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46 U.S. Code § 8503 - Federal pilots authorized

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(a) The Secretary may require a pilot licensed under section 7101 of this title on a self-propelled vessel when a pilot is not required by State law and the vessel is—
engaged in foreign commerce; and
(2) operating—
in internal waters of the United States; or
within 3 nautical miles from the baselines from which the territorial sea of the United States is measured.
(b) A requirement prescribed under subsection (a) of this section is terminated when the State having jurisdiction over the area involved—
establishes a requirement for a State licensed pilot; and
notifies the Secretary of that fact.
For the Saint Lawrence Seaway, the Secretary may not delegate the authority under this section to an agency except the Great Lakes St. Lawrence Seaway Development Corporation.
A person violating this section or a regulation prescribed under this section is liable to the United States Government for a civil penalty of not more than $25,000. Each day of a continuing violation is a separate violation. The vessel also is liable in rem for the penalty.
A person that knowingly violates this section or a regulation prescribed under this section commits a class D felony.
Editorial Notes

2020—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 116–260 substituted “Great Lakes St. Lawrence Seaway Development Corporation” for “Saint Lawrence Seaway Development Corporation”.

1998—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 105–383 added par. (2) and struck out former par. (2) which read as follows: “operating on the navigable waters of the United States.”

1990—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 101–380 substituted “commits a class D felony” for “shall be fined not more than $50,000, imprisoned for not more than five years, or both”.

Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries
Effective Date of 1990 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 101–380 applicable to incidents occurring after Aug. 18, 1990, see section 1020 of Pub. L. 101–380, set out as an Effective Date note under section 2701 of Title 33, Navigation and Navigable Waters.

Executive Documents
Territorial Sea of United States

For extension of territorial sea of United States, see Proc. No. 5928, set out as a note under section 1331 of Title 43, Public Lands.