51 U.S. Code § 20102 - Congressional declaration of policy and purpose

(a) Devotion of Space Activities to Peaceful Purposes for Benefit of All Humankind.—
Congress declares that it is the policy of the United States that activities in space should be devoted to peaceful purposes for the benefit of all humankind.
(b) Aeronautical and Space Activities for Welfare and Security of United States.—
Congress declares that the general welfare and security of the United States require that adequate provision be made for aeronautical and space activities. Congress further declares that such activities shall be the responsibility of, and shall be directed by, a civilian agency exercising control over aeronautical and space activities sponsored by the United States, except that activities peculiar to or primarily associated with the development of weapons systems, military operations, or the defense of the United States (including the research and development necessary to make effective provision for the defense of the United States) shall be the responsibility of, and shall be directed by, the Department of Defense; and that determination as to which agency has responsibility for and direction of any such activity shall be made by the President.
(c) Commercial Use of Space.—
Congress declares that the general welfare of the United States requires that the Administration seek and encourage, to the maximum extent possible, the fullest commercial use of space.
(d) Objectives of Aeronautical and Space Activities.—The aeronautical and space activities of the United States shall be conducted so as to contribute materially to one or more of the following objectives:
The expansion of human knowledge of the Earth and of phenomena in the atmosphere and space.
The improvement of the usefulness, performance, speed, safety, and efficiency of aeronautical and space vehicles.
The development and operation of vehicles capable of carrying instruments, equipment, supplies, and living organisms through space.
The establishment of long-range studies of the potential benefits to be gained from, the opportunities for, and the problems involved in the utilization of aeronautical and space activities for peaceful and scientific purposes.
The preservation of the role of the United States as a leader in aeronautical and space science and technology and in the application thereof to the conduct of peaceful activities within and outside the atmosphere.
The making available to agencies directly concerned with national defense of discoveries that have military value or significance, and the furnishing by such agencies, to the civilian agency established to direct and control nonmilitary aeronautical and space activities, of information as to discoveries which have value or significance to that agency.
Cooperation by the United States with other nations and groups of nations in work done pursuant to this chapter and in the peaceful application of the results thereof.
The most effective utilization of the scientific and engineering resources of the United States, with close cooperation among all interested agencies of the United States in order to avoid unnecessary duplication of effort, facilities, and equipment.
The preservation of the United States preeminent position in aeronautics and space through research and technology development related to associated manufacturing processes.
The search for life’s origin, evolution, distribution, and future in the universe.
(e) Ground Propulsion Systems Research and Development.—
Congress declares that the general welfare of the United States requires that the unique competence in scientific and engineering systems of the Administration also be directed toward ground propulsion systems research and development. Such development shall be conducted so as to contribute to the objectives of developing energy and petroleum-conserving ground propulsion systems, and of minimizing the environmental degradation caused by such systems.
(f) Bioengineering Research, Development, and Demonstration Programs.—
Congress declares that the general welfare of the United States requires that the unique competence of the Administration in science and engineering systems be directed to assisting in bioengineering research, development, and demonstration programs designed to alleviate and minimize the effects of disability.
(g) Warning and Mitigation of Potential Hazards of Near-Earth Objects.—
Congress declares that the general welfare and security of the United States require that the unique competence of the Administration be directed to detecting, tracking, cataloguing, and characterizing near-Earth asteroids and comets in order to provide warning and mitigation of the potential hazard of such near-Earth objects to the Earth.
(h) Purpose of Chapter.—
It is the purpose of this chapter to carry out and effectuate the policies declared in subsections (a) to (g).

In subsection (b), the words “in conformity with section 201(e)”, which appeared at the end of the subsection, are omitted as obsolete. Section 201 of Public Law 85–568, which was classified to former section 2471 of title 42 (last appearing in the 1970 edition of the United States Code), established the National Aeronautics and Space Council, with the functions of the Council specified in section 201(e). Those functions included advising the President “as he may request” with respect to promoting cooperation and resolving differences among agencies of the United States engaged in aeronautical and space activities. The words are obsolete because section 3(a)(4) of Reorganization Plan No. 1 of 1973 (5 App. U.S.C.), abolished the National Aeronautics and Space Council, including the office of Executive Secretary of the Council, together with its functions.

In subsection (c), the words “(as established by title II of this Act)”, which appeared after “Administration”, are omitted as unnecessary.

In subsection (d), the word “and”, appearing at the end of paragraph (8), is omitted as unnecessary because of the introductory words “one or more of the following”.

Editorial Notes

2017—Subsec. (d)(10). Pub. L. 115–10 added par. (10).

Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries
Congressional Findings and Policy

Pub. L. 110–422, § 2, Oct. 15, 2008, 122 Stat. 4781, provided that:

“The Congress finds, on this, the 50th anniversary of the establishment of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the following:
NASA [National Aeronautics and Space Administration] is and should remain a multimission agency with a balanced and robust set of core missions in science, aeronautics, and human space flight and exploration.
Investment in NASA’s programs will promote innovation through research and development, and will improve the competitiveness of the United States.
Investment in NASA’s programs, like investments in other Federal science and technology activities, is an investment in our future.
Properly structured, NASA’s activities can contribute to an improved quality of life, economic vitality, United States leadership in peaceful cooperation with other nations on challenging undertakings in science and technology, national security, and the advancement of knowledge.
NASA should assume a leadership role in a cooperative international Earth observations and research effort to address key research issues associated with climate change and its impacts on the Earth system.
“(6) NASA should undertake a program of aeronautical research, development, and where appropriate demonstration activities with the overarching goals of—
ensuring that the Nation’s future air transportation system can handle up to 3 times the current travel demand and incorporate new vehicle types with no degradation in safety or adverse environmental impact on local communities;
protecting the environment;
promoting the security of the Nation; and
retaining the leadership of the United States in global aviation.
Human and robotic exploration of the solar system will be a significant long-term undertaking of humanity in the 21st century and beyond, and it is in the national interest that the United States should assume a leadership role in a cooperative international exploration initiative.
Developing United States human space flight capabilities to allow independent American access to the International Space Station, and to explore beyond low Earth orbit, is a strategically important national imperative, and all prudent steps should thus be taken to bring the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle and Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle to full operational capability as soon as possible and to ensure the effective development of a United States heavy lift launch capability for missions beyond low Earth orbit.
NASA’s scientific research activities have contributed much to the advancement of knowledge, provided societal benefits, and helped train the next generation of scientists and engineers, and those activities should continue to be an important priority.
NASA should make a sustained commitment to a robust long-term technology development activity. Such investments represent the critically important ‘seed corn’ on which NASA’s ability to carry out challenging and productive missions in the future will depend.
NASA, through its pursuit of challenging and relevant activities, can provide an important stimulus to the next generation to pursue careers in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics.
Commercial activities have substantially contributed to the strength of both the United States space program and the national economy, and the development of a healthy and robust United States commercial space sector should continue to be encouraged.
It is in the national interest for the United States to have an export control policy that protects the national security while also enabling the United States aerospace industry to compete effectively in the global market place and the United States to undertake cooperative programs in science and human space flight in an effective and efficient manner.”

Pub. L. 102–195, §§ 2, 3, Dec. 9, 1991, 105 Stat. 1605, 1606, provided that:

“SEC. 2. FINDINGS.Congress finds that—
the report of the Advisory Committee on the Future of the United States Space Program has provided a framework within which a consensus on the goals of the space program can be developed;
a balanced civil space science program should be funded at a level of at least 20 percent of the aggregate amount in the budget of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration for ‘Research and development’ and ‘Space flight, control, and data communications’;
development of an adequate data base for life sciences in space will be greatly enhanced through closer scientific cooperation with the Soviet Union, including active use of manned Soviet space stations;
the space program can make substantial contributions to health-related research and should be an integral part of the Nation’s health research and development program;
Landsat data and the continuation of the Landsat system beyond Landsat 6 are essential to the Mission to Planet Earth and other long-term environmental research programs;
increased use of defense-related remote sensing data and data technology by civilian agencies and the scientific community can benefit national environmental study and monitoring programs;
the generation of trained scientists and engineers through educational initiatives and academic research programs outside of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration is essential to the future of the United States civil space program;
the strengthening and expansion of the Nation’s space transportation infrastructure, including the enhancement of launch sites and launch site support facilities, are essential to support the full range of the Nation’s space-related activities;
the aeronautical program contributes to the Nation’s technological competitive advantage, and it has been a key factor in maintaining preeminence in aviation over many decades; and
the National Aero Space Plane program can have benefits to the military and civilian aviation programs from the new and innovative technologies developed in propulsion systems, aerodynamics, and control systems that could be enormous, especially for high-speed aeronautical and space flight.
“SEC. 3. POLICY.“It is the policy of the United States that—
the Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (hereinafter referred to as the ‘Administrator’), in planning for national programs in environmental study and human space flight and exploration, should ensure the resiliency of the space infrastructure;
a stable and balanced program of civil space science should be planned to minimize future year funding requirements in order to accommodate a steady stream of new initiatives;
any new launch system undertaken or jointly undertaken by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration should be based on defined mission and program requirements or national policies established by Congress;
in fulfilling the mission of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration to improve the usefulness, performance, speed, safety, and efficiency of space vehicles, the Administrator should establish a program of research and development to enhance the competitiveness and cost effectiveness of commercial expendable launch vehicles; and
the National Aeronautics and Space Administration should promote and support efforts to advance scientific understanding by conducting or otherwise providing for research on environmental problems, including global change, ozone depletion, acid precipitation, deforestation, and smog.”

Pub. L. 101–611, title I, §§ 101, 102, Nov. 16, 1990, 104 Stat. 3188, 3189, provided that:

“SEC. 101. FINDINGS.“The Congress finds that—
over the next decade, the United States aeronautics and space program will be directed toward major national priorities of understanding, preserving, and enhancing our global environment, hypersonic transportation, human exploration, and emerging technology commercialization;
the United States aeronautics and space program is supported by an overwhelming majority of the American people;
the United States aeronautics and space program genuinely reflects our Nation’s pioneer heritage and demonstrates our quest for leadership, economic growth, and human understanding;
the United States space program is based on a solid record of achievement and continues to promote the objective of international cooperation in the exploration of the planets and the universe;
the United States aeronautics and space program generates critical technology breakthroughs that benefit our economy through new products and processes that significantly improve our standard of living;
the United States aeronautics and space program excites the imagination of every generation and can stimulate the youth of our Nation toward the pursuit of excellence in the fields of science, engineering, and mathematics;
the United States aeronautics and space program contributes to the Nation’s technological competitive advantage;
the United States aeronautics and space program requires a sustained commitment of financial and human resources as a share of the Nation’s Gross National Product;
the United States space transportation system will depend upon a robust fleet of space shuttle orbiters and expendable and reusable launch vehicles and services;
the United States space program will be advanced with an assured funding stream for the development of a permanently manned space station with research, experimentation, observation, servicing, manufacturing, and staging capabilities for lunar and Mars missions;
the United States aeronautics program has been a key factor in maintaining preeminence in aviation over many decades;
the United States needs to maintain a strong program with respect to transatmospheric research and technology by developing and demonstrating National Aero-Space Plane technology by a mid-decade date certain;
the National Aeronautics and Space Administration is primarily responsible for formulating and implementing policy that supports and encourages civil aeronautics and space activities in the United States; and
commercial activities of the private sector will substantially and increasingly contribute to the strength of both the United States space program and the national economy.
“SEC. 102. POLICY.“It is declared to be national policy that the United States should—
rededicate itself to the goal of leadership in critical areas of space science, space exploration, and space commercialization;
increase its commitment of budgetary resources for the space program to reverse the dramatic decline in real spending for such program since the achievements of the Apollo moon program;
ensure that the long-range environmental impact of all activities carried out under this title [see Tables for classification] are fully understood and considered;
promote and support efforts to advance scientific understanding by conducting or otherwise providing for research on environmental problems, including global change, ozone depletion, acid precipitation, deforestation, and smog;
forge a robust national space program that maintains a healthy balance between manned and unmanned space activities and recognizes the mutually reinforcing benefits of both;
maintain an active fleet of space shuttle orbiters, including an adequate provision of structural spare parts, and evolve the orbiter design to improve safety and performance, and reduce operational costs;
sustain a mixed fleet by utilizing commercial expendable launch vehicle services to the fullest extent practicable;
support an aggressive program of research and development designed to enhance the United States preeminence in launch vehicles;
continue and complete on schedule the development and deployment of a permanently manned, fully capable, space station;
develop an advanced, high pressure space suit to support extravehicular activity that will be required for Space Station Freedom when Assembly Complete is reached;
establish a dual capability for logistics and resupply of the space station utilizing the space shuttle and expendable launch vehicles, including commercial services if available;
continue to seek opportunities for international cooperation in space and fully support international cooperative agreements;
maintain an aggressive program of aeronautical research and technology development designed to enhance the United States preeminence in civil and military aviation and improve the safety and efficiency of the United States air transportation system;
conduct a program of technology maturation, including flight demonstration in 1997, to prove the feasibility of an air-breathing, hypersonic aerospace plane capable of single-stage-to-orbit operation and hypersonic cruise in the atmosphere;
seek innovative technologies that will make possible advanced human exploration initiatives, such as the establishment of a lunar base and the succeeding mission to Mars, and provide high yield technology advancements for the national economy; and
enhance the human resources of the Nation and the quality of education.”
National Aeronautics and Space Capital Development Program

Pub. L. 100–685, title I, § 101, Nov. 17, 1988, 102 Stat 4083, provided that:

Congress finds that—
“(1) in accordance with section 106 of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Authorization Act of 1988 (Public Law 100–147) [set out as a note under section 70901 of this title], a space station, hereafter referred to as the United States International Space Station, shall be constructed in order to establish a permanent presence for man in space for the following purposes—
the conduct of scientific experiments, applications experiments, and engineering experiments;
the servicing, rehabilitation, and construction of satellites and space vehicles;
the development and demonstration of commercial products and processes; and
the establishment of a space base for other civilian and commercial space activities including an outpost for further exploration of the solar system;
expendable launch vehicles should be used to launch those payloads that do not require the presence of man;
the space shuttle launches should be used to fulfill the Nation’s needs for manned access to space;
preeminence in space and aeronautics is key to the national security and economic well being of the United States;
United States space policy needs long-range goals and direction in order to provide understanding for near-term space projects and programs;
over the next five years the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, hereafter referred to as the ‘Administration’, should pursue leadership in science through an aggressive set of major and moderate missions while maintaining a robust series of cost effective missions that can provide frequent flight opportunities to the scientific community[;]
over the next five years the Administration should prepare for the transition to the United States International Space Station of those science and technology programs that can be most efficiently and effectively conducted on that facility;
the Administration should encourage the United States private sector investment in space and, to the maximum extent practicable provide frequent flight opportunities for the development of technologies, processes and products that benefit from the space environment;
the Administration should enhance the existing space transportation capability through a robust mixed fleet of manned and unmanned vehicles in order to increase the reliability, productivity, and efficiency and reduce the cost of the Nation’s access to space;
the United States faces an increasingly successful foreign challenge to its traditional preeminent position in aeronautics which is rapidly reducing its lead in both civil and military aircraft;
NASA’s personnel are an integral component and resource for the Nation’s space program, and an innovative personnel system should be developed;
the establishment of a permanent presence in space leading ultimately to space settlements is fully consistent with the goals of the National Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958 [see 51 U.S.C. 20101 et seq.];
the United States civil space activities should contribute significantly to enhancing the Nation’s scientific and technological leadership, economy, pride, and sense of well-being, as well as United States world prestige and leadership;
civil sector activities should be comprised of a balanced strategy of research, development, operations, and technology for science, exploration, and appropriate applications;
assured access to space, sufficient to achieve all United States space goals, is an essential element of United States space policy, and the United States space transportation systems must provide a balanced, robust, and flexible capability with sufficient resiliency to allow continued operation despite failures in any single system;
“(16) the goals of the United States space transportation system are—
to achieve and maintain safe and reliable access to, transportation in, and return from, space;
to exploit the unique attributes of manned and unmanned launch and recovery systems;
to encourage, to the maximum extent feasible, the development and use of United States private sector space transportation capabilities; and
to reduce the costs of space transportation and related services;
recognizing that communications advancements are critical to all United States space activities, the Administration should continue research and development efforts for future advances in space communications technologies;
the goal of aeronautical research and technology development and validation activities should be to contribute to a national technology base that will enhance United States preeminence in civil and military aviation and improve the safety and efficiency of the United States air transportation system; and
“(19) aeronautical research and technology development and validation activities should—
emphasize emerging technologies with potential for breakthrough advances;
“(B) consist of—
fundamental research in all aeronautical disciplines, aimed at greater understanding of aeronautical phenomena and development of new aeronautical concepts; and
technology development and validation activities aimed at laboratory-scale development and proof-of-concept demonstration of selected concepts with high payoff potential;
assure maintenance of robust aeronautical laboratories, including a first-rate technical staff and modern national facilities for the conduct of research and testing activities;
be conducted with the close, active participation of the United States aircraft industry so as to accelerate the transfer of research results to aviation products;
include providing technical assistance and facility support to other government agencies and United States industry;
include conducting joint projects with other government agencies where such projects contribute materially to the goals set forth in this section;
assure strong participation of United States universities both in carrying out aeronautical research and training future aeronautical research personnel; and
be conducted, where practical, so that United States industry receives research results before foreign competitors.”
Executive Documents
Space Policy Directive–5. Cybersecurity Principles for Space Systems

Space Policy Directive–5, Sept. 4, 2020, 85 F.R. 56155, provided:

Memorandum for the Vice President[,] the Secretary of State[,] the Secretary of Defense[,] the Attorney General[,] the Secretary of Commerce[,] the Secretary of Transportation[,] the Secretary of Homeland Security[,] the Director of the Office of Management and Budget[,] the Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs[,] the Director of National Intelligence[,] the Director of the Central Intelligence Agency[,] the Director of the National Security Agency[,] the Director of the National Reconnaissance Office[,] the Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration[,] the Director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy[,] the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff[, and] the Chairman of the Federal Communications Commission

Section 1. Background. The United States considers unfettered freedom to operate in space vital to advancing the security, economic prosperity, and scientific knowledge of the Nation. Space systems enable key functions such as global communications; positioning, navigation, and timing; scientific observation; exploration; weather monitoring; and multiple vital national security applications. Therefore, it is essential to protect space systems from cyber incidents in order to prevent disruptions to their ability to provide reliable and efficient contributions to the operations of the Nation’s critical infrastructure.

Space systems are reliant on information systems and networks from design conceptualization through launch and flight operations. Further, the transmission of command and control and mission information between space vehicles and ground networks relies on the use of radio-frequency-dependent wireless communication channels. These systems, networks, and channels can be vulnerable to malicious activities that can deny, degrade, or disrupt space operations, or even destroy satellites.

Examples of malicious cyber activities harmful to space operations include spoofing sensor data; corrupting sensor systems; jamming or sending unauthorized commands for guidance and control; injecting malicious code; and conducting denial-of-service attacks. Consequences of such activities could include loss of mission data; decreased lifespan or capability of space systems or constellations; or the loss of positive control of space vehicles, potentially resulting in collisions that can impair systems or generate harmful orbital debris.

The National Security Strategy of December 2017 states that “[t]he United States must maintain our leadership and freedom of action in space.” As the space domain is contested, it is necessary for developers, manufacturers, owners, and operators of space systems to design, build, operate, and manage them so that they are resilient to cyber incidents and radio-frequency spectrum interference.

Space Policy Directive–3 (SPD–3) of June 18, 2018 (National Space Traffic Management Policy) [51 U.S.C. 71302 note], states that “[s]atellite and constellation owners should participate in a pre-launch certification process” that should consider a number of factors, including encryption of satellite command and control links and data protection measures for ground site operations.

The National Cyber Strategy of September 2018 states that my Administration will enhance efforts to protect our space assets and supporting infrastructure from evolving cyber threats, and will work with industry and international partners to strengthen the cyber resilience of existing and future space systems.

Sec. 2. Definitions. For the purposes of this memorandum, the following definitions shall apply:

(a) “Space System” means a combination of systems, to include ground systems, sensor networks, and one or more space vehicles, that provides a space-based service. A space system typically has three segments: a ground control network, a space vehicle, and a user or mission network. These systems include Government national security space systems, Government civil space systems, and private space systems.

(b) “Space Vehicle” means the portion of a space system that operates in space. Examples include satellites, space stations, launch vehicles, launch vehicle upper stage components, and spacecraft.

(c) “Positive Control” means the assurance that a space vehicle will only execute commands transmitted by an authorized source and that those commands are executed in the proper order and at the intended time.

(d) “Critical space vehicle functions (critical functions)” means the functions of the vehicle that the operator must maintain to ensure intended operations, positive control, and retention of custody. The failure or compromise of critical space vehicle functions could result in the space vehicle not responding to authorized commands, loss of critical capability, or responding to unauthorized commands.

Sec. 3. Policy. Cybersecurity principles and practices that apply to terrestrial systems also apply to space systems. Certain principles and practices, however, are particularly important to space systems. For example, it is critical that cybersecurity measures, including the ability to perform updates and respond to incidents remotely, are integrated into the design of the space vehicle before launch, as most space vehicles in orbit cannot currently be physically accessed. For this reason, integrating cybersecurity into all phases of development and ensuring full life-cycle cybersecurity are critical for space systems. Effective cybersecurity practices arise out of cultures of prevention, active defense, risk management, and sharing best practices.

The United States must manage risks to the growth and prosperity of our commercial space economy. To do so and to strengthen national resilience, it is the policy of the United States that executive departments and agencies (agencies) will foster practices within Government space operations and across the commercial space industry that protect space assets and their supporting infrastructure from cyber threats and ensure continuity of operations.

The cybersecurity principles for space systems set forth in section 4 of this memorandum are established to guide and serve as the foundation for the United States Government approach to the cyber protection of space systems. Agencies are directed to work with the commercial space industry and other non-government space operators, consistent with these principles and with applicable law, to further define best practices, establish cybersecurity-informed norms, and promote improved cybersecurity behaviors throughout the Nation’s industrial base for space systems.

Sec. 4. Principles. (a) Space systems and their supporting infrastructure, including software, should be developed and operated using risk-based, cybersecurity-informed engineering. Space systems should be developed to continuously monitor, anticipate, and adapt to mitigate evolving malicious cyber activities that could manipulate, deny, degrade, disrupt, destroy, surveil, or eavesdrop on space system operations. Space system configurations should be resourced and actively managed to achieve and maintain an effective and resilient cyber survivability posture throughout the space system lifecycle.

(b) Space system owners and operators should develop and implement cybersecurity plans for their space systems that incorporate capabilities to ensure operators or automated control center systems can retain or recover positive control of space vehicles. These plans should also ensure the ability to verify the integrity, confidentiality, and availability of critical functions and the missions, services, and data they enable and provide. At a minimum, space system owners and operators should consider, based on risk assessment and tolerance, incorporating in their plans:

(i) Protection against unauthorized access to critical space vehicle functions. This should include safeguarding command, control, and telemetry links using effective and validated authentication or encryption measures designed to remain secure against existing and anticipated threats during the entire mission lifetime;

(ii) Physical protection measures designed to reduce the vulnerabilities of a space vehicle’s command, control, and telemetry receiver systems;

(iii) Protection against communications jamming and spoofing, such as signal strength monitoring programs, secured transmitters and receivers, authentication, or effective, validated, and tested encryption measures designed to provide security against existing and anticipated threats during the entire mission lifetime;

(iv) Protection of ground systems, operational technology, and information processing systems through the adoption of deliberate cybersecurity best practices. This adoption should include practices aligned with the National Institute of Standards and Technology’s Cybersecurity Framework to reduce the risk of malware infection and malicious access to systems, including from insider threats. Such practices include logical or physical segregation; regular patching; physical security; restrictions on the utilization of portable media; the use of antivirus software; and promoting staff awareness and training inclusive of insider threat mitigation precautions;

(v) Adoption of appropriate cybersecurity hygiene practices, physical security for automated information systems, and intrusion detection methodologies for system elements such as information systems, antennas, terminals, receivers, routers, associated local and wide area networks, and power supplies; and

(vi) Management of supply chain risks that affect cybersecurity of space systems through tracking manufactured products; requiring sourcing from trusted suppliers; identifying counterfeit, fraudulent, and malicious equipment; and assessing other available risk mitigation measures.

(c) Implementation of these principles, through rules, regulations, and guidance, should enhance space system cybersecurity, including through the consideration and adoption, where appropriate, of cybersecurity best practices and norms of behavior.

(d) Space system owners and operators should collaborate to promote the development of best practices, to the extent permitted by applicable law. They should also share threat, warning, and incident information within the space industry, using venues such as Information Sharing and Analysis Centers to the greatest extent possible, consistent with applicable law.

(e) Security measures should be designed to be effective while permitting space system owners and operators to manage appropriate risk tolerances and minimize undue burden, consistent with specific mission requirements, United States national security and national critical functions, space vehicle size, mission duration, maneuverability, and any applicable orbital regimes.

Sec. 5. General Provisions. (a) Nothing in this memorandum shall be construed to impair or otherwise affect:

(i) the authority granted by law to an executive department or agency, or the head thereof; or

(ii) the functions of the Director of the Office of Management and Budget relating to budgetary, administrative, or legislative proposals.

(b) This memorandum shall be implemented consistent with applicable law and subject to the availability of appropriations.

(c) This memorandum is not intended to, and does not, create any right or benefit, substantive or procedural, enforceable at law or in equity by any party against the United States, its departments, agencies, or entities, its officers, employees, or agents, or any other person.

(d) The Secretary of Commerce is authorized and directed to publish this memorandum in the Federal Register.

Donald J. Trump.