative is authorized to inspect and obtain samples of any containers or labeling for suspected hazardous substances or pollutants or contaminants. Each such inspection shall be completed with reasonable promptness.
If the officer, employee, or representative obtains any samples, before leaving the premises he shall give to the owner, operator, tenant, or other person in charge of the place from which the samples were obtained a receipt describing the sample obtained and, if requested, a portion of each such sample. A copy of the results of any analysis made of such samples shall be furnished promptly to the owner, operator, tenant, or other person in charge, if such person can be located.
If consent is not granted regarding any request made by an officer, employee, or representative under paragraph (2), (3), or (4), the President may issue an order directing compliance with the request. The order may be issued after such notice and opportunity for consultation as is reasonably appropriate under the circumstances.
Nothing in this subsection shall preclude the President from securing access or obtaining information in any other lawful manner.
In awarding contracts to any person engaged in response actions, the President or the State, in any case where it is awarding contracts pursuant to a contract entered into under subsection (d) of this section, shall require compliance with Federal health and safety standards established under section 9651(f) of this title by contractors and subcontractors as a condition of such contracts.
Notwithstanding any other provision of law, subject to the provisions of section 9611 of this title, the President may authorize the use of such emergency procurement powers as he deems necessary to effect the purpose of this chapter. Upon determination that such procedures are necessary, the President shall promulgate regulations prescribing the circumstances under which such authority shall be used and the procedures governing the use of such authority.
The President is authorized to acquire, by purchase, lease, condemnation, donation, or otherwise, any real property or any interest in real property that the President in his discretion determines is needed to conduct a remedial action under this chapter. There shall be no cause of action to compel the President to acquire any interest in real property under this chapter.
The President may use the authority of paragraph (1) for a remedial action only if, before an interest in real estate is acquired under this subsection, the State in which the interest to be acquired is located assures the President, through a contract or cooperative agreement or otherwise, that the State will accept transfer of the interest following completion of the remedial action.
Revolving loan funds that have been established before January 11, 2002, may be used in accordance with this paragraph.
Notwithstanding clause (i)(IV), the Administrator may use up to 25 percent of the funds made available to carry out this subsection to make a grant or loan under this subsection to eligible entities that satisfy all of the elements set forth in section 9601(40) of this title to qualify as a bona fide prospective purchaser, except that the date of acquisition of the property was on or before January 11, 2002.
An eligible entity may submit to the Administrator, through a regional office of the Environmental Protection Agency and in such form as the Administrator may require, an application for a grant under this subsection for one or more brownfield sites (including information on the criteria used by the Administrator to rank applications under subparagraph (C), to the extent that the information is available).
The Administrator shall coordinate with other Federal agencies to assist in making eligible entities aware of other available Federal resources.
The Administrator shall publish guidance to assist eligible entities in applying for grants under this subsection.
The Administrator may provide, or fund eligible entities or nonprofit organizations to provide, training, research, and technical assistance to individuals and organizations, as appropriate, to facilitate the inventory of brownfield sites, site assessments, remediation of brownfield sites, community involvement, or site preparation.
The Inspector General of the Environmental Protection Agency shall conduct such reviews or audits of grants and loans under this subsection as the Inspector General considers necessary to carry out this subsection.
Not later than 3 years after January 11, 2002, the Inspector General of the Environmental Protection Agency shall submit to Congress a report that provides a description of the management of the program (including a description of the allocation of funds under this subsection).
There is authorized to be appropriated to carry out this subsection $200,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2002 through 2006.
Of the amount made available under subparagraph (A), $50,000,000, or, if the amount made available is less than $200,000,000, 25 percent of the amount made available, shall be used for site characterization, assessment, and remediation of facilities described in section 9601(39)(D)(ii)(II) of this title.
 So in original. Probably should be followed by a comma.
This chapter, referred to in text, was in the original “this Act”, meaning Pub. L. 96–510, Dec. 11, 1980, 94 Stat. 2767, known as the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 9601 of this title and Tables.
The Solid Waste Disposal Act, referred to in subsecs. (c)(3), (9)(D), (i)(10)(E), and (k)(11)(B), is title II of Pub. L. 89–272, Oct. 20, 1965, 79 Stat. 997, as amended generally by Pub. L. 94–580, § 2, Oct. 21, 1976, 90 Stat. 2795, which is classified generally to chapter 82 (§ 6901 et seq.) of this title. Subtitle C of the Act is classified generally to subchapter III (§ 6921 et seq.) of chapter 82 of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 6901 of this title and Tables.
Title III of the Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986, referred to in subsec. (e)(7)(E)(i), probably means title III of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986, Pub. L. 99–499, Oct. 17, 1986, 100 Stat. 1728, known as the Emergency Planning and Community Right-To-Know Act of 1986, which is classified generally to chapter 116 (§ 11001 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of title III to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 11001 of this title and Tables.
Reorganization Plan Numbered 14 of 1950, referred to in subsec. (g)(2), is set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.
The Toxic Substances Control Act, referred to in subsecs. (i)(5)(C), (D) and (k)(11)(D), is Pub. L. 94–469, Oct. 11, 1976, 90 Stat. 2003, which is classified generally to chapter 53 (§ 2601 et seq.) of Title 15, Commerce and Trade. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2601 of Title 15 and Tables.
The Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act, referred to in subsec. (i)(5)(C), (D), is act June 25, 1947, ch. 125, as amended generally by Pub. L. 92–516, Oct. 21, 1972, 86 Stat. 973, which is classified generally to subchapter II (§ 136 et seq.) of chapter 6 of Title 7, Agriculture. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 136 of Title 7 and Tables.
The Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act, referred to in subsec. (k)(1)(H), is Pub. L. 92–203, Dec. 18, 1971, 85 Stat. 688, which is classified generally to chapter 33 (§ 1601 et seq.) of Title 43, Public Lands. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1601 of Title 43 and Tables.
The Federal Water Pollution Control Act, referred to in subsec. (k)(11)(C), is act June 30, 1948, ch. 758, as amended generally by Pub. L. 92–500, § 2, Oct. 18, 1972, 86 Stat. 816, which is classified generally to chapter 26 (§ 1251 et seq.) of Title 33, Navigation and Navigable Waters. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1251 of Title 33 and Tables.
The Safe Drinking Water Act, referred to in subsec. (k)(11)(E), is title XIV of act July 1, 1944, as added Dec. 16, 1974, Pub. L. 93–523, § 2(a), 88 Stat. 1660, which is classified generally to subchapter XII (§ 300f et seq.) of chapter 6A of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 201 of this title and Tables.
In subsec. (g)(1), “sections 3141–3144, 3146, and 3147 of title 40” substituted for “the Davis-Bacon Act” and, in subsec. (g)(2), “section 3145 of title 40” substituted for “section 276c of title 40 of the United States Code”, on authority of Pub. L. 107–217, § 5(c), Aug. 21, 2002, 116 Stat. 1303, the first section of which enacted Title 40, Public Buildings, Property, and Works.
2005—Subsec. (k)(4)(B)(iii). Pub. L. 109–59 added cl. (iii).
2004—Subsec. (k)(7)(B). Pub. L. 108–271 substituted “Government Accountability Office” for “General Accounting Office”.
2002—Subsec. (k). Pub. L. 107–118 added subsec. (k).
1992—Subsec. (i)(1). Pub. L. 102–531 substituted “Centers for Disease Control and Prevention” for “Centers for Disease Control”.
1986—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 99–499, § 104(a), substituted provisions authorizing the President to allow owner or operator of facility or vessel or any other responsible party to carry out action, conduct the remedial investigation, or conduct feasibility study under section 9622 of this title, specifying conditions under which a remedial investigation or feasibility study would be authorized, providing for treatment of potentially responsible parties, and requiring President to give primary attention to those releases which the President deems may present a public health threat, for “, unless the President determines that such removal and remedial action will be done properly by the owner or operator of the vessel or facility from which the release or threat of release emanates, or by any other responsible party.”
Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 99–499, § 104(b), amended par. (2) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (2) read as follows: “For the purposes of this section, ‘pollutant or contaminant’ shall include, but not be limited to, any element, substance, compound, or mixture, including disease-causing agents, which after release into the environment and upon exposure, ingestion, inhalation, or assimilation into any organism, either directly from the environment or indirectly by ingestion through food chains, will or may reasonably be anticipated to cause death, disease, behavioral abnormalities, cancer, genetic mutation, physiological malfunctions (including malfunctions in reproduction) or physical deformations, in such organisms or their offspring. The term does not include petroleum, including crude oil and any fraction thereof which is not otherwise specifically listed or designated as hazardous substances under section 9601(14)(A) through (F) of this title, nor does it include natural gas, liquefied natural gas, or synthetic gas of pipeline quality (or mixtures of natural gas and such synthetic gas).”
Subsec. (a)(3), (4). Pub. L. 99–499, § 104(c), added pars. (3) and (4).
Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 99–499, § 104(d), designated existing provisions as par. (1), inserted par. (1) heading, and added par. (2).
Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 99–499, § 104(e)(1), substituted “$2,000,000” for “$1,000,000” and “12 months” for “six months”.
Subsec. (c)(1)(C). Pub. L. 99–499, § 104(e)(2), added cl. (C).
Subsec. (c)(3). Pub. L. 99–499, §§ 104(f), 207(b), substituted text of cl. (C)(ii) and sentence providing that “facility” does not include navigable waters or beds underlying those waters for “(ii) at least 50 per centum or such greater amount as the President may determine appropriate, taking into account the degree of responsibility of the State or political subdivision, of any sums expended in response to a release at a facility that was owned at the time of any disposal of hazardous substances therein by the State or a political subdivision thereof. The President shall grant the State a credit against the share of the costs for which it is responsible under this paragraph for any documented direct out-of-pocket non-Federal funds expended or obligated by the State or a political subdivision thereof after January 1, 1978, and before December 11, 1980, for cost-eligible response actions and claims for damages compensable under section 9611 of this title relating to the specific release in question: Provided, however, That in no event shall the amount of the credit granted exceed the total response costs relating to the release.” and inserted provisions relating to remedial action to be taken on land or water held by an Indian tribe, held by the United States in trust for Indians, held by a member of an Indian Tribe (if such land or water is subject to a trust restriction on alienation), or otherwise within the borders of an Indian reservation.
Subsec. (c)(4). Pub. L. 99–499, § 104(g), amended par. (4) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (4) read as follows: “The President shall select appropriate remedial actions determined to be necessary to carry out this section which are to the extent practicable in accordance with the national contingency plan and which provide for that cost-effective response which provides a balance between the need for protection of public health and welfare and the environment at the facility under consideration, and the availability of amounts from the Fund established under subchapter II of this chapter to respond to other sites which present or may present a threat to public health or welfare or the environment, taking into consideration the need for immediate action.”
Subsec. (c)(5). Pub. L. 99–499, § 104(h), added par. (5).
Subsec. (c)(6). Pub. L. 99–499, § 104(i), added par. (6).
Subsec. (c)(7). Pub. L. 99–514 substituted “Internal Revenue Code of 1986” for “Internal Revenue Code of 1954”, which for purposes of codification was translated as “title 26” thus requiring no change in text.
Pub. L. 99–499, § 104(i), added par. (7).
Subsec. (c)(8). Pub. L. 99–499, § 104(j), added par. (8).
Subsec. (c)(9). Pub. L. 99–499, § 104(k), added par. (9).
Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 99–499, § 104(l), amended par. (1) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (1) read as follows: “Where the President determines that a State or political subdivision thereof has the capability to carry out any or all of the actions authorized in this section, the President may, in his discretion, enter into a contract or cooperative agreement with such State or political subdivision to take such actions in accordance with criteria and priorities established pursuant to section 9605(8) of this title and to be reimbursed for the reasonable response costs thereof from the Fund. Any contract made hereunder shall be subject to the cost-sharing provisions of subsection (c) of this section.”
Subsec. (e)(1). Pub. L. 99–499, § 104(m), added par. (1), and struck out former par. (1) which provided for access to, and copying of, records relating to covered substances, and entry by officers, employees or representatives of the President or a State into places where hazardous substances were or had been generated, stored, treated or disposed of, or transported from, and inspection and obtaining of samples of such substances and samples of containers or labeling for such substances.
Subsec. (e)(2) to (6). Pub. L. 99–499, § 104(m), added pars. (2) to (6). Former par. (2) redesignated (7).
Subsec. (e)(7). Pub. L. 99–499, § 104(m), (n), redesignated par. (2) as (7), aligned margin of par. (7) with pars. (1) through (6), and added par. heading and subpars. (E) and (F).
Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 99–499, § 110, designated existing provisions as par. (1), redesignated former pars. (1) to (5) as subpars. (A) to (E), respectively, of par. (1), in introductory provisions of par. (1), struck out “and” after “Health Administration,” and inserted “the Secretary of Transportation, and appropriate State and local health officials,” in par. (1)(D), inserted “where appropriate”, and added pars. (2) to (18).
Subsec. (j). Pub. L. 99–499, § 104(o)(1), added subsec. (j).
For termination, effective May 15, 2000, of provisions in subsec. (i)(10) of this section relating to the requirement that the Administrator of ATSDR submit a biennial report to Congress, see section 3003 of Pub. L. 104–66, as amended, set out as a note under section 1113 of Title 31, Money and Finance, and the 13th item on page 154 of House Document No. 103–7.
Any provision of titles I to IV of Pub. L. 99–499, imposing any tax, premium, or fee; establishing any trust fund; or authorizing expenditures from any trust fund, to have no force or effect, see section 531 of Pub. L. 99–499, set out as a note under section 1 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.
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